The cigarette smuggling problem is not just a Michigan problem. It has worldwide ramifications. For example, see the paper entitled, The Nicotine Racket: Trafficking in Untaxed Cigarettes. A Case Study of Organized Crime in Germany. That was a guest lecture given at the Institute for Criminology of the Oslo University (Norway) in May 1999 by Klaus von Lampe.
For a paper on cigarette smuggling in Italy, click here.