EEOC 3 June 1982

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Tobacco as a factor in mental illness has been recognized for some time. Dr. [Matthew] Woods in 1899 called attention to the fact that smoking “causes insanity.” The ICD-9-CM and the DSM-III [1980] continue the recognition of smoking as related to mental illness. Dr. Tennant [1981] and others have noted the link with alcoholism, another drug related behavior disturbance harmful to self and others. Dr. Kellog [1922] cited [100% correlation] data on smoker dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Data on schizophrenia [thus] provides insight into the smoker behavior directed against nonsmokers such as me.

Insight on schizophrenia is provided in the book, Introduction to Psychology 3rd edition [New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962], by Ernest R. Hilgard. At 525, the book states that “Schizophrenic reactions, by far the most common disorders among hospitalized mental patients, are so named because they represent a lack of harmony or split between aspects of personality functioning; (schizo derives from a Greek root meaning 'split or divided').” Such is “common” just as smoking has become common. The book continues, “The split is particularly noticeable between emotion and conduct . . . . Very often the patient withdraws from reality into a world of his own. The patient may have hallucinations . . . The disorder may manifest itself as early as childhood or late in life, though the most common time of incidence is in late adolescence and early adult life.“ Smokers retreat from the reality that smoking is harmful. They refuse to consider that the harm is both physical and mental. Their judgement is so severely impaired that they do not even recognize the impairment [anosognosia]. It thus is no surprise that they retaliate so savagely against me for citing the facts about their behavior. The “time of incidence” is also insightful—the same timeframe as smoking begins.

At 525, the book provides other illuminating data. “Paranoid reactions are characterized by persistent systematized delusions. Delusions differ from hallucinations in that they are false beliefs rather than false sense perceptions. The paranoid person may react entirely normally except when his delusions are touched upon . . . . Delusions often take the form of either delusions of grandeur (the patient believes he is Napoleon) or delusions of persecution (the patient has suffered at the hands of his enemies). Paranoid symptoms are common in some types of schizophrenia . . . The delusions of grandeur are elaborate rationalizations, and the delusions of persecution are clearly projections.”

The data on paranoid reactions is most insightful. The delusions are of a continuing thing, even for years, since they are “systematized.“ TACOM [smoker management] employees [e.g., Edward E. Hoover, John J. Benacquista, Francis J. Holt, Emily S. Bacon] thus insist I am unfit for duty in advance for years. Their paranoia arises from their obvious and stated belief that stopping endangerment and discomfort violates smokers' presumed “rights,” even though endangering and discomforting others is expressly disallowed by AR 1-8. Smoker delusions of grandeur involve their view that they can overrule grievance reports, laws, regulations, examining doctors, and everybody who disagrees with them. In a disturbed “world of his own,” each deciding smoker in a “systematized” way displays his own particular delusion or hallucination as his “world of his own” needs. Managers have delusions of grandeur [or paranoia] that they can pretend they have no authority to resolve the matter. Non-doctors [e.g., Hoover, Benacquista, MSPB and court adjudicators, etc.] have delusions of grandeur that they can disregard the examining physicians.

Delusions of persecution are evident when smokers insist that halting the endangerment or discomfort is an “undue hardship” or somehow “cannot” be done. Such claims “are elaborate rationalizations” or “projections” as the circumstances and a hearing can show. Since such claims are from a “world of his own,” clues to the disorganized thinking process are evident in the inconsistencies, double standards, refusals to consider evidence, actions contrary to evidence, non-responsive to input, disregrard of rules, etc. Placing claims in both the accomplished and “undue hardship” categories are other clues.

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The DSM-III and ICD-9 cite tobacco dependence. The 1980 Transactions of the Society of Actuaries shows smoker deaths from mental illness at a rate higher than that of nonsmokers. Smoking “causes insanity” as Dr. Woods noted in 1899. Dr. Kelloggs's book on Tobaccoism or How Tobacco Kills cites smoker dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Insight on schizophrenia is provided by authors Allen D. Calvin, et al., in their 1961 book Psychology [(Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1961)]. At 430, the authors indicate that “The commonest of psychoses, and by all means the state involving the greatest deviation in thinking, contact with reality, emotion, and overt behavior, is schizophrenia.”

The book continues, “In schizophrenia, reality orientation is especially weak; the patient lives in a world of fantasy.” Smokers fantasize that harm will not befall them; i.e., that they are somehow unique. People with delusions thus are clearly projecting uniqueness delusions they have by pretending that I am unique. At 430, the authors continue, “The schizophrenic patient seems to have reacted to a threatening reality by creating for himself a more comfortable make-believe world. The existence of this fantasy world is shown in delusions and hallucinations, both common in schizophrenia.” The “threatening reality” of tobacco-induced “slow-motion suicide” is cited by the many reports of the Surgeon General, the warning on each pack of cigarettes, and by the very existence of AR 1-8. In the fantasy world of schizophrenic delusions, the “more comfortable make-believe world” does not contain such threats. Such facts help shed light on the fact the decision materials from TACOM and MSPB officials do not even allude to such data. MSPB decisions do not even acknowledge the bare existence of AR 1-8. They certainly do not acknowledge the duties AR 1-8 prescribes. The AR 1-8 threat to the “make-believe world” is dismissed summarily [by] with assertions of “undue hardship.” The claim is an obvious “fantasy”; the 25 Jan 80 USACARA Report does not provide the slightest basis for belief that AR 1-8 goals constitute an “undue hardship.”

At 430, the Psychology authors note that “Lack of appropriate emotionality is also present—the patient weeps over trivialities and is unmoved by tragic events.” The lack of proportion is obvious in the TACOM and MSPB behavior. The documents focus on “trivialities” such as supposed requests made, while utterly ignoring the multiple regulatory duties. Trivia is made grossly disproportionate in the smoker fantasy world. At 430, “Thinking may be seriously disturbed, waking-thought processes resemble those in a dream or, it is hypothesized, those of an infant.” Smoking is not allowed to cause even so “subjective” a thing as mere “discomfort.” Yet smokers and decisions insist that AR 1-8 guidance is wrong; they disagree with it, and they demand I be declared unfit for duty in advance. The “threatening reality” of having to obey rules is too terrifying to them. The idea of providing a proper environment is declared an “undue hardship” or “cannot” be done for the sake of their “make-believe world.” At 430, the book notes that “Marked distortions of normal behavior appear in the form of odd stereoyped gestures and in disturbances of speech.” Smoking comprises a series “of odd stereotyped gestures.” The DSM-III notes such “highly overlearned” behavior.

At 430, “The patient seems farthest from normal in hebephrenic schizophrenia. His symptoms include a slow and gradual deterioration of personality. The adult hebephrenic exhibits a great deal of silly behavior . . . Speech deteriorates to the point where it resembles a 'word salad.' Peculiar mannerisms develop, and hallucinations are common.” When decision correspondence contains thoughts strewn together without regard for consistency, the concept of “word salad” sheds insight. Difficulty speaking [aphasia] sheds light on why [TACOM smoker] management refuses to begin the process of reasonable accommodation for me. Uncommunicative smokers are being overaccommodated in their [tobacco-caused brain damage] handicap.

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Dr. Woods observed [by 1899] that smoking “causes insanity.” The DSM-III cites tobacco organic mental disorder. The ICD-9-CM notes tobacco use disorder. Dr. Kellogg discussed dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Information on schizophrenia provides insight on the pattern of smoker behavior directed against me. In the book Psychology for Better Living, 5th edition [New York: John Wiley], 1965, Lyle Tussing, Ph.D., notes at 356 that “the most common symptom of this disorder is the emotional apathy and indifference in the patient with respect to other individuals.” Smokers have no capacity to care that they endanger or discomfort others; that [psychiatric fact] helps explain the otherwise incomprehensible insistence that they [personally] “cannot” provide a safe environment, or that it is an “undue hardship.”

Dr. Tussing indicates that “The second noticeable characteristic of the behavior of schizophrenics is a certain lack of harmony, integration, and coordination between their emotional and rational or intellectual activities.” That fact can provide insight into the [TACOM smoker] use of [falsified, altered, lowered] TLVs vs. AR 1-8 criteria; insistence the environment is safe while claiming it is not safe enough to let me return; placing data in both the completed and “undue hardship” categories simultaneously; etc. Dr. Tussing notes that “The third symptom that seems to characterize all schizophrenic patients is a gradual mental deterioration.” That [psychiatric fact] helps show why the reprisal pattern has intensified. That [psychiatric fact] helps show why TACOM and MSPB assertions become more and more strange and farther and farther from reality.

Dr. Tussing notes that “Hallucinations, particularly of hearing and vision, are fairly common during the early stages . . . disorganized experience . . . clarity of thought is lost in the confusion. His explanations for his behavior are frapnentary and have a dreamlike quality. Another aspect of schizophrenic behavior that is frequently mentioned is its apparent inappropriateness.” This [psychiatric fact] sheds insight into the varied [TACOM, MSPB, and court] explanations given from time to time as to the basis for not letting me work; inconsistency between thoughts in decision correspondence as though the author could not recall one idea to the next; delusions that studies under AR 1-8 criteria have occurred; etc. P. 357 continues “. . . schizophrenia is generally broken down in subgroups: simple, hebephrenic, catatonic, and paranoid. Any two or more of these may occur at the same time or successively in the same person. Such combinations are generally referred to as dementia praecox mixed. . . .” The change in assertions from time to time may be the product of such deteriorations or variations.

At 357, “Simple cases are marked by their apparent and long-lasting deterioration and scarcity of acute psychotic symptoms. Their indifference, their lack of judgment and foresight make them seem feeble-minded rather than psychotic. Generally, they are rather inadequate persons who seem run-down, and rarely, if ever regain interest in normal life.” The adverse effects of smoking on intelligence has long been noted. Smoker incapacity to comprehend that a smoky work environment can cause a development or worsening of health is obvions. Incapacity to comprehend that pre-17 Mar 80 events could lead to the post-17 Mar 80 events is also clear. MSPB displays clear unwillingness to consider such cause and effect aspects. Smokers rarely are capable of stopping smoking and thus normally remain hooked for life—“slow-motion suicide.” The “seem feeble-minded rather than psychotic” insight by Dr. Tussing is most illuminating. When a decision is merely arbitrary and capricious as not based upon reasons, such a thing can be committed by honest (but sane) error. Cf. McNutt v. Hills, 426 F. Supp. 990 ([D DC] 1977). A one-time error can happen. But here, the pattern for years and years raises deeper questions, Why are TACOM and MSPB assertions the way they are?

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