1527 TO 2013
This site provides examples from among the many references to data on
Yes, 1527. Such references began in 1527!
This data being so long known, refutes the myth that the drug aspect, and tobacco addiction are new discoveries.
On the contrary, it has been reported by analysts since at least the year 1527, and repeatedly thereafter. It is no more new . . . than news that the earth is not flat!
For background, "Nicotine Addiction" (Univ. of Minnesota, 2003) covers the "Physiological dependence," the "Psychological dependence," the "Sociocultural Factors," and in brain neurotransmitters context, e.g., Dopamine, Acetylcholine, and Serotonin.
In 1527, Archbishop Bartolomé de Las Casas Cuzco of Spain wrote about tobacco's adverse effect on the brain known as "addiction," among Indians, and their reporting their inability to stop smoking, i.e., their addiction!
Tobacco is such a powerful drug that it was used in the pre-modern-anesthetic era, like an anesthetic, to render the entire body limp, says Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., The Tobacco Habit: Its History and Pathology (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912), p 28.
Tobacco has a record of providing an hallucinogenic effect.
Pre-Columbian Indians (i.e., before 1492) used tobacco for its hallucinogenic effect, see
The brain uses chemicals (neurotransmitters) in its own functioning. The addiction issue involves ingesting in essence the wrong chemical, like for example, putting water in your car's gas tank. The tank will "accept" it, but the car won't work right, if at all, thereafter!
This is like what happens in the brain.
(99.5% of Smokers)
How much is "unusually large quantity"? The drugs that impair the brain in this manner
About 99.5% of smokers have this known brain damage (aka withdrawal syndrome). See the
Smoking is thus a disease, as Dr. Check, supra, said in 1990, and, in 1982, the article "Tobacco Addiction," 81 Mich Law Rev 237-258 (Nov 1982). (See context, and the 1916 Higley-Frech reference to the same concept.)
Smokers suffer more "depression" than nonsmokers.
Symptoms include complaints of general malaise, sadness, prostration, tantamount to delirium, "se plaignent d'un malaise général; ils sont tristes, somnolents et pourraient même tomber, d'après Stuggoki, dans une prostration profonde et dans le délire"—Dr. Abel Gy, L'Intoxication Par Le Tabac (Paris: Masson et Cie, 1913), p 131.
Contrary to mythology, there is nothing "unique" about this process. Concerning carbon monoxide, radioactivity, nicotine (C10H14N2), etc., the effects are "natural and probable consequences," not "accidents." The addictive process begins immediately, that is how new smokers, generally youth, become addicted so fast, and immediately after their early smoking.
With this introduction in mind, here is a list of examples of the history of data on this subject:
In 1527, Archbishop Bartolomé de las Casas (1484-1566) of Spain wrote about tobacco's adverse effect on the brain known as "addiction," among Indians, and their reporting their inability to stop smoking!
In 1587, a Franciscan monk wrote, "There are many Spaniards here who have brought their bad habits with them; in particular they have a new sort of debauchery which they call smoking. . . . The soldiers do swagger about puffing fire and smoke from their mouths, and the silly people look on and gape with astonishment," says Count Egon Corti, A History of Smoking, transl. by Paul England (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co, 1932), p 100. At 101: "Both armies had long been inveterate smokers, unable to dispense with their habit [craving]."
In 1669, the French Academy of Science (comparable to the U.S. Surgeon General Committee) held a national medical conference on tobacco's mental effects. The King's physician, Dr. Guy C. Fagon (1638-1718) advised that experience had shown that tobacco use shortened human life.
On 26 March 1699, Dr. Fagon reported that tobacco is
In 1798, the Surgeon General (Benjamin Rush, M.D.) under General George Washington during the Revolution, reported smoking's adverse mental effect.
In 1809 occurred the first scientific analysis of tobacco.
In 1828 occurred the discovery of nicotine, C10H14N2.
In 1829 was said: "Tobacco is, in fact, an absolute poison."—Journal of Health, Vol 1 (Philadelphia, 1829).
In 1836, was therefore said, "A [hu]man will die of an infusion of tobacco as of a shot through the head."—Samuel Green, New England Almanack and Farmer's Friend (1836). This fact was re-verified as recently as in 2006.
In 1853, William A. Alcott, M.D., published The Physical and Moral Effects of Using Tobacco as a Luxury: A Prize Essay (New York: Wm. Harned, 1853). The book described tobacco addiction, enslaving smokers, using the term "tobacco drunkard." Here are excerpts:
In 1857, data was widely circulated world-wide on the tobacco hazard and mental effects. Dr. Samuel Solly observed that smokers acquired mental effects from smoking, and that autopsies of "inveterate smokers" always reveal objective, physical evidence of brain damage.
In 1879, in Carver v State, 69 Ind 61; 35 Am Rep 205; 1879 WL 5712 (Nov 1879), the Supreme Court of Indiana took note of tobacco's mental effects in terms that connote addiction.
In 1881, the Supreme Court of Indiana took note of tobacco's mental effects in terms that connote addiction, in a second case, Mueller v State, 76 Ind 310; 40 Am Rep 245 (May 1881).
In 1882, Meta Lander, The Tobacco Problem, 6th ed. (Boston: Lee and Shepard Pub, 1885), pp 141-161, published an overview of smoking's adverse effects including mental effects. Lander at p 161 quotes one analyst saying that
As a matter of medical background,
In 1889, in State v Ohmer, 34 Mo App 115; 1879 WL 1764 (5 Feb 1889), the Missouri Court of Appeals took note of tobacco's addictive effect, ruled it not a necessity pursuant to normal law concepts, so upheld the conviction of a tobacco seller who had argued that tobacco is a necessity of life, so it should be exempt from the normal sales law. This web writer published reference to this case in The Macomb Daily (Mt. Clemens, MI) in 1995. FDA Commissioner David Kessler's staff thereupon contacted me for details on this ancient data showing the addictive effect to be long known! (Actually, there were even older precedents!)
Also in 1889, doctors reported to the Michigan House of Representatives about cigarettes' mental effects, and cited symptoms re which modern terminology would cite as addiction, for example,
It then cited the case of an individual, John Powers, hospitalized due to tobacco's severe mental effect.
Also in 1889, in Talbott v Stemmons' Executor, 89 Ky 223; 12 SW 297 (24 Oct 1889), the Kentucky Appeals Court upheld a decedent's promise to give her "grandson . . . five hundred dollars at [her] death if he will never take another chew of tobacco or smoke another cigar up to [the time of her] death."
In 1892, Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) members during the 1879-1898 tenure of Francis Willard, M.S., M.A., LL.D., sent to Congress thousands of petitions for banning cigarettes, citing the already then-known fact that cigarettes were "causing insanity and death to thousands" of youths. (Ed. Note: See similar recommendation by Magistrate Leroy B. Crane , and others). ["Founded in 1874, the WCTU became the nineteenth century's largest women's organization. In its heyday, its reform aims were wide ranging and included prison reform, labor reform, aid to indigent women and children, women's suffrage, censorship of 'immoral' media and entertainment, and of course its main cause, the fight against the liquor traffic. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the WCTU was in the forefront of progressive reform," says Prof. Pamela E. Pennock, Ph.D., Advertising Sin and Sickness: The Politics of Alcohol and Tobacco Marketing, 1950-1990 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 2007), p 18.]
In 1897, Iowa banned cigarette manufacture, selling, etc. Tennessee banned cigarette selling. In 1898, the Supreme Court of Tennesseee in Austin v State upheld the constitutionality of the law and took judicial notice of tobacco's already long known addictive effect (22 Dec 1898).
In 1898, in Gundling v City of Chicago, 176 Ill 340; 52 NE 44, 45 (24 Oct 1898), the Illinois Supreme Court upheld a criminal conviction of selling cigarettes without a license, as "The consensus . . . in reference to the use of cigarettes is that they are injurious to the young with immature minds, and common observation causes us to know that tobacco in the form of cigarettes is more largely used by those of young and immature minds than by any other class." (See "Medicolegal: Power to Regulate Sale of Cigarettes," 35 J Am Med Ass'n 298-299 [4 Aug 1900])
In 1899, Dr. Matthew Woods in 32 Journ. of the Am. Med. Ass'n (#13) 685 (1 April 1899), published an article on the subject of tobacco and included data on its mental effects.
In 1900, Winfred S. Hall, Ph.D., M.D., Elementary Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene for Higher Grammar Grades (New York: American Book Co, 1900, said "Tobacco contains a sharp-tasting liquid called nicotine, which is a quick-acting and deadly poison. Because of this poison, the juice of the tobacco is never purposely swallowed; but in chewing, the saliva dissolves the nicotine, and a part of it is absorbed into the system; while in smoking, the nicotine in the smoke and vapor is absorbed 72by the saliva and the moist membranes of the mouth and nose, where it exerts all of its harmful effects . . .," pp 71-72. "What has been said in the preceding lessons about the influence of alcohol upon the will power, applies with equal truth to such narcotics as tobacco and opium," p 73.
In 1905, in Kappes v City of Chicago, 119 Ill App 436 (27 March 1905), the Illinois Appeals Court rejected a lawsuit by cigarette seller Kappes to enjoin Chicago from enforcing its anti-cigarette licensing law. The court supported the law "on the ground that weak and immature persons injured their health by . . . use [of cigarettes]."
By 1907, there was
In 1909 Michigan banned manufacture and sale of cigarettes by law (MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216) for that reason among others.
In 1913, in State v Olson, 26 ND 304, 319-320; 144 NW 661, 667 (29 Nov 1913), the North Dakota Supreme Court upheld the criminal conviction of a tobacco seller and said
"the use of tobacco in any form is uncleanly, and . . . excessive use is injurious . . . . its use by the young is especially so. Tobacco, in short, is under the ban. One of the strongest arguments . . . against the cigarette, is that cigarettes are easily and cheaply obtained, and that [children are] liable to be tempted by that fact, and that the use of tobacco will thus be increased. . . ."
In 1914, Thomas Alva Edison wrote a paper identifying acrolein as one of the toxic chemicals causing the mental effect.
In 1914, "And despite the fact that cigarette smoking is the worst form of tobacco addiction, virtually all boys who smoke start with cigarettes" (citing Dr. Charles B. Towns).
In 1917, a smoker was so addicted as to set himself afire with his own smoking, in the case of Haller v City of Lansing, 195 Mich 753; 162 NW 335 (9 April 1917).
Also in 1917, Dr. James L. Tracy published an article citing smokers' incessant littering as one of the symptoms of their addiction and narcosis.
In 1918, in In re Betts, 66 Ind App 484, 486; 118 NE 551, 552 (18 Jan 1918), "an habitual and almost constant user of tobacco" was killed on the job when, "two or three steps" from his job site, walking toward to a store "to get some tobacco," apparently suffering withdrawal symptoms causing him to pay less attention than he ought, "he was struck by an automobile . . . and killed almost instantly."
In 1920, in Nossaman v State, 107 Kan 715, 717, 720; 193 P 347, 348-349 (6 Nov 1920), the Kansas Supreme Court upheld the criminal conviction of a tobacco seller who violated the anti-cigarette sale, as "For a number of years there has been a well-settled opinion that the use of cigarettes especially by persons of immature years was harmful, and the courts have recognized that they were deleterious in their effects. . . it was not unreasonable for the state to declare. . . that cigarettes are injurious to public health and welfare. . . ."
In 1921, in Palmer v Keene Forestry Assn, 80 N H 68; 112 A 798 (1 Feb 1921), the New Hampshire Supreme Court refers to smokers being "addicted to the use of cigarettes," so much that they caused a fire that destroyed a building owned by Palmer. The court ruled in favor of Palmer, and required the defendant liable for the damages as "chargeable with the knowledge that ordinarily prudent men would possess upon this subject," i.e., that smoking is well-established to be addictive and that harm is a foreseeable natural and probable consequences result from the mental effects including fire-setting behavior.
In 1922, Michigan's own Dr. John Harvey Kellogg published a book, Tobaccoism, identifying smoking effects including its mental effects. Example: ". . . the immediate effect of smoking . . . is a lowering of the accuracy of finely coordinated reactions (including associative thought processes)."
In 1924, in Tanton v McKenney, 226 Mich 245; 197 NW 510; 33 ALR 1175 (24 March 1924), an addicted smoker was expelled from a teacher training program for smoking. She sued, and lost as the Michigan Supreme Court upheld the expulsion.
In 1925, the French word "éclatement" (referring to a tire blow-out) was used to describe the effect of nicotine on the brain, the damage underlying "addiction." Also the same year, 1925, a medical book was published detailing the cigarettes-cancer link.
In 1926, "Nicotine is one of the most fatal and rapid of poisons . . . . It acts with a swiftness equalled only by hydrocyanic acids." It is like "other narcotics," e.g., opium, cannabis, mescaline, and peyote.—Tobald H. Sollman, Manual of Pharmacology, 3rd ed (1926).
In 1928, in Fischer v R. Hoe & Co, Inc, 224 App Div 335; 230 NYS 755 (20 Sep 1928), a smoker was so addicted that though he was wearing a bandage "saturated with alcohol and boric acid [he] ignited a match to light a cigarette, and in so doing the dressing caught fire. The burn caused the loss of a part of the thumb and little finger, and other involvements of the hand . . . fifty-five per cent loss of use of the right hand."
In 1930, in Dattilo's Case, 273 Mass 333; 173 NE 552 (28 Nov 1930), the widow of a smoker who worked with gasoline and had gasoline on his clothing sought workers compensation when her husband died as follows: While his trousers were covered with gasoline, he "took a match from his pocket and scratched it on his trousers for the purpose of lighting a cigarette . . . in his mouth, and 'he became a human torch.' He never recovered from his burns and died." That is a lot of addiction!!
In 1930, cigarettes' adverse mental effect was cited by Charles M. Fillmore, writing in Tobacco Taboo (Indianapolis: Meigs Pub Co, 1930).
In 1931, "One of the most serious aspects of the tobacco habit is its absolute enslaving powers. Very few who become confirmed addicts can break the chains that nicotine forges. . . . there is perhaps nothing that holds its victims more tenaciously than does tobacco. And . . . cigarette addiction undoubtedly leads to the use of . . . other habit-forming drugs."—Daniel H. Kress, M.D., The Cigarette As A Physician Sees It (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Ass'n, 1931), p 68. "Talk about 'personal liberty'! The cigarette takes it away forever." (p 71).
In 1937, it was noted in tobacco context, "that a drug addict, regardless of his education and ability and the great responsibility placed upon him as an exemplary to youth, has his mind so befogged with regard to the effects of the drug of his addiction that he is unable to comprehend or unwilling to be guided by established facts."—Prof. A. Zeleny, Clean Life Educator (1937).
In 1940, in Ploch v City of St. Louis, 345 Mo 1069; 138 SW2d 1020, 1023 (6 Feb 1940), a tobacco seller, Victor Ploch, sued "to enjoin the enforcement of an [anti-cigarette] ordinance." The Missouri Supreme Court rejected his objection saying:
"In all jurisdictions the cigarette has been [an] article for isolation and classification. The sales or gift of a cigarette is prohibited in some jurisdictions. It is not a 'useful commodity.' The nicotine is harmful. The harmful properties of the article do the classifying. . . . "
In 1940, in McAfee v Travis Gas Corp, 137 Tex 314; 153 SW2d 442 (4 June 1941) (employee smoked around gas pipe, which was leaking, resultant explosion caused injury to another person; "gas line was in bad condition, and had been leaking gas from openings therein for many months." Mr. McAfee "went with" smoker Joe "Woods to where the pipe line was leaking and was in the act of pointing out such leaks to Woods when Woods struck a match on the sole of his shoe to light a cigarette. The blaze from the match ignited the escaping gas, causing an explosion. As a result of such explosion McAfee was injured." The victim employee McAfee had not foreseen that the smoker was so mentally addicted and abulic that he'd start a fire by a gas line! The employer was held responsible; it had, of course, hired the addict despite the case law to avoid such negligent hiring.) (See also the similar Shipley case. Smokers' typical craving symptoms are foreseeable for employers, as a matter of law, holding them liable for harm smokers cause to fellow employees.)
Smoking is a disease, “one of our most serious diseases.” "Smokers show the same [delusional] attitude to tobacco as addicts to their drug, and their judgment is therefore biased [in denial] in giving an opinion of its effect on them [and others]."—Lennox Johnston, "Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine," 243 The Lancet 741, 742 (19 Dec 1942).
In 1952, Dr. Lennox Johnston published "Cure of Tobacco-Smoking," 263 The Lancet 480, 482 (6 Sep 1952), citing cigarettes' mental effect,
In 1954, "Tobacco is a narcotic . . . producing tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal phenomena. . . Thus it fulfills the requirements for the definition of an addicting substance [with] fatal implications."—Lt. Col. Charles T. Brown, "Tobacco Addiction: A Suggestion as to Its Remedy," 50 Texas St Journal of Medicine (#1) 35-36 (Jan 1954). P 36 cites "the goal of detoxification common to all drug withdrawal plans," but that "relapse in drug addictions is the rule rather than the exception."
In 1960, "Clinical experimental data indicate that a definite physiologic addiction to nicotine exists," and "indicating pharmacologic addiction to nicotine," says Maurice J. Barry, Jr., "Psychologic Aspects of Smoking," 35 Proc Staff Meetings Mayo Clinic (#13) p 386 (22 June 1960). And smoker symptoms include “rebellion” and “a considerable feeling of defiance for authority and the individuating thrill of setting aside some rule.”
In 1962, "The first step toward addiction may be as innocent as a boy's puff on a cigarette in an alleyway," said the U.S. Supreme Court in Robinson v California, 370 US 660, 670; 82 S Ct 1417, 1422; 8 L Ed 2d 758 (25 June 1962).
Also in 1962, in "'Tobacco Addiction and Withdrawal Symptoms, 4 Applied Thereapeutics: The Journal of Practical Therapy (#10) 891 (Oct 1962):
In 1965, in discussing cure of smoking, the regimen includes
Also in 1970, in Tritt v Richardson, 320 F Supp 871, 873-874 (D WD Va, 30 Oct 1970), a federal district court observed that the sick smoker in court "continues to smoke excessively (a package a day), contrary to doctor's orders [and said this] is troubling. . . . Since . . . his doctors have advised him to stop smoking . . . [t]he court suggests to the [smoker] that he should do everything possible to follow his doctors' advice." (Even better, deal with the systemic aspect as per the Iowa example or at least the Tennessee example).
In 1974, "It is also of relevance that the absorption of Nicotine through the lungs is extremely rapid and efficient and reaches the brain more rapidly than after intravenous injection. The arm-to-brain circulation time averages 13.5 seconds, whilst the lung-to-brain time is about 7.5 seconds." M. A. H. Russell, 212 The Practitioner 791-800 (June 1974).
Mental effects occur as tobacco smoke is quite radioactive, see E. A. Martell, "d-Radiation dose at Bronchial Bifurcations of Smokers from Indoor Exposure to Radon Progeny," 80 Proc Nat'l Acad Sci, U.S.A. 1285-1289 (March 1983), and "Tobacco Radioactivity and Cancer in Smokers," 63 American Scientist 404-412 (July-August 1975). Note, specifically, the fact that "Irradiation of endothelial cells of the artery wall has been shown to render them highly permeable to the passage of red cells," p 410. Smoker's brains foreseeably leak blood, thus cerebral hemmorhages and strokes foreseeably result.
In 1977, the Surgeon General's colleagues said that if the public knew smoking's severe mental effects, making it not a habit but worse (a mental disorder), that fact becoming publicly known (instead of censored as it is) would have a major impact on the public's perception of smokers ("a profound effect upon the reputation of this behavior")! See the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), book, Research on Smoking Behavior, Research Monograph 17, Publication ADM 78-581, p 5 (December 1977), quoting Murray E. Jarvik, M.D., Ph.D.
In 1978, William Pollin, M.D., then NIDA Director, said that NIDA gave "increased priority to" combating smoking for "several reasons: the increasing identification of smoking as a prototypic addiction, the status of smoking as a gateway drug to use of stronger or illicit drugs, and [NIDA's] focus on substance abuse as a generic phenomenon that includes tobacco," p vi.
In 1979, in Jacobs v Michigan Mental Health Dept, 88 Mich App 503; 276 NW2d 627 (6 Feb 1979), the Michigan Court of Appeals rejected a smoker's objection to the use of physical force being directed against him to stop him from smoking. The mentally ill smoker committed at the institution, had refused to stop smoking when told by the staff to stop. Staff had then used physical force, to forcibly stop his smoking. The court upheld that use of force.
Also in 1979, in Rum River Lumber Co v State of Minnesota, 282 NW2d 882 (Minn, 27 July 1979), the Minnesota Supreme Court refers to a smoker with a "history of mental disturbances." The smoker was in the custody of the Minnesota Mental Health Department and escaped. While an escapee, he caused a fire destroying a lumber company's property. The lumber company sued the state for negligently allowing the escape. The court noted that the smoker had a "history of mental disturbances . . . threatened the staff . . . stole" and had previously "set a fire." So the State was found negligent and liable for the damages. Reason: it is not necessary "that the specific conduct . . . must be foreseeable. It is sufficient . . . that the . . . risk of harm . . . be foreseeable." (Click here for further analysis and precedents.)
In early 1980, as predicted in 1977, supra, both the government and the American Psychiatric Association issued books listing smoking in separate classifications for its mental effect—meaning, as a "mental disorder."
The said reference books are
See also their successor editions, e.g., the 6th edition (2004) of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), p 245; and the subsequent DSM-III-R (1987), pp 150-151, and 181-182, the DSM-IV (4th ed.) (1994), pp 242-247; and the DSM-IV-TR (2000), pp 264-269. Note also The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (World Health Organization, 1993), pp 8 (F17.), 55 (F17.0) and 61 (F17.3), referencing pp 48 (F1x.0), 49, and 58 (F1x.3).
Tobacco causes brain damage, is called "Tobacco Organic Mental Disorder" (TOMD). The Manual includes smokers in the TOMD category if withdrawal symptoms occur within 24 hours (most smokers have symptoms in two hours). An extensive analysis of the latter is found in a Veterans Adminstration litigation case by a veteran seeking compensation for tobacco-caused injury. Note that tobacco mental disorder symptoms include odd sterotyped gestures, typical of other mental disorders as well. (The U.S. government, the IRS, deems treatment for this mental disorder, smoking, as a valid medical deduction, as valid as for a deduction for treating any other mental disorder; see the 1982 Michigan Law Review advocacy article).
In October 1980, this web writer published that fact in a national anti-drug magazine in the context of the massive costs to society of smoking; and in November 1980, repeated it in The Macomb Daily.
In 1980 and 1981, federal courts in Nat'l Org. for Reform of Marijuana Laws v Bell, 488 F Supp 123, 138 (D DC, 11 Feb 1980) (referencing tobacco as a drug) and Caprin v Harris, 511 F Supp 589, 590 n 3 (D ND NY, 8 April 1981) (referencing the DSM-III), have said this (reference to tobacco smoking in mental disorder terms) in official documents. In the latter case, a federal district court dealing with a smoker with the symptom of "refusal to cease smoking" took judicial notice of the International Classification of Disease, 9th rev., and its listing of "tobacco use disorder" in the mental disorders section, and of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and its listing of "tobacco dependence." The court noted that, "There is considerable support in recent medical literature for the proposition that smoking under some circumstances is a 'disease' similar to 'alcoholism.'"
The massive quantities of carbon monoxide (500-1500 ppm) result in an impaired oxygen supply to the brain, i.e., "cerebral anoxia," cell by cell, year after year, and when to any cell, "the oxygen supply is cut off, then damage to neurones occurs after a few minutes. Some neurones die." Anthony Hopkins, Epilepsy: The Facts (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1981).
In 1981, in Shipley v City of Johnson City, 620 SW2d 500 (Tenn App, 24 April 1981) lv app den 3 August 1981, the Tennessee Appeals Court found that Shipley's foreman, Ronald Profitt, at the site of a ruptured gas line,
In 1982, "some 90% of the nicotine delivered to the lungs goes directly to the brain, and it gets there in only 7 s[econds]," "much faster than a heroin rush from a peripheral vein." William A. Check, PhD, 247 J Am Med Ass'n (#17) 2333-2338 (7 May 1982).
In Monteer v Schweiker, 551 F Supp 384, 390 (D WD Mo, 18 Nov 1982), a federal district court discussed smoking and the "analogous problem of alcoholism," i.e., a reference to the addictive (involuntariness) aspect.
In November 1982, the Michigan Law Review had an article on tax deductions for treating smoker mental disorder, citation: Comment, Tobacco Addiction, 81 Mich Law Rev (#1) 237-258 (Nov 1982). Key words include these: "Overwhelming clinical evidence supports characterizing smoking as a physical addiction, one that persists even though the addict knows it subjects him to serious risk of death. Both medical and legal authorities now recognize such a condition as a disease." "Nicotine exerts physiological effects on heart rate, metabolism, and (as would be expected from its addictive influence) on the brain," p 240. (The IRS agreed to this in June 1999). "Neither alcohol nor even heroin exerts a more powerful addictive effect than nicotine," p 243.
In 1984, in Gordon v Schweiker, Secretary of Health and Human Services, 725 F2d 231, 236; 4 Soc.Sec.Rep.Ser. 25; Unempl.Ins.Rep. CCH 15,029 (CA 4, 11 Jan 1984), the U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals took account of the mental disorder (addiction) aspect of smoking, saying: "Smoking, like alcohol abuse, can be an involuntary act for some persons. We believe that allegations of tobacco abuse should be treated in the same fashion as allegations of alcohol abuse." (In truth, all smoking is involuntary as the legal definition for "informed choice" has not been met.)
In 1995, tobacco pushers made the news when they denied that nicotine is addictive! The denial to Congress became a laughingstock. This helped confirm nicotine addictiveness. The data here shows they have long known!
In 1986, even North Carolina agreed that to prevent nicotine addiction (euphemism for brain damage) in children, a school smoking ban was acceptable!! The case went all the way to the North Carolina Supreme Court! Craig by Craig v Buncombe County Board of Education, 80 NC App 683; 343 SE2d 222 (20 May 1986) appeal dismissed, 318 NC 281; 348 SE 2d 138 (28 Aug 1986).
In 1989, Dr. Milhorn said:
In 1989, cigarettes' role as gateway drug was described:
In 1994, the Surgeon General said:
In 1994, the American Psychiatric Association updated the data on smoking as a mental disorder, not a habit—in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) (1994), pages 242-247.
In 1995, Dr. Charles O'Brien, MD, PhD, gave a lecture to medical students at the University of Pennsylvania on September 22, 1995, entitled "Nicotine Dependence, saying for example, that:
In 1997, Food and Drug Administration action to regulate cigarettes due to their addictiveness was cited in court, Coyne Beahm, Inc v FDA, 966 F Supp 1374 (MD NC, 25 April 1997), as the fact is so well-established.
In 1998: "Addiction is a chronic medical disorder," i.e., "a brain disease," state Mark S. Gold, MD, and Michael J. Herkov, PhD, ABPP, in their analysis of nicotine addiction, "Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine Dependence: Biological Basis for Pharmacology from Nicotine to Treatments that Prevent Relapse," in 17 Journal of Addictive Diseases (#1) 7-21, at 18-19 (1998).
In 2000, the American Psychiatric Association updated the data on smoking as a mental disorder, not a habit—in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th rev. ed. (DSM-IV-TR), pages 264-269, "Nicotine-Related Disorders . . . Nicotine Use Disorder 305.1 Nicotine Dependence . . . Nicotine-Induced Disorder 292.0 Nicotine Withdrawal . . . ."
In 2004, Bruce Parker, M.D., "Urban Legends" Letter, 50 Car and Driver (Issue #4) p 22 (October 2004), says in context of smoker's addiction, of an emergency room incident of his, caused by the lighting of a cigarette lighter "to see how much fuel was left in the 55-gallon drum at hand." The fuel center owner was burned over 90% of body, and thus died. Parker writes, "I also firmly believe that smoking damages one's thinking ability, leading to this type error." (See also the similar McAfee and Travis incidents above-cited, and other similar tobacco-use-caused fires.)
In May 2006, research by Jennifer Fidler, Ph.D. (of University College London), J. Wardle, N. Henning Brodersen, M. J. Jarvis, and R. West, reported as "Vulnerability to smoking after trying a single cigarette can lie dormant for three years or more," in vol. 15, Tobacco Control, pp 205-209 (July 2006), found that merely one cigarette can be enough to start the addictive process in a non-smoker (typically children being targeted by pushers). The term for the danger thus posed by a single cigarette is "sleeper effect." The effect involves raising a person's vulnerability for three years or more to becoming a regular smoker. "We know that progression from experimenting with one cigarette to being a smoker can take several years," said Fidler. "But for the first time we've shown that there may be a period of dormancy between trying cigarettes and becoming a regular smoker - a 'sleeper effect' or vulnerability to nicotine addition." Fidler et al. did a five year study of the impact of smoking just one cigarette on more than 2,000 children, ages 11 to 16. Results: Of 260 children who by age 11 had tried one cigarette, 18 percent were regular smokers by age 14. But only 7 percent of 11-year-olds who had never smoked had begun smoking three years later. Warning: Even the first "shot through the head" (1836 terminology) can have fatal results.
An update occurred for International Classification of Disease, 9th ed. (ICD-9) (2007), placing nicotine disorder at p 267, remaining medical code 305.1.
"South Fla. man killed in fight over cigarette" (Friday, 29 June 2012) (so addicted he pulled a gun threatening a person refusing to give him a cigarette, and was in turn shot)
"Drug addiction is a brain disease." "Although initial drug use might be voluntary, once addiction develops this control is markedly disrupted. Imaging studies have shown specific abnormalities in the brains of some, but not all, addicted individuals. While scientific advancements in the understanding of addiction have occurred at unprecedented speed in recent years, unanswered questions remain that highlight the need for further research to better define the neurobiological processes involved in addiction," says NIDA's Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow in Addiction Is a 'Brain Disease,'" as "Addiction Disrupts Brain Circuitry." See NIDA Press Release and article by Drs. Nora D. Volkow and Ting-Kai Li in Nature Reviews Neuroscience (December 2004).
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association updated the data on smoking as a mental disorder, not a habit—in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), § 16, "Substance Related and Addictive Disorders," pages 571-574, "Tobacco use disorder," and pp 575-576, "Tobacco withdrawal." Criterion § 8 on p 571 cites the mental disorder as including "recurrent tobacco use in situations in which it is physically dangerous," i.e., always.
. . . . And on and on, vast numbers of citations, 1527 to present. Such data refutes lay mythology about tobacco addiction as somehow a modern discovery!! No, it's old data, from the same era as evidence of the earth being round!!
Examples of other tobacco links include but are not limited to the following:
These cigarette effects are easily preventable, simply by enforcement of MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216.
This obective medical data refutes the lay myth that smoking is merely a "habit." Officially, that myth was refuted long ago. Myths die hard; there are some people who still think the earth is flat!! even though that myth was also refuted long ago.
Tobacco is an addiction, not a habit, says Ronald M. Davis, M.D., (a health authority during Gov. John Engler's first term), "The Language of Nicotine Addiction: Purging the Word 'Habit' From Our Lexicon," 1 Tobacco Control 163-164 (1992), opposing the "Big Tobacco" myth that smoking is merely a habit.
Michigan's law MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216 bans cigarettes, as the only method of preventing cigarette-caused harm. Michigan Governor John Engler (1991-2002) and staff were supportive of action to enforce that law, issuing five pertinent memoranda:
Michigan has adopted the preferable solution, a smokers' rights law, a safe-cigarettes law. Please write to officials urging adoption of such a law state-wide, nation-wide, and worldwide.
Or, write advocating the 1897 Iowa approach, a cigarette manufacturing and sales ban.
|Click here for
|Russell, M. A. H. (1971). "Cigarette smoking: Natural history of a dependence disorder." British Journal of Medical Psychology 44(1): 1-15.
Feyerabend, C. and M. A. H. Russell (1990). "A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cotinine and nicotine in biological fluids." Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology 42(6): 450-452.
Russell, M. A. H. (1976). "Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: A new approach to safer smoking." British Medical Journal 1: 1430-1433.
Russell, M. A. H., C. Wilson, et al. (1979). "Effect of general practitioners' advice against smoking." British Medical Journal 2: 231-235.
Jarvis, M. J., M. Raw, et al. (1982). "Randomised controlled trial of nicotine chewing-gum." British Medical Journal 285(6341): 537-540.
Jarvis, M. J., M. Raw, et al. (1982). "Randomised controlled trial of nicotine chewing-gum." British Medical Journal 285(6341): 537-540.
Russell, M. A. H., M. J. Jarvis, et al. (1983). "Nasal nicotine solution: A potential aid to giving up smoking?" British Medical Journal 286(6366): 683-684.
Russell, M. A. H., J. A. Stapleton, et al. (1987). "District programme to reduce smoking: Effect of clinic supported brief intervention by general practitioners." British Medical Journal 295(6608): 1240-1244.
Russell, M. A. H. (1990). "Nicotine intake and its control over smoking." Nicotine Psychopharmacology: Molecular, Cellular, & Behavioural Aspects. S. Wonnacott, M. A. H. Russell and I. P. Stolerman. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 374-418.
Russell, M. A. H. (1991). "The future of nicotine replacement." British Journal of Addiction 86(5): 653-658.
Russell, M. A. H., J. A. Stapleton, et al. (1993). "Targeting heavy smokers in general practice: Randomised controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches." British Medical Journal 306(6888): 1308-1312.
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