Chronologies

Aragon (Spain) Kings
Austrian Emperors
Barbarians
Belgium Kings
Bohemia Kings
Bulgaria
Byzantine Emperors
Castilian (Spain) Kings
China Emperors
Denmark Kings
Dutch Netherlands
English Monarchs by Dynasty
Frankish Roman Monarchs
French Emperors
French Kings by Dynasty
German Chancellors
German Emperors
German Kings
Greece Kings
Greek Orthodox Patriarchs
Holy Roman Emperors
Hungary Kings
Ireland Kings
Italy (Savoy) Kings
Norway Kings
Ottoman (Turkish) Sultans
Poland Kings
Popes
Portugual Kings
Prussia Kings
Roman Emperors
Rumania Kings
Russian Tsars
Scandinavia
Serbia
Scotland
Spain Kings
Sweden Kings
Venezuela Presidents
U.S. Presidents

Dates are in this order:
reign begins—reign ends (2-part);
or
birth—reign begins—reign ends (death) (3-part)
or
birth—reign begins—reign ends—later death (4-part).

Aragon (Spain)
Alphonso I, 1104-1134
Alphonso II, 1162-1196
Peter II, 1196-1213
James I, 1213-1276
Peter III, 1276-1285
Alphonso III, 1285-1291
James II, 1291-1327
Alphonso IV, 1327-1336
Peter IV, 1336-1387
John I, 1387-1395
Martin I, 1395-1410
Ferdinand I, 1414-1416
Alphonso V, 1416-1458
John II, 1458-1479
Ferdinand II, 1479-1516
      (sponsored Columbus,
for background, see, e.g.,
American Holocaust: The Conquest of the
New World
by David E. Stannard, Ph.D.,
A People's History of the United States by
Howard Zinn, Ph.D., and Lies My Teacher
Told Me
by James W. Loewen, Ph.D.,
both of which cite primary sources, i.e.,
eyewitness accounts, journal entries, and
writings by Columbus himself.

Austrian Emperors
Francis I, 1768-1804-1835 (had been H R Emp
until 1806, when H R Empire was ended)

Ferdinand I, 1793-1835-1848 (abdicated due to
mental retardation) -1875

Francis Joseph, 1830-1848-1916
Charles I, 1887-1916-1918-1922
(last emperor, revolution succeeded, he abdicated late
1918, fled after losing war; see also Fall of Eagles)

Barbarians
Franks
Goths
Huns
Lombards
Mongols
Saxons
Vandals (sacked Rome, 455 CE)
Vikings (active 8-11th centuries)

Belgium
Same as Spain, 1504-1713
Same as Austria (Holy
Roman Empire)
, 1713-1797
To France, 1797-1815
To Dutch Netherlands, 1815-1830
After Independence:

Leopold I, 1831-1865
Leopold II, 1865-1909 (genocidal)
Albert I, 1909-1934
Leopold III, 1934-1951
Charles, 1944-1950 (Prince Regent)
Baudouin I, 1951-1993
Albert II, 1993-

Bohemia
Bretislav I, 1037-1055
Vratislav II, 1061-1092
Bretislav II, 1092-1110
Vladislav I, 1111-1125
Sobeslav, 1125-1140
Vladislav II, 1140-1173
Ottakar I, 1197-1230
Wenceslas I, 1230-1253
Ottakar II, 1253-1278
Wenceslas II, 1278-1305
Wenceslas III, 1305-1306
John of Luxembourg,
1310-1346

Charles, 1346-1378
Wenceslas IV, 1378-1419
Sigismund, 1419-1437
Albert, 1437-1439
Ladislas, 1440-1457
George Podiebrad,
1458-1471

Vladislav III, 1471-1516
Louis, 1516-1526
Ferdinand of Austria,
1526-1564

(Same Rulers as Austria,
1526-1918)

Bulgaria
Alexander of Battenberg,
Prince, 1879-1886

Ferdinand, Prince, 1887-1908,
Tsar, 1908-1918

Boris III, 1918-1943
Simeon II, 1943-1946

East Roman Emperors:
Byzantine
Valens, 365-378 (killed by Goths at Battle of Adrianople)
Theodosius I, 392-395
Arcadius, 395-408
Theodosius II, 408-450
Marcian, 450-457
Leo I, 457-474
Leo II, 474
Zeno, 474-491
Anastasius I, 491-518
Justin I, 518-527
Justinian, 527-565 (example)
Justin II, 565-578
Tiberius II, 578-582
Maurice, 582-602
Phocas (the Tyrant), 602-610
(invented title of "pope")

Heraclius, 610-641
Constantine III, 641
Heracleonas, 641-642
Constans II, 642-668
Constantine IV (Pogonatus), 668-685
Justinian II (Rhinometus), 685-695
Leontius, 695-698
Tiberius III (Apsimar), 698-705
Justinian II (Rhinometus), 705-711
Philip Bardanes, 711-713
Anastasius II, 713-716
Theodosius III, 716-717
Leo III, 717-741
Constantine V (Copronymous), 740-775
Leo IV (Khazar), 775-780
Constantine VI, 780-797
Irene, 797-802
Nicephoras I, 802-811
Stauricious, 881
Michael I (Rhangabé), 811-813
Leo V (Armenian), 813-820
Michael II (Stammerer), 820-829
Theophilus, 829-842
Michael III (Drunkard), 842-867
Basil I (Macedonian), 867-886
Leo V (philosopher) and Alexander,
886-911

Leo VI, 911-912
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 913-959
Romanus I Lecapenus, 920-944 (co-emperor)

Romanos II, 959-963
Nicephoras II Phokas, 963-969
John I Tzimiskes, 969-976
Basil I, 976-1025
Constantine VIII, 1025-1028
Romanos III Argyros, 1028-1034
(Supported the rich vs serfs; drowned in bathtub)

Michael IV the Paphlagonian, 1034-1041
Michael V Kalaphates, 10 Dec 1041-20 April 1042
Constantine IX, 1042-1054
__________
Isaac I, 1057-1059
__________
Romanus IV, 1067-1071
__________
Alexius I, Comnenus, 1081-1118
John II, 1118-1143
Manuel I, 1143-1180
__________
Andronicus I, 1183-1185
Isaac II, 1185-1195
Alexius III, 1195-1203 (looting of
Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade
occurred during his term)

__________
Michael VIII, Palaeologus,
1259-1282

Andronicus II, 1282-1328
Andronicus III, 1328-1341
John V, 1332-1341-1391 (1341–1376, 1379–1390, 1390–1391)
Manuel II, Palaeologus, 1350-1391-1425 (Letters;
Wikipedia, Answers, 199 Encyc, Britannica Concise)

John VIII, 1392-1425-1448 (eldest son of Manuel II)
Constantine XI, 1404-1448-1453 (8th son of Manuel II)
Byzantine Empire ends, conquered by
Ottoman Empire

Castile (Spain)
Alphonso V, 999-1027
Ferdinand I, 1028-1065
Alphonso VI, 1065-1109
Alphonso VII, 1137-1157
Alphonso VIII, 1158-1214
Henry I, 1214-1217
Ferdinand III, 1217-1252
Alphonso X, 1252-1284
Sancho IV, 1284-1296
Ferdinand IV, 1296-1312
Alphonso XI, 1312-1350
Peter I, 1350-1368
Henry II, 1368-1379
John I, 1379-1390
Henry III, 1390-1406
John II, 1406-1454
Henry IV, 1454-1474
Isabella I, 1474-1504
Philip I, 1504-1506

China
Hundreds, in a number of dynasties, too many to list! from 221 B.C. - 1912 C.E. See Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. See also, e.g., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_of_China
Aisin Gioro Pu-yi (Last Emperor) (1906-1908-1912-1967)
Republic, 1 January 1912 - 30 September 1949

People's Republic, 1 October 1949 -


China's Economy (April 2012)

Denmark
Harold, 935-985
Svend, 985-1014
Canute, 1014-1035
Hardiknut, 1035-1042
Svend II, 1047-1076
__________
Waldemar I, 1157-1182
Knut VI, 1182-1202
Waldemar II, 1202-1241
__________
Waldemar IV, 1340-1375
__________
Margaret, 1387-1412
__________
Christian I, 1448-1483
Hans, 1483-1513
Christian II, 1513-1523
Fredericwk I, 1523-1559
Christian III, 1533-1559
Frederick II, 1559-1588
Christian IV, 1588-1648
Frederick III, 1648-1670
Christian V, 1670-1699
Frederick IV, 1699-1730
Christian VI, 1730-1746
Frederick V, 1746-1766
Christian VII, 1766-1808
Frederick VI, 1808-1839
Christian VIII, 1839-1848
Frederick VII, 1848-1863
Christian IX, 1863-1906
Frederick VIII, 1906-1912
Christian X, 1912-1947
Frederick IX, 1947-

Dutch Netherlands
Same as Spain, 1504-1581
William of Orange, the Silent,
Stadholder, 1581-1584
Maurice, 1584-1625
Frederick Henry, 1625-1647
William II, 1647-1650
John DeWitt, Grand
Pensionary, 1650-1672

William III, Stadholder, 1672-1702
(K. of England, 1689-1702)
John William, 1702-1711
William IV, 1711-1751
William V, 1751-1795
Republic, 1795-1806
Louis Bonaparte, King, 1806-1810
To France, 1810-1813
William I, King, 1813-1840
William II, 1840-1849
William III, 1849-1890
Wilhelmina, 1890-1948
Juliana, 1948-

English / British Monarchs
(www.royal.gov.uk/)

Arthur (legend)

1. Aelle *
2. Ceawlin *
3. Ethelbert *
4. Edwin *
5. Oswald *
7. Oswiu *
* according to Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

MERCIA:
Offa, 757-796
Egbert, 802-839 (of Wessex, first king of all-England)
Æthelwulf, 839-858
Aethelbald, 858-860
Æthelbert, 830-860-866
Æthelred I, 866-871
(older brother of Alfred the Great)

WESSEX:
Alfred the Great, 849-871-900
(grandson of Egbert)

Edward I, the Elder, 870-900-925
Aethelstan, 895-925-940 (grandson of Alfred the Great)
Edmund I, 921-940-946 (brother of Aethelstan)
Eadred, 946-955
Eadwig (Edwy) 939-955-959
Edgar the Peaceable, 943-959-975
(Athelstan's nephew)

Edward II, the Martyr, 963-975-978 (murdered
so younger half-brother Æthelred would become
king)

Æthelred II Unraed [Unready], 968-978-1014
deposed/restored-1016; Emma was his wife;
Edward the Confessor was his son, whose reign
began late due to Danish Invasion)

Edmund Ironside, April - November 1016 (another son
of Æthelred II, born c. 993; murdered?)

DANISH:
Danish Attacks - Invasion, 1011-1042
Svein I, Haraldsson Forkbeard (February 1014;
deposed Ethelred the Unready)
(Svein was Denmark's King, 984-1014; died
about five weeks after conquering England)

Canute I, the Great, 1016-1035 (also King of Denmark
and Norway; married Æthelred II's widow
Emma, had son Canute II)

Harold I, Harefoot, 1035-1040
Canute II, Hardicanute, 1040 - June 1042
(died of convulsions from over-drinking)

WESSEX:
Edward III, the Confessor, 1002-1042- Jan 1066
(Oldest son of Æthelred II Unraed and Emma;
had fled to Normandy in 1013 when Danes
invaded; could not take office until 1042; married
Edith; left throne not to grandson Edgar
the Ætheling, but to Edith's brother Harold! thus
triggered a war over who would be his rightful
successor)

Harold II, brother of Edward's wife
1022- Jan 1066 - Oct 1066 [killed by William I at
Hastings]; Edgar Ætheling (Oct - Dec 1066);
Edward's grandson, continued the war to keep
William out but failed)

NORMAN:
William I (the Conqueror), 1027-1066-1087 (Pro-slavery;
established roots of the Anglican Church
Background: David Howarth [1912-1991], 1066: The Year of
the Conquest (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1977), esp. p 198.)

William II Rufus, 1056-1087-1100 [killed by arrow,
via anti-oppression activism]

Henry I Beauclerc (the Scholar), 1068-1100-1135 (Anti-slavery)
Matilda, daughter of Henry I, replaced in Civil War by
Stephen (her cousin, son of Henry I's sister),
1097-1135-1154 (deal was made that her son
Henry would inherit the throne, not Stephen's
son)

     ANGEVIN
PLANTAGENET:

Henry II, 1133-1154-1189
(Son of Matilda; married Eleanor of Aquitaine;
used statistics)

Richard I Coeur (Lion-heart), 1157-1189-1199
John Lackland, 1167-1199-1216 (Magna Carta, 1215)
Henry III, 1207-1216-1272
Edward I, Longshanks 1239-1272- 7 July 1307
("Model Parliament"; conquered Wales;
attacked Scotland)

Edward II, 1284-1307-1327 [deposed, murdered] (See
Christopher Marlowe's play)

Edward III, 1312-1327-1377
(Hundred Years War began)
(Married Philippa at Age 15)

Richard II, 1367-1377-1399 [deposed]-1400
LANCASTER:
Henry IV, 1367-1399-1413 [leader
of revolt against Richard II]

Henry V, 1387-1413-1422
(Battle of Agincourt, 1415)

Henry VI, 1421-1422-1461 [insane, deposed]
      [restored 1470, murdered 1471]
YORK:
Edward IV, 1442-1461-1483 (except 1470-1 while he
was deposed for short time; founded England's
absolute monarchy)
See Analysis on Illegitimacy of Edward IV, and Shakespeare's play Richard III allusion to illegitimacy, not really the son of the Duke of York, who was out of the area at the alleged conception time, and not looking at all like his alleged royal father, thus voiding legitimacy of all alleged successors to Edward IV thereafter, as follows:

Edward V, 1470-1483-1483
Richard III, 1452-1483-1485 [uncle, usurper, killed in
the war to oust him, when Henry VII won]

TUDOR:
Henry VII of Lancaster, 1457-1485-1509
(lacking legitimate claim to the throne, he married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, but see illegitimacy analysis supra)

Henry VIII, 1491-1509-1547 (married Katherine by papal dispensation, later Henry denied validity of the dispensation, split with Rome, married five more times, had a total of six wives, had used perjury to oust Wife #2, Anne Boleyn; had economic motive for splitting with the Roman Church)
Edward VI, 1537-1547-1553 (son of Henry VIII)
Lady Jane Grey (1553, 9 days, 10-19 July; great-grand-daughter of
Henry VII; deposed, executed)

Mary, 1516-1553-1558 (1st daughter of Henry VIII)
Elizabeth I, 1533-1558-1603 58 (2nd daughter of Henry
VIII) (See education background; and
Background on Empire)

STUART:
James I, 1566-1603-1625 [of Scotland]
(great-great-grandson of Henry VII)

Charles I, 1600-1625-1649 [beheaded for oppressions]
Revolution: Commonwealth (Oliver Cromwell)
Charles II, 1630-1660-1685
James II, 1633-1685-1688 [deposed for oppressions]
-1701 (brother of Charles II)

Mary II, 1662-1689-1694 (daughter of James II)
ORANGE:
William III, 1650-1689-1702
STUART:
Anne, 1665-1702-1714 (second daughter of James II,
she was a snuffer, see her fatal Background)

HANOVER:
George I, 1660-1714-1727
George II, 1683-1727-1760
(ended 1745 secession war; simony re bishoprics)

George III, 1738-1760-1820
(married to "Snuffy Charlotte," says Edward H.
Pinto, Wooden Bygones of Smoking and Snuff
Taking [London: Hutchinson of London, 1961],
pp 56-57)

George IV, 1762-1820-1830
William IV, 1765-1830-1837
Victoria, 1819-1837-1901 (attacked Afghanistan 1839-1842 (of 16,500 troops, only one survived) and China (Opium War)
SAXE-COBURG:
Edward VII, 1841-1901-1910 (Smoker, daughter Maud
married Haakon VII of Norway, died prematurely)

WINDSOR:
George V, 1865-1910-1936
Edward VIII, 1894-1936-1972 (smoker, abdicated
to marry smoker divorcée)

George VI, 1895-1936-1952
(impotent from, and died of, smoking)

Elizabeth II, 1926-1952- (Diamond Jubilee, 2012, Video)
See also the Wikipedia List of British Monarchs, and Piers Brendon, Ph.D., The Decline and Fall of the British Empire 1871-1997 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008). Pp. 340-341 cites the Empire's colonialism-era rulers "posing as gods," i.e., "a separate order of beings . . . according to his place in the imperial hierarchy [enjoying] a portion of the divine authority supposed to flow down from a theocratic King. Servants of the Crown became local deities," and citing E. M. Forster, A Passage to India (1924).

Frankish Roman Monarchs
Pepin the Short, 714-751-768
Charlemagne, 741-768-800-814
Louis I, the Pious, 778-814-840
Lothair I, 795-840-855
Louis II, 825-855-875
Charles II, the Bald, 877-881
Charles III, the Fat, 881-887
Louis III, the Blind, 880-890-928

French Emperors
Napoleon I, 1769-1804-1814-1821
(Deposed, 1814; poisoned by
arsenic)

Napoleon III, 1808-1852-1870-1873
Overthrew French Republic,
made self Emperor. Was
deposed when lost war with
Germany he'd started
leading to the Paris Commune

Kings of France
CAROLINGIAN:
Pepin of Heristal, 680-714
Charles Martel, 714-741
Pepin the Short, 741-768
Charlemagne, 768-814
Louis I, the Pious, 778-814-840
Charles I, the Bald, 840-877
Louis, II, the Stammerer, 846-877-879
Civil War
Louis III, 863-879-882
Carloman, 879-884
Charles II, the Fat, 882-887
Odo, 887-898
Charles III, the Simple, 879-898-922
(killed, 923)

Civil War
Robert, 922-923
Ralph, July 923-936
Louis IV D'Outremer, 921-936-954
Lothair, 941-954-986
Louis V, 967-986-May 987 (poisoned?)
CAPETIAN:
Hugh Capet, 940-987-996
Robert, 996-1031
Henry I, 1031-1060
Philip I, 1060-1108
Louis VI, 1081-1108-1137
Louis VII, 1121-1137-1180
Philip II, Augustus, 1180-1223
Louis VIII, 1187-1223-1226
Louis IX, Saint, 1214-1226-1270 (ideal)
(banned Trial by Battle)

Philip III, 1270-1285
Philip IV (the Fair), 1285-1314 (won power
struggle against Benedict XI)

Louis X, 1289-1314-1316 (Philip IV son # 1)
(Anti-slavery)

Philip V, 1316-1322 (Philip IV son # 2)
(Anti-slavery)

Charles IV, 1294-1322-1328 (Philip IV son # 3)
VALOIS:
Philip VI, 1328-1350
(nephew of Philip IV)

John, 1350-1364
Charles V (the Wise),
1337-1364-1380

Charles VI, 1368-1380-1422
Charles VII, 1403-1422-1461
Louis XI, 1423-1461-1483
Charles VIII, 1483-1498
Louis XII, 1462-1498-1515
Francis I, 1494-1 Jan 1515-1547
Henry II, 1519-1547-1559 [Queen was
Catherine de Médicis (1519-1589;
prime power, 1560-1574)]

Francis II, 1544-27 June 1559-5 Dec
1560 (husband of Mary, Queen
of Scots [1542-1587], he was
tobacco-poisoned)

Charles IX, 1550-1560-1574
Henry III, 1574-1589
BOURBON:
Henry IV, 1553-1589-1610 (Background,
Assassinated 14 May 1610)

Louis XIII, 1601-1610-1643
Louis XIV, 1638-May 1643-1715 (longest)
Louis XV, 1710-1715-1774
Louis XVI, 1754-1774-1792
(overthrown by 1789
Revolution, beheaded 1793,
with wife, Marie Antoinette)

(Revolution-Interregnum-Napoleon)
Louis XVIII, 1755-1814-1824
Charles X, 1757-1824-1830 (deposed
1836, ending Bourbon dynasty)

ORLEANS
Louis Philippe, 1773-1830-1848-1850

French Presidents
Louis E. Cavaignac, 1848
Louis Napoleon, 1808-1848-1851-1873
Adolphe Thiers, 1871–1873
Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, -1879 (resigned)
Marie François Sadi Carnot (assassinated 1894)
Jean Casimir-Perier, 1894–1895 (resigned)
Félix Faure, 1895-1899 (died in office)
Émile Loubet, 1899-1906
Armand Fallières, 1906-1913
Raymond Poincaré (1914)
Paul Deschanel, Feb-Sep 1920
Alexandre Millerand (resigned 1924)
12. Gaston Doumergue, 1924-1931
Paul Doumer (assassinated 1932)
Albert Lebrun
Vincent Auriol, 1947-1954
René Coty, 1954–1969
Charles De Gaulle, 1959–1969
Georges Pompidou, 1969–1974 (died in office )
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, 1974–1981
Francois Mitterrand, 1981–1995
Jacques Chirac, 1995-2007
Nicolas Sarkozy, 2007-
Full List


German Chancellors
Wikipeida List of German Chancellors

German Emperors (Kaisers)
Wilhelm I, 1871-1888 (see war background)
Frederick III, 1888
Wilhelm II, 1888-1918
(last kaiser, started 1914-1918 world war, revolution began,
he abdicated, fled after losing war. See also Prof. Dwight
E. Lee, ed., The Outbreak of the First World War: Who
Was Responsible? (D.C. Heath & Co, 1963)).

German Kings
Charlemagne, 768-814
Louis the Pious, 814-840
Louis the German, 804-840-876
Carloman, 876-880
__________
Arnulf, 887-899
Louis the Child, 893-899-911
Conrad, 911-918
Henry I, 911-918
Henry II, 918-936
Otto I, 936-973
Otto II, 973-983
Otto III, 983-1002

Greece
To Ottoman Empire, 1400-1821
Otto I, 1832-1862
George I, 1863-1913
Constantine I, 1913-1917
Alexander I, 1917-1920
Constantine I, 1920-1922
George II, 1922-1924
(Republic, 1924-1935)
George II, 1935-1947
Paul I, 1947-

Greek Orthodox Patriarchs
See their website.

Holy Roman Empire
SAXON:
Henry I, the Fowler, 919-936
Otto I, the Great, 936-973
Otto II, 973-983
Otto III, 983-1002
Henry II, 1002-1024
FRANCONIAN:
Conrad II, 1024-1039
Henry III, 1039-1056 (appointed Pope Clement II)
Henry IV, 1056-1106
Henry V, 1106-1125
Lothair II, 1070-1125-1137
HOHENSTUAFEN:
Conrad III, 1138-1152
Frederick I, Barbarossa, 1152-1190
Henry VI, 1190-1197
Philip of Swabia, 1198-1208
GUELF:
Otto IV, 1208-1215
__________
HOHENSTUAFEN:
Frederick II, 1220-1250
Conrad IV, 1250-1254
__________
HABSBURG:
Rudolf I, 1218-1273-1291
NASSAU:
Adolf, 1292-1298
HABSBURG:
Albert I, 1248-1298-1308
LUXEMBOURG:
Henry VII, 1308-1313
BAVARIAN:
Louis IV, 1287-1314-1347
LUX-BOHEMIAN:
Charles IV, 1347-1378
Wenceslas, 1378-1400
Sigismund, 1410-1437 (burning of John Huss)
HABSBURG:
Albert II, 1438-1439
Frederick III, 1440-1493
GERMAN:
Maximilian I (son), 1459-1493-1519
Charles V (grandson), 1500-1519-1556
abdicated-1558
(King of Spain, as Charles I,
1516-1556)

Ferdinand I (brother), 1503-1556-1564
Maximilian II (son), 1527-1564-1576
Rudolf II (son), 1552-1576-1612
Matthias (brother), 1557-1612-1619
Ferdinand II (grandson of
Ferdinand I), 1578-1619-1637

Ferdinand III, 1608-1637-1657
Leopold I, 1640-1658-1705
Joseph I, 1678-1705-1711
Charles VI, 1711-1740
[sub rosa] Maria Theresia (daughter
of Charles VI), 1740-1765;
wife of Francis I]

Charles VII, 1742-1745
Francis I, 1745-1765
Joseph II, 1741-1765-1790
Leopold II (brother), 1747-1790-1792
Francis II (son), 1768-1792-1806 (last H R
Emp; H R Empire ended due to
defeat by Napoleon; incumbent
reduced to Emperor of Austria as
Francis I there)

Norway
Harald I (9th century)
Olaf I, Tryggvason, 996-1000
__________
Olaf II the Saint, 1016-1039
Magnus, 1035-1047
Harold III, Hardradi, 1015-1046-1066
(half-brother of Olaf II; details)

__________
Magnus III, 1095-1103
__________
Magnus V, 1161-1184
__________
Haakon IV, 1217-1262
__________
Haakon V, 1299-1319
__________
Haakon VI, 1350-1380
Olaf III, 1380-1387
Margaret, 1387-1412
__________
Christian I, 1448-1483
Hans, 1483-1513
Christian II, 1513-1523
Frederick I, 1523-1559
Christian III, 1533-1559
Frederick II, 1559-1588
Christian IV, 1588-1648
Frederick III, 1648-1670
Christian V, 1670-1699
Frederick IV, 1699-1730
Christian VI, 1730-1746
Frederick V, 1746-1766
Christian VII, 1766-1808
Frederick VI, 1808-1839
Christian VIII, 1839-1848
Frederick VII, 1848-1863
Christian IX, 1863-1905-1906
Haakon VII, 1872-1905-1957
(married cigar-smoker Edward VII's
daughter Maud)

Olaf V, 1903-1957-1991
Harald V, 1937-1991-
1939-1945 World War Chronology

See also the Wikipedia List of Norwegian
Monarchs, and Norway's Official Site.

Ottoman Empire
Turkish Sultans
Murad I, 1326-1361-1389
(founded Janissaries)

Mohammed II, 1451-1481
conquers Byzantium

Bayezid I, 1481-1512
Selim I, 1512-1520
Suleiman II, the Magnificent,
1520-1566

Selim II, 1566-1574
Murad III, 1574-1595
Mohammed III, 1595-1603
Murad IV, 1623-1640
anti-tobacco

Ibrahim, 1640-1648
Mohammed IV, 1648-1687
__________
Mustapha II, 1695-1703
Ahmed III, 1703-1730
Mahmud I, 1730-1754
Othman II, 1754-1757
Mustapha III, 1757-1773
Abdul Hamid I, 1773-1789
Selim III, 1789-1807
Mahmud II, 1808-1839
Abdul Medjid, 1839-1861
Abdul Aziz, 1861-1876
Abdul Hamid II, 1876-1909 (many Armenians killed)
Mohammed V, 1909-1918
Mohammed VI, 1918-1922

Poland
Boleslav I, 992-1025
Casimir I, 1025-1058
Boleslav II, 1058-1091
Boleslav III, 1102-1139
Henry I, of Silesia, 1231-1238
Boleslav V, 1243-1279
Ladislas I, 1306-1333
Casimir III, 1333-1370
Louis of Hungary,
1370-1382

Ladislas II, 1386-1434
Ladislas III, 1434-1444
Casimir IV, 1447-1492
John Albert, 1492-1501
Sigismund I, 1506-1548
Sigismund II, 1548-1572
Henry of Valois, 1573-1574
Stephen Bathory, 1575-1586
Sigismund III, 1587-1632
Ladislas IV, 1632-1648
John II Casimir, 1648-1668
John III Sobieski, 1674-1696
Augustus II of Saxony,
1697-1733

Augustus III, 1733-1763
Stanislaus II, Poniatowski,
1763-1795

Roman Catholic Popes
Linus, c. 66 CE - c. 78 CE (or 67 - 76) ("Because it
was not until the late second or early third
century that Catholic tradition came [was
invented, antedated] to regard Peter as the first
Bishop of Rome, it was Linus, not Peter, who
was considered in the earliest succession lists to
be the first pope," says Notre Dame Catholic Theology
Professor Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the
Popes (Harper, 1997), p 33. And "the
Catholicism of today is not the Catholicism of a
thousand years ago, or even one hundred years
ago," says Prof. Michael Dean Murphy of the
University of Alabama, writing in "Catholicism"
in Religion and Culture: An Anthropological
Focus, Raymond Scupin, ed. [New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 2000], p 341, citing Tali Asad,
Genealogies of Religion [Baltimore: The Johns
Hopkins Press, 1993], p 46. See also Upton Sinclair,
The Profits of Religion (1917), § 3.13. In short, "The
concentration of the Church into an oligarchy did not
occur until much later [than the Apostles]," says Prof.
Ernest Renan, The Apostles (New York, Carleton;
Paris, Michel Levy Frères, 1866), Chapter 5, p 110, as
they were "not proposing to have any successors.")

Peter, of course, himself denied being Pope, pointing
instead to Christ as Head of the Church, 1 Peter 2:4-9. Peter referred to
himself as merely a "fellow-elder", 1 Peter 5:1, not as a
somehow "supreme" leader. Moreover, he explicitly warned
against "being lords over God's heritage" (1 Peter 5:3). Christ
had instructed the disciples not to be rulers over the people,
but rather to be servants instead (Matthew 20:25). Peter
clearly obeyed, was never "pope" nor claimed to be, nor was
he acknowledged anywhere in the Bible by any writer, as such.
The term didn't even exist until centuries later!

Apostle Paul wrote to the Romans, whereas he avoided
areas where others had built a foundation
(Romans 15:20). It was Paul's (not Peter's)
assignment to preach to the Gentiles (Acts
13:46-47;   14:27;   15:7;   18:6;   22:21;   26:20;
Romans 11:13; 15:9;   Galatians 2:2;
Ephesians 3:8;   1 Tim 3:16;   2 Tim 1:11),
whereas the original disciples including Peter,
were assigned equally to go to "the lost sheep of
Israel," i.e., to the Ten "Lost" Tribes (Matthew
10:6; 15:24 (areas east and north of Israel, e.g., Babylon).
Accordingly, Peter (having gone north east as assigned)
greets his readers from Babylon (1 Peter 5:13), not from the
distant west, not from Rome.

Backdating a claim that people centuries before
who had held some position (e.g., local church pastor,
one of many) had instead held some other higher
position or title of which they never knew and
which did not even exist until centuries later, is
fraud, not honest, legitimate history. It's as
though one were to claim that Indian chiefs in
the Washington, D.C. area, back-dated several
centuries, had been "Presidents of the United
States"! Such would be a claim to receive
mockery, derision, ridicule, not serious or
respectful response!

"I treat the subject lightly because to a trained
[analyst] it is so totally ridiculous as hardly to
warrant being taken seriously. To treat such
[claims] with anything else than the ridicule they
deserve does not serve, and indeed has not
served, historical truth. . . . The whole story
. . . is totally farcical."—Hugh Thomas, M.D.,
The Murder of Adolf Hitler (New York: St.
Martin's Press, 1995), p 112.

Church Father Tertullian (160 CE - 220 CE),
experienced as a Roman lawyer, did not even
include Linus on his Pope list, but instead
averred that the next named individual (Cletus) was
"first." There has never been a Peter II nor
a "Linus II," evidencing hierarchy awareness
that there was never an "I" by said name
(neither a Peter I nor a Linus I).

Cletus (Anacletus), c. 79 CE - c. 91 (or 76 - 88)
Clement I, c. 91 CE - c. 101 (or 88-97) (pro-Roman
law system, pro-Roman government and
military, said Church should copy Roman
political system, i.e., Emperor-worship) ("the
hierarchical structures of the Church, including
the papacy, owe more to the Roman Empire
than to Jesus," says Prof. McBrien, supra, p 36;
Clement I wrote to Corinthians, did not claim to
be Pope, says Halley's Bible Handbook,
24th Ed. [1965], p 768)

Evaristus, c. 100 - 109 (or 97 - 105)
Alexander I, c. 109 - c. 116 (or 105-115)
Sixtus I, c. 116 - c. 125 (or 115-125)
Telesphorus, c. 125 - c. 136
Hyginus, c. 138 - c. 142 (or 136-140)
Pius I, c. 142 - c. 155 (or 140-155)
Anicetus, c. 155 - c. 166
Soter, c. 166 - c. 174 (or 166 - 175)
Eleutherius, c. 174 - c. 189 (or 175 - 189)
Victor I, 189-198 (banned use of First Century Church
calculation of Passover as too Jewish, switched
it to different date aka Easter; such churches
denied his authority, says Halley's Handbook,
supra, p 767)

Zephyrinus, 202-218
Calixtus I, 217-223 (first to claim Matthew 16:18 as
his basis for alleging authority; Tertulian called
him a usurper, says Halley's Handbook, supra,
p 767)

Urban I, 223-230
Pontianus, 230-235
Anterus, 235-236
Fabian, 236-250
Cornelius, 251-252
Lucius I, 252-253
Stephen I, 253-257 (objected to African churches
baptismal methods, was told none of your
business, says Halley's Handbook, supra, pp
767-768)

Sixtus II, 257-258
Dionysius, 259-269
Felix I, 269-274
Eutychianus, 275-283
Caius, 283-296 (the Diocletian era, 284-305, begins)
Marcellinus, 30 June 296 - 304
Abolition of Christianity:
Extincto nomine Christianorum
:
Doctrines thereafter: Significantly different

Marcellus I, 308-309 (early sex scandal issues and
anti-Semitic action)

Eusebius, 309-310
Miltiades, 311-314
Sylvester I, 314-335 (Bishop of Rome at Constantine's
time; "Constantine regarded himself as Head of
the Church," says Halley's Handbook, supra, p
769)

Marcus, 336-337
Julius I, 337-352 (began "Christmas"; only Churches
in the West recognized Roman authority, says
Halley's, supra, p 768; in fact, there were five
church centers / 'headquarters': Jerusalem,
Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, Rome)

Liberius, 352-366
Damasus I, 366-384
Siricius, 385-398 (claimed to be in charge
everywhere!, but with the year 395 division of
the Roman Empire, the Constantinople
headquarters won the support of Jerusalem,
Antioch, and Alexandria, i.e., the anti-Rome side
had 4/5, 80%, of the church headquarters,
says Halley's, supra, p 769)

Anastasius, 398-402
Innocent I, 401-417 (also claimed to be in charge
everywhere; under him took place Sgt.
Augustine's doctrine-changing activity)

Zosimus, 417-418
Boniface, 418-422
Celestine I, 422-432 (the term "pope" ["papa"] began
to be used unofficially, making him another
possible "first pope")

Sixtus III, 432-440 (Western Roman government in
Rome was disintegrating, Augustine wished for
a Universal Church for someday in the future,
says Halley's, supra, p 770)

Leo I, 440 - 10 Nov 461 (according to "some
historians, the First Pope," says Halley's, supra,
p 770, as Emperor Valentinian III said so!
However, pertinent Church Council, Chalcedon,
451 A.D., denied it, gave the Primate of
Constantinople equal primacy, says Halley's,
supra, p 770)

Hilarus, 461-468
Simplicius, 468-483 (took advantage of the fall of
the Roman Empire in 476 C.E. to make himself
"the most commanding figure in the West," says
Halley's, supra, p 770)

Felix III, 483-492
Gelasius I, 492-496
Anastasius II, 496-498
Symmachus, 498-514
Homisdas, 514-523
John I, 523-526 (had Dionysius calculate a calendar;
he died in prison, having been jailed by
Theodoric, King of the Goths)

Felix IV, 12 July 526 - September 530 (was made Pope
under pressure from King Theodoric, in the then
ongoing dispute between the Goths and
Byzantium as to which politician headquarters
would dominate the Roman Catholic Church)

Boniface II, 530-532
John II, 532-535
Agapetus I, 535-536
Silverius, 536-540
Vigilius, 540-554
Pelagius I, 555-560
John III, 560-573
Benedict I, 574-578
Pelagius II, 578-590
Gregory I, 590-604 (another possible "first" Pope, but
for the fact that he did not claim to be over the
Eastern Church, indeed, he refused to be called
the "Universal Bishop" (the Constantinople
Patriarch made that claim, irritating Gregory!
Gregory was anti-slavery; misidentified Mary Magdalene]

Sabinianus, 604-606
Boniface III, 19 Feb 607 - 12 November 607
(Byzantine Emperor Phocas at Constantinople,
made the unofficial word "pope" an official
word, so Boniface III is another possible "first
pope")

Boniface IV, 609-614
Deusdedit, 615-618
Boniface V, 619-625
Honorius I, 625-638 (heretic)
Severinus, 640
John IV, 640-642
Theodore I, 642-649
Martin I, 649-653
Eugenius I, 654-657
Vitalianus, 657-672
Adeodatus, 672-676
Donus I, 676-678
Agatho, 678-682
Leo II, 682-683 (declared Honorius I a heretic)
Benedict II, 684-685
John V, 685-686
Cono, 686-687
Theodorus, 687
Sergius I, 687-701
John VI, 701-705
John VII, 705-707
Sisinnius, 708
Constantine, 708-715
Gregory II, 715-731
Gregory III, 731-741
Zacharius, 741-752 (made Charlemagne's father Pepin
"King of the Franks" in Western Germany and
Northern France)

Stephen II, 752-757 (established the Papal States,
after King Pepin at his request attacked Italy
and gave Italians' land to Stephen! -- a conquest
that lasted until 1870 when Italy finally got its
independence back under Garibaldi)

Paul I, 757-768
Stephen III, 768-772
Hadrian (or ADrian) I, 772-795
Leo III, 795-816 (crowned Charlemagne, Pepin's son,
in 774 C.E. as "Roman Emperor"!, in "Holy
Roman Empire" history, says Halley's, supra, p
772: Charlemagne "helped the Pope, and the
Pope helped him. He [Charlemagne] was one of
the Greatest Influences in bringing the Papacy
to a position of [politicized] World Power.")

Stephen IV, 816-817
Pascal I, 817-824
Eugenius II, 824-827
Valentine, 827
Gregory IV, 827-844
Sergius II, 844-847
Leo IV, 847-855
Benedict III, 855-858
Nicholas I, 858-867 (used forgeries written around
847-852 C.E., named the "Pseudo-Isidorian
Decretals," to fake retroactive legitimacy of
papal power, "lied in stating that they had been
kept in the archives of the Roman Church from
ancient times," says Halley's, supra, p 773:
"The Most Colossal Literary Fraud in History."
Fraud works! They "strengthened the Papacy
more than any other one agency, and forms to a
large extent the Basis of the Canon law of the
Roman church." This power grab by Nicholas I
enraged the Eastern Church, and split the
Church! "Up to 869 all Ecumenical Councils had
been held in or near Constantinople, and in the
Greek language." [Greek was the language of
the New Testament]. The secret of the Pseudo-
Isidorian forgeries was kept intact for centuries!
The real truth did not come out until centuries
later, in 1628! and not fully until the 19th
century.)

Adrian II, 867-872
John VIII, 872-882 (first pope to be murdered: was
poisoned and clubbed to death)

Marinus I, 882-884
Hadrian III, 884-885
Stephen V, 885-891
Formosus, September 891- 4 April 896 (successor
Stephen VI had him dug up, charged with
misconduct, his corpse propped up and put on
trial, found guilty, mutilated, and thrown into the
Tiber River)

Boniface VI, April 896 (had been twice defrocked for
immorality before becoming Pope, reigned only
15 days)

Stephen VI, May 896-August 897 (deposed,
imprisoned, strangled to death as punishment for
having abused Formosus' body)

Romanus, Aug - Nov 897 (pro-Formosus, but soon was
deposed)
Theodore II, Nov-Dec 897 (pro-Formosus; term ended
apparently by being murdered)

John IX, Jan 898 - Jan 900 (pro Formosus)
Benedict IV, Feb 900 - Aug 903 (murdered?)
Leo V, July/Aug - Sep 903 (deposed, imprisoned, murdered)
Christopher, 903-904 (declared anti-pope by successor)
Sergius III, Jan 904 - April 911 (murdered
predecessor, was anti-Formosus, reaffirmed
conviction of Formosus, allegedly had as a son
the future John XI, by "mistress, Marozia."
She, "her mother Theodora, and her sister,"
began "The Rule of the Harlots," 904-963)

Anastasius III, June 911 - March 1914
Lando, Aug 913 - March 914
John X, March/April 914 - May 928 (was "made Pope
by Theodora for the more convenient
gratification of her passion," Halley's, supra, p
774. John X was later deposed, jailed,
apparently murdered, "smothered to death by
Marozia, who, then, in succession, raised to the
Papacy Leo VI . . . Stephen VII . . . John XI . . .
her own illegitimate son." During his term, the
"College of Cardinals" was invented 927 A.D.)

Leo VI, May - Dec 928 (evidently became Pope while
John X was in jail, but not yet dead)

Stephen VII, Dec 828 - Feb 931 (poisoned)
John XI, March 931 - Dec 935 (in his 20's when made
Pope, he was allegedly son of Sergius III; was
jailed, then poisoned)

Leo VII, 936-939 (he and the next three Popes were
"appointed" by a son of Marozia, says Halley's,
supra, p 774).

Stephen VIII, 939-942
Martin III, 942-946
Agapetus II, 946-955
John XII, 955-963 ("a grandson of Marozia, was
'guilty of almost every crime, violated virgins
and widows, high and low; lived with his father's
mistress; made the Papal Palace a brothel; was
killed while in the act of adultery by the
woman's enraged husband,'" says Halley's,
supra, p 774.)

Leo VIII, 963-965 (died with married woman)
John XIII, 965-972
Benedict VI, 972-974
Donus II, 974
Benedict VII, 975-983
John XIV, 983-984
Boniface VII, 984-985 ("murdered Pope John XIV,
and 'maintained himself on the blood-stained
Papal Throne by a lavish distribution of stolen
money,'" says Halley's, supra, p 774.)

John XV, 985-996
Gregory V, 996-999
Sylvester II, 945-999-1003
John XVII, 1003
John XVIII, 1003-1008
Sergius IV, 1009-1012
Benedict VIII, 1012-1024 ("bought the Office of Pope
with open bribery," says Halley's, supra, p 774.)
John XIX, 1024-1033 ("Bought the Papacy. He passed
through all the necessary clerical degrees in one
day," says Halley's, supra, p 775.)

Benedict IX, 1033-1045 ("was made Pope as a boy 12
years old, through a money bargain with the
powerful families that ruled Rome. 'Surpassed
John XII in wickedness; committed murders and
adulteries in broad daylight; robbed pilgrims on
the graves of martyrs; a hideous criminal, the
people [eventually] drove him out of Rome.'
Some call him the Worst of all the Popes,'" says
Halley's, supra, p 775.)

Gregory VI, 1045-1046, "Bought the Papacy. [There
were] three rival Popes: Benedict IX, Gregory
VI, Sylvester III. 'Rome swarmed with hired
assassins; virtue of pilgrims was violated,'" says
Halley's, supra, p 775.)

Clement II, 1046-1047 ("was appointed Pope by
Emperor Henry III of Germany 'because no
Roman clergyman could be found who was free
of [not guilty of] the pollution of Simony
[bribery] and Fornication,'" says Halley's,
supra, p 775.)

Damascus II, 1048
Leo IX, 1049-1054
Victor II, 1055-1057
Stephen IX, 1057-1058
Nicholas II, 1059-1061
Alexander II, 1061-1073 ("first [pope] elected by the College"
"of Cardinals," says David Howarth [1912-1991], 1066: The
Year of the Conquest (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1977),
p 101. Previously, "Popes had been chosen by the Roman
nobility, and later by the German emperor. Bribery had been
rife, and the lives of popes had become suspiciously short."
Alexander II unleashed William the Conqueror on England in
1066. Result: "at least three hundred thousand English
people, one in five of the native population, were killed in
William's ravages or starved by the seizure of their farm stock
and their land," p 198. William's "ethnic cleansing" meant
that "in the next twenty years two hundred thousand Normans
and Frenchmen settled in," p 198.

Gregory VII (Hildebrand), 1073-1085 (reformer,
"called himself 'Overlord of Kings and
Princes,'" was "driven from Rome, died in
exile," says Halley's, supra, p 775.)

Victor III, 1086-1087
Urban II, 1088-1099 (launched First Crusade 1095-
1099, established the Roman Curia; cited Luke
16:19-31 vs misuse of wealth by the rich)

Paschal II, 1099-1118
Gelasius II, 1118-1119
Calixtus II, 1119-1124
Honorius II, 1124-1130
Innocent II, 1130-1143 ("maintained his office by
armed force against Anti-Pope Anacletus II,
who had been chosen by certain powerful
families in Rome," says Halley's, supra, p 776.)

Celestin II, 1143-1144
Lucius II, 1144-1145
Eugene III, 1145-1153 (Second Crusade, 1147-1149)
Anastasius IV, 1153-1154
Hadrian (Adrian) IV, 1154-1159 ("Only English Pope.
Gave Ireland to the King of England, and
authorized him to take possession. This
authorization was renewed by the next Pope,
Alexander III, and carried out in 1171," says
Halley's, supra, p 776.)

Alexander III, 1159-1181 ("Renewed war with the
German Emperor for supremacy. Many
campaigns and pitched battles [occurred]
between the Papal Armies and German Armies,
with terrible slaughter. Alexander was finally
driven from Rome by the people, and died in
exile," says Halley's, supra, p 776.)

Lucius III, 1181-1185
Urban III, 1185-1187
Gregory VIII, 1187
Clement III, 1187-1191 (Third Crusade, 1189-1191)
Celestine II, 1191-1198
Innocent III, 8 Jan 1198 - 16 June 1216 ("advocated"
papa l infallibility, says Halley's, supra, p 782;
had become Pope at age 37; issued anti-Semitic
decree; condemned the Magna Carta (1215), i.e,
how it was obtained, by coercing, extorting,
English King John; had the Fourth Crusade
(1201-1204), which plundered Constantinople)

Honorius III, 1216-1227
Gregory IX, 1227-1241 (nephew of Innocent III,
established the Inquisition placing it under the
direction of the Dominicans; had Fifth Crusade
(1228-1229)

Celestine IV, 1241
Innocent IV, 1241-1254 ("gave Papal Sanction to the
use of Torture in extracting [extorting]
confessions from suspected heretics," says
Halley's, supra, p 77; had Sixth Crusade (1248-
1254)

Alexander IV, 1254-1261
Urban IV, 1261-1265
Clement IV, 1265-1271 (Seventh Crusade, 1270-1272)
Gregory X, 1271-1276
Innocent V, 1276
John XXI, 1276-1277
Nicholas III, 1277-1281
Martin IV, 1281-1285
Honorius IV, 1285-1288
Nicholas IV, 1288-1292
Celestine V, 1294
Boniface VIII, 1294-1303 (demanded "'that every
creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.'
However, he was himself so Corrupt that Dante,
who visited Rome during his pontificate, called
the Vatican a 'Sewer of Corruption,' and
assigned him, along with Nicholas III and
Clement V, to the lowest parts of hell," says
Halley's, supra, p 777.)

Benedict XI, 1303-1304 (struggled against French
King Philip the Fair, and lost; for successor
popes, "the Papal Palace was removed from
Rome to Avignon on the south border of France,
and for 70 years the Papacy was a mere tool
[puppet] of the French Court [government],"
says Halley's, supra, p 778.)

Clement V, 1305-1314 (first Avignon Pope. "Petrarch
accused the Papal Household of Rape, Adultery,
and all manner of Fornication. In many parishes
men insisted on priests keeping concubines as a
protection for their own families," says Halley's,
supra, p 778.)

John XXII, 1316-1334
Benedict XII, 1334-1342
Clement VI, 1342-1352
Innocent VI, 1352-1362
Urban V, 1362-1370
Gregory XI, 1370-1378 (era of "Papal Schism" 1377-
1417, began, "there were two sets of Popes, one
at Rome, and one at Avignon, each claiming to
be 'Vicar of Christ,' hurling anathemas and
curses at each other," says Halley's, supra, p
778.)

Urban VI, 1378-1389 (last Pope at Avignon, "under
whom the Papal Palace was reestablished at
Rome," says Halley's, supra, p 778.)

Boniface IX, 1389-1404
Innocent VII, 1404-1406
Gregory XII, 1406-1409 (or 1417 if next two are
deemed anti-Popes)

Alexander V, 1409-1410
John XXIII, 1410-1415 ("called by some the most
depraved criminal who ever sat on the Papal
Throne; guilty of almost every crime; as
cardinal in Bologna, 200 maidens, nuns and
married women fell victim to his amours; as
Pope, he violated virgins and nuns; lived in
adultery with his brother's wife; was guilty of
sodomy and other nameless vices; bought the
Papal Office; sold Cardinalates to children of
wealthy families; and openly denied the future
life," says Halley's, supra, p 779.)

Martin V, 1417-1431 (ended the Papal Schism)
Eugene IV, 1431-1447
Nicholas V, 1447-1455 ("authorized the King of
Portugal to war on African peoples, take their
property and enslave people," says Halley's,
supra, p 779; and Edward C. Rogers, Slavery
Illegality (1855), pp 42-44)

Calixtus III, 1455-1458 ("a Pope of blameless life,"
says Halley's, supra, p 779.)

Pius II, 1458-1464 ("said to have been the father of
many illegitimate children, spoke openly of the
methods he used to seduce women, encouraged
young men to, and even offered to instruct them
in methods of self-indulgence," says Halley's,
supra, p 779. On a positive note, he was anti-
slavery.)

Paul II, 1464-1471 ("filled his house with concubines,"
says Halley's, supra, p 779.)

Sixtus IV, 1471-1484 (pro-Inquisition, appointed eight
relatives as Cardinals, says Halley's, supra, p
779; suspected of murder, says Barbara W. Tuchman, The
March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam, Section 3, "The
Renaissance Popes Provoke the Protestant Reformation,"
Chapter 1, "Murder in a Cathedral" (New York: Random
House, 1984).)

Innocent VIII, 1484-1492 ("Had 16 children by various
married women," arranged "extermination of
the Waldenses," was Pope when [reformer]
Savonarola opposed "Papal Corruption," says
Halley's, supra, p 779. And see Tuchman, March,
supra, Chap. 2, "Host to the Infidel: Innocent VIII.")

Alexander VI, 1492-1503 (most notorious pope, "an
avowed heathen," divided the "New World"
between Portugual and Spain; "bought the
Papacy," "had a number of illegitimate
children," "murdered Cardinals and others who
stood in their way," "Had for a mistress a sister
of a Cardinal, who became the next Pope," says
Halley's, supra, p 779. And see Tuchman, March,
supra, Chap. 3, "Depravity: Alexander VI.")

Pius III, 1503
Julius II, 1503-1513 ("bought the Papacy," "the Warrior Pope," pro-indulgences, was
Pope when Luther visited Rome and was shocked by the scandals, says Halley's,
supra, p 779. Julius granted the improvident and superfluous "dispensation" for
the marriage of Katherine of Aragon (Spain) and Henry VIII of England as
Katherine was Arthur's (Henry's brother) widow, references: Gen 38:8,
Lev 18:16 (Commandment 96 on brother's wife) and 20:21, Deut 25:5-9
(Commandments 79-81 requiring marrying brother's widow, almanah), Ruth
4:10, Matt 22:24, Mk 12:19, and Lk 20:28. Popes Julius II and Clement
VII confused Deut. 25:5-9 (Commandments 79-81 requiring marrying brother's
widow, almanah) with Lev. 18:16 (Commandment 96, forbidding marrying
brother's wife, ishshah), and claimed it was forbidden to marry the widow,
almanah except by papal "dispensation." And see Tuchman, March, supra,
Chap. 4, "The Warrior: Julius II.")

Leo X, 1513-1521 ("Pope when Martin Luther started
the . . . Reformation. Was made an Archbishop
at [age] 8, a Cardinal at [age] 13 . . . taught to
regard ecclesiastical office purely as a source of
revenue. . . . All ecclesiastical offices were for
sale . . . issued Indulgences for . . . fees; and
declared Burning of Heretics a Divine
Appointment," Halley's, supra, p 780. And see Tuchman,
March, supra, Chap. 5, "The Protestant Break: Leo X.")

Hadrian (Adrian) VI, 1522-1523
Clement VII, 1523-1534 (refused to void the above
dispensation re Henry VIII and Katherine. And see Tuchman,
March, supra, Chap. 6, "The Sack of Rome: Clement VII.")

Paul III, 1534-1549 ("Had many illegitimate children
. . . a determined enemy of the Protestants;
offered [Emperor] an army to exterminate
them," says Halley's, supra, p 780. Opposed slavery.)

Julius III, 1550-1555
Marcellus II, 1555
Paul IV, 1555-1559
Pius IV, 1559-1565
Pius V, 1566-1572
Gregory XIII, 1572-1585 (altered calendar, moved
New Years' Day from April 1 to January 1, i.e.,
to be less Jewish [the Hebrew Calendar begins
c. 1 April])

Sixtus V, 1585-1590
Urban VII, 1590
Gregory XIV, 1590-1591
Innocent IX, 1591-1592
Clement VIII, 1592-1605
Leo XI, 1605
Paul V, 1605-1621
Gregory XV, 1621-1623
Urban VIII, 1623-1644 (anti-tobacco)
Innocent X, 1644-1655 (anti-smoking)
Alexander VII, 1655-1667
Clement IX, 1667-1670
Clement X, 1670-1676
Innocent XI, 1676-1689
Alexander VIII, 1689-1691
Innocent XII, 1691-1700
Clement XI, 1700-1721 ("declared that Kings
[governments] Reign Only with His Sanction;
issued a Bull [warning] against Bible Reading,"
says Halley's, supra, p 780.)

Innocent XIII, 1721-1724
Benedict XIII, 1724-1730 (a smoker and snuffer, he
repealed Church anti-tobacco rules, says Louis
Lewin, Phantastica: Narcotic and Stimulating
Drugs, Their Use and Abuse (1924), trans. 1931
(New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., reprint 1964),
p. 302

Clement XII, 1730-1740
Benedict XIV, 1740-1758
Clement XIII, 1758-1769
Clement XIV, 1769-1774 ("suppressed the Society of
Jesuits in Spain, France and Portugal," says
Halley's, supra, p 781.)

Pius VI, 1775-1799
Pius VII, 1800-1823 ("issued a Bull [warning] against
Bible Societies. Restored the Jesuits: one
'infallible' Pope restoring for all time what
another 'infallible' Pope just before him had
suppressed," says Halley's, supra, p 781.)

Leo XII, 1823-1829 ("condemned All Religious
Freedom, Tolerance, Bible Societies and Bible
Translations," and said that all persons outside
the RCC have "no part in Eternal Life," says
Halley's, supra, p 781.)

Pius VIII, 1829-1830 ("Denounced Liberty of
Conscience, Bible Societies . . .," says Halley's,
supra, p 781.)

Gregory XVI, 1831-1846 ("an ardent advocate of
Papal Infallibility. Condemned Bible Societies,"
says Halley's, supra, p 781; but, on the plus side,
was anti-slavery)

Pius IX, 1846-1878 (Infallibility Decision; the Eastern
Church deemed this "the Papacy's Crowning
Blasphemy," says Halley's, supra, p 782) (See
also How the Pope Became Infallible, by
August Berhard Hasler; and "Infallibility in
Ethical Perspective," by John M. Swomley,
Christian Ethics Today, Vol 4 # 14 p 26)

Leo XIII, 1878-1903 ("claimed that he was appointed
to be Head of All Rulers, and that he holds on
this earth the Place of Almighty God.
Emphasized Papal Infallibility. Pronounced
Protestants 'enemies of the Christian name,'"
says Halley's, supra, p 782)

Pius X, 1903-1914 (initiated massive campaign against
Catholic scholars, theologians, historians [due to
their citing facts of history and religion! Can't
let facts get in the way of dogma!])

Benedict XV, 1914-1922 (offered peace proposals to
end the 1914-1918 World War when Austria was losing;
warned against premature Israel restoration; died of
pneumonia)

Pius XI, 1922-1939 (in 1928 re-affirmed the Roman
Catholic Church as the Only Church, and the
Re-Union of Christendom Impossible Except by
Submission to Rome," says Halley's, supra, p
783. See also Prof. David Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini, which shows how Pius XI aided and abetted Mussolini)

Pius XII, 1939-1958 (pro-Hitler views; supported the "Cold War,"excommunicated Communists not for their politics but for their doctrines, same approach as with Nazis: those who mouth Christ even while commiting a holocaust, they are OK; people who decline to mouth Christ even if they oppose the holocaust, they are not OK)
John XXIII, 1958-1963 (reformer, established Vatican II)
Paul VI, 1963-1979 (during his term, Theology Prof. José P. Miranda (1924-2001) wrote
  • Hunger and Thirst for Justice (1965)
  • Marx y la Biblia: Critica a la Filosofia de la Opresion, transl. John Eagleson, Marx and the Bible: A Critique of the Philosophy of Oppression (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1974) (Review)
  • El Cristianismo de Marx (1978), transl. John Drury, Marx against the Marxists: The Christian Humanism of Karl Marx (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1980) (Review)
  • Comunismo en la Biblia (1981), transl., Communism in the Bible (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1982).
    John Paul I, 1979 (first Pope in 1000 years to refuse to
    be crowned)

    John Paul II, 1979-2005
    Benedict XVI, 2005 - Feb. 2013 (See, e.g., Jane Kramer, "Holy
    Orders," The New Yorker, 2 May 2005;
    Anthony Graffon, "Reading Ratzinger," The
    New Yorker, pp 42-49, 25 July 2005; and
    Timothy W. Rybeck, "Forgiveness: Joseph
    Ratzinger and the War," The New Yorker, pp
    66-73 at 68, 6 Feb 2006 [excerpt]; Adam Jones,
    Ph.D., "Ask Pope Benedict When Does
    Genocide Purify?" (18 May 2007) ("Pope
    Benedict XVI's recent trip to Brazil seems to
    have done little to shore up the Catholic
    Church's declining power in its Latin American
    heartland. It went a long way, however, towards
    confirming Benedict's reputation as a
    reactionary bigot. . . . denial is 'among the surest
    indicators [that] further genocidal massacres'
    may lie ahead"); "Chavez demands Pope
    apologize for Indian comments" (Reuters, 19
    May 2007); Alex Kennedy, "Venezuela's Hugo
    Chavez Calls on Pope to Apologize" (18 May
    2007); Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H., "Cigarette
    Smoking and the Church's 'Pro-Life' Position" (29 January
    2008); Ray McGovern, "What About the War,
    Benedict?" (23 April 2008); "Pope Gets Pass on
    Church Abuse History: Media overlook Benedict's
    record of downplaying the issue" (29 April 2008);

    Richard Dawkins, "Ratzinger is the perfect pope" (Washington Post, April 2010) ("a leering old villain in a frock. . . perfectly positioned to accelerate the downfall of the evil, corrupt organization whose character he fits like a glove"). And see More on Ratzinger's effort to conceal / downplay the sex abuse scandal.

    Is reported to be a smoker (Marlboro Lites), with symptoms including heart disease and cerebral haemorrhage impairing his vision)

    Video by MSNBC's Rachel Maddow, "Today's summary of the state of the Catholic Church" (23 April 2010)


    Francis, March 2013-
    Background, see “Bergoglio’s List” Book Review (26 September 2013) (how he ran an underground to rescue people from the Argentine pro-business dictatorship 1976-1983 comparable to the underground rescuing people from the Nazi business dictatorship, information kept secret lest he himself be eliminated). This is background behind his anti-love of money homily, 21 September 2013).
    Pope Francis’ Junta Past: Argentine Journalist on New Pontiff’s Ties to Abduction of Jesuit Priests
    "Pope Francis, CIA and 'Death Squads'"
    "The Pope and Argentina's Dictatorship"
    "Denounces Unemployment and the Pursuit of Profit at Any Cost"
    Luis Rosales and Daniel Olivera, Francis: A Pope for Our Time, The Definitive Biography (Humanix Books, 15 October 2013)

    Note that "few, if any, traditions associated with the papacy have anything at all to do with Apostle Peter, or with the Lord himself," says Notre Dame Theology Professor Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes (Harper, 1997), p 392.
    See also, e.g.,
  • Rev. William G. Brownlow (1805-1877), Americanism Contrasted with Foreignism, Romanism, and Bogus Democracy, in the Light of Reason, History, and Scripture (Nashville, Tenn., 1856)
  • John J. Robinson, Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry (New York: M. Evans & Co., 1989; London: Century, 1989, 1990; and Arrow, 1989, 1993)
  • Peter Tompkins, The Magic of Obelisks (New York: Harper & Row, 1981)
  • David Bay and Ronald Riffe, "The True Face of the Roman Catholic Inquisition" (2005)
  • "Losing Faith: Abuse, Cover-Up and the Catholic Church with Fr. Thomas Doyle" (1 August 2012) ("A former Vatican insider shares details of the sex-abuse epidemic. Having reached extraordinary heights in the Catholic Church and served in the Vatican embassy with the sexual abuse epidemic, Fr. Thomas Doyle turned away from the religious order in response to the spiraling and far-reaching cover-up. Privy to some of the most sensitive dealings of the church, Fr. Thomas provides us with a very rare perspective on the abuse, response and cultural framework that allowed it to happen and continues to minimize the impact on the victims.")
    Term-ending by being murdered occurred to 26 popes.
  • Portugal
    Alphonso I, 1112-1185
    Sancho I, 1185-1211
    Alphonso II, 1211-1223
    Sancho II, 1223-1248
    Alphonso III, 1248-1279
    Diniz, 1279-1325
    Alphonso IV, 1325-1357
    Peter I, 1357-1367
    Ferdinand I, 1367-1383
    John I, 1385-1443
    Alphonso V, 1443-1481
    John II, 1481-1495
    Manuel I, 1495-1521
    John III, 1521-1557
    Sebastian, 1557-1578
    Henry, 1578-1580
    (To Spain, 1580-1640)
    John IV, 1640-1656
    Alphonso VI, 1656-1667
    Peter II, 1667-1706
    John V, 1706-1750
    Joseph, 1750-1777
    Peter III, 1777-1786
    Maria I, 1786-1816
    John VI, 1816-1826
    Peter IV, 1826
    Maria II, 1826-1853
    Peter V, 1853-1861
    Louis I, 1861-1889
    Charles I, 1889-1908
    Manuel II, 1908-1910

    Prussia (in Germany)
    Frederick I, 1701-1713
    Frederick William I, 1713-1740
    Frederick II, the Great, 1740-1786 (Details,
    also encouraged potato planting)

    Frederick William II, 1786-1797
    Frederick William III, 1797-1840
    Frederick William IV, 1840-1861
    William I, 1861-1888
    Frederick III, 1888
    William II, 1888-1918

    Roman Emperors
    As a preliminary background matter, see
  • Prof. Joseph A. Schumpeter, Ph.D., Zur Soziologie der Imperialismen (Tübingen: Mohr, 1919), transl. Imperialism and Social Classes (1951), esp. p 51: "There was no corner of the known world where some interest was not alleged to be in danger or under actual attack. If the interests were not Roman, they were those of Rome's allies; and if Rome had no allies, the allies would be invented. When it was utterly impossible to contrive such an interest -- why, then it was the national honor that had been insulted. The fight was always invested with an aura of legality. Rome was always being attacked by evil-minded neighbors. . . . The whole world was pervaded by a host of enemies, it was manifestly Rome's duty to guard against their indubitably aggressive designs. Even less than in the cases that have already been discussed, can an attempt be made here to comprehend these wars of conquest from the point of view of concrete objectives. Here there was neither a warrior nation in our sense, nor, in the beginning, a military despotism or an aristocracy of specifically military orientation. Thus there is but one way to an understanding: scrutiny of domestic class interests, the question of who stood to gain."
  • Prof. Michael Parenti, Ph.D., The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome (New York: The New Press, 2003).
    Augustus, 27 B.C.-14 A.D. (poisoned; see BBC
    series, I, Claudius)

    Tiberius, 14-37 A.D. (smothered; see BBC
    series, I, Claudius; executed 9,500 )

    Gaius Caligula, 37-41 (stabbed; see BBC
    series, I, Claudius; had executed 9,000 people)

    Claudius, 41-54 (poisoned; see BBC
    series, I, Claudius; executed 5,750)

    Nero, 13 Oct 54 - 9 June 68 (cut taxes from
    4.5% to 2.5%; was ordered executed,
    committed suicide, "Year of the Four
    Emperors;" background, see, e.g.,
    Stephen Dando-Collins, The Great Fire
    of Rome: The Fall of the Emperor Nero
    and His City (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo
    Press, 2010); excuted 2,935)

    Galba, 8 June 68 - 15 Jan 69 (killed)
    Otho, 15 Jan 69 - 16 April 69 (suicide)
    Vitellius, 2 Jan 69 - 22 Dec 69 (killed)
    Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 23 June 79
    Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 Sep 81
    Domitian, 14 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96 (assassinated:
    “the safety valve of [rescue]
    assassination again came into play and
    removed Domitian,” says Prof. Chester
    G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World,
    3rd ed (Oxford Univ Press, 1983), p 577.

    Nerva, 96-98
    Trajan, 98-117 (Rome reached peak size)
    Hadrian, 117-138
    Antoninus Pius, 138-161 (example)
    Marcus Aurelius, 161-180
    Commodus, 180-193
    Septimius Severus, 193-211
    Caracalla, 188-211-217
    Macrinus, 217-218
    Elagabalus, 218-222
    Alexander Severus, 222-235
    Maximinus, 235-238
    __________
    Philip, 244-248
    Decius, 249-251
    __________
    Aurelian, 270-275
    __________
    Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian,
    245-284-305-313; retired in 305

    Constantius I, 305-306 [had
    been deputy Emperor]

    Constantine I, 288-306-337
    (Constantius' son, see
    Background, Context)

    Constantius II, 337-361
    Julian, 361-363
    Valens, 364-378 (killed by Goths at Battle of
    Adrianople)

    Valentinian II 371 - 22 Nov 375 - 15 May 392
    (assassinated by being hanged)

    Theodosius, 379-395 (example)
    Honorius, 395-423 (Goths sack Rome, 410 AD)
    Joannes, 27 Aug 423 - May 425 (usurper)
    Valentinian III, 424-455 (assassinated after
    proclaiming the "first pope")


    __________
    Julius Nepos, 474-475
    Romulus “Augustulus,” 465-475-476-c. 507
  • Rumania
    Alexander John Cuza,
    Prince, 1859-1866
    Carol I, Prince, 1866-1881,
    King, 1881-1914
    Ferdinand, 1914-1927
    Michael, 1927-1930
    Carol II, 1930-1940
    Michael, 1940-1947

    Russian Tsars
    Ivan III, the Great, 1462-1505
    Basil IV, 1505-1533
    Ivan IV, the Terrible,
    1533-1584

    Theodore I, 1584-1598
    Boris Godunov, 1598-1605
    __________
    ROMANOV:
    Michael Romanov, 1613-1645
    Alexius, 1645-1676
    Theodore II, 1676-1682
    Ivan V, 1682-1689, co-tsar with:
    Peter I, the Great, 1682-1725
    Catherine I, 1725-1727 (wife of Peter I)
    Peter II, 1727-1730 (grandson of Peter I)
    Anna, 1730-1740 (daughter of Ivan V)
    Ivan VI, 1740-1741 (at age 2 months, deposed
    a year later)

    Elizabeth, 1741-1761 (daughter of Peter I,
    the Great, deposed Ivan VI)

    Peter III, 1728-Dec 1761-June 1762
    (grandson of Peter I; was deposed by
    his wife Catherine II, later killed; his
    pro-Prussian policy set the stage for
    the later rise of Germany)

    ANHALT-ZERBST
    Catherine II, the Great, 1729-1762-1796
    (estranged German wife of Peter III,
    whom she deposed; see her education
    background, and anecdote on potatoes
    and the opposing view)

    SALTYKOFF
    Paul I, 1754-1796-1801 (alleged son of Peter
    III, but really of Sergei Saltykov, one
    of Catherine II's lovers)

    Alexander I, 1777-1801-1825 (enthroned
    after assassination of his father Paul I)

    Nicholas I, 1825-1855
    Alexander II, 1855-1881
    Alexander III, 1881-1894
    Nicholas II, 1894-1917-1918 (smoker, had married
    woman a carrier of hemophilia, thus debilitating
    the heir Alexei, subjecting family to bizarre
    religious influence of Rasputin; was overthrown
    March 1917, shot, July 1918)

    Russian Communist Leaders
    Vladimir Lenin, 8 Nov 1917 - 24 Jan 1924
    Alexei Rykov 2 February 1924 – 19 December 1930 (titular)
    Vyacheslav Molotov, 19 December 1930 – 6 May 1941 (titular)
    Joseph Stalin, 1924- 5 March 1953 (not official until 6 May 1941)
    Georgy Malenkov, March - September 1953
    Nikita Krushchev, 7 Sep 1953 - 14 Oct 1964
    Leonid Brezhnev, 14 Oct 1964 - 10 Nov 1982
    Yuri Andropov, 12 Nov 1982 - 9 Feb 1984
    Konstantin Chernenko, 13 Feb 1984 - 10 March 1985
    Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985-1991 (brought Glasnost)

    Russian Presidents
    Boris Yeltsin, 10 July 1991 – 31 December 1999
    Vladimir Putin, 31 Dec 1999 - 2008, 2012-
    [Video Biography; Article: Opposes
    Persecution of Christians
    (5 September 2013);
    "A Plea for Caution From Russia:
    What Putin Has to Say to Americans About Syria
    "
    (11 September 2013); "Why Russia Is Defending
    International Law
    " (15 September 2013). ]

    Kings of Scotland (Argyleshire)
    Kenneth MacAlpine, ___-13 Feb 858
    Donald, 859-___
    Constantine
    Aodh
    ________
    Kenneth III, ___-1005
    Malcolm II, 25 March 1005- 25 Nov 1034
    Duncan I, 25 Nov 1034-14 Aug 1040
    (killed by Macbeth)

    ________
    Lulach (step-son of Macbeth), 15 August 1057-17 March 1058
    Malcolm III, Canmore, 1055-25 April 1058-10 Nov 1093
    Donald III
    Edgar, 1093-
    Duncan II
    Alexander I, 8 Jan 1107-23 Apr 1124
    David I, 23 Apr 1124-1153
    Malcom IV, the Maiden, 20 Mar 1141-
    12 June 1153-9 Dec 1165

    William the Lion, 24 Dec 1165 - 4 Dec 1214
    Alexander II, 24 Aug 1198 - 6 Dec 1214- 8 July 1249
    Alexander III, 4 Sep 1241 - 13 July 1249 - 19 Mar 1286
    Margaret, 1283 - 19 Mar 1286 - 26 Sep 1290
    Civil War, 1290-1292
    John Balliol, 17 Nov 1292 - 8 July 1296
    War with England, Scotland lost:
    Edward I of England declared self
    King, 1296; the War continued:
    Scotland later won, in 1306

    Robert I, the Bruce, 11 July 1274-27 Mar 1306-1329 (Details)
    More war with England
    David II, 5 Mar 1324 - 24 Nov 1331- 22 Feb 1371
    Robert II, 2 Mar 1316 - 27 Mar 1371 - 13 Apr 1390
    Robert III, 14 Aug 1337 - 14 Aug 1390 - 4 Apr 1406
    James I, 4 Apr 1406 - 21 Feb 1437 (murdered)
    James II, 16 Oct 1430- 25 Mar 1437- 3 Aug 1460
    (killed by cannon explosion during battle)

    James III, 10 July 1451-10 Aug 1460-11 June 1488
    James IV, 10 Mar 1473-26 June 1488- 9 Sep 1513
    (married daughter of England's Henry VII)

    James V, 15 Apr 1512 - 21 Sep 1513 - 14 Dec 1542
    (died of sorrow after war defeat)

    Mary, Queen of Scots, 8 Dec 1542 -
    14 Dec 1542 - 24 July 1567 (deposed, jailed)
    - 8 Feb 1587 (beheaded in England by Elizabeth I)

    James VI, 19 June 1566 - 24 July 1567-1625
    (Great-great-grandson of England's Henry VII)

    From 1603, same Kings as England,
    when Scottish King James VI, succeeded
    Queen Elizabeth I, became King of England,
    as James I by English counting (the merger
    named "Great Britain")

    Hungary
    Stephen I, 997-1038
    Andrew I, 1046-1066
    Ladislas I, 1077-1095
    Koloman, 1095-1116
    Bela III, 1173-1196
    Andrew II, 1205-1235
    Bela IV, 1235-1270
    Ladislas IV, 1272-1290
    Andrew III, 1290-1301
    Charles I, 1308-1342
    Louis I, 1342-1382
    Sigismund, 1387-1437
    John Hunyadi, 1446-1456
    Matthias I, 1458-1490
    Vladislav of Bohemia,
    1490-1516

    Louis of Bohemia,
    1516-1526

    Ferdinand of Austria,
    1527-1564

    (Same Rulers as Austria,
    1527-1918)

    Ireland
    In Process

    Italy (Savoy)
    Victor Amadeus II, 1675-1730
    Charles Emmanuel III, 1730-1773
    Victor Amadeus III, 1773-1796
    Charles Emmanuel IV, 1796-1802
    Victor Emmanuel I, 1802-1821
    Charles Felix, 1821-1831
    Charles Albert, 1831-1849
    Victor Emmanuel II, 1849-1878
    Humbert I, 1878-1900
    Victor Emmanuel III, 1900-1945
    Humbert II, 1945-1946 (last king,
    monarchy abolished)

    Scandinavia
    Denmark
    Norway
    Sweden
    Harold, 935-985
    Svend, 985-1014Olaf I, Tryggvason, 996-1000Olaf, 993-1024
    Canute, 1014-1035Olaf II, 1016-1039
    Hardiknut, 1035-1042Magnus, 1035-1047
    Svend II, 1047-1076Harold III, Hardradi, 1046-1066
    Magnus III, 1095-1103
    Waldemar I, 1157-1182Magnus V, 1161-1184Eric IX, 1150-1162
    Knut VI, 1182-1202
    Waldemar II, 1202-1241Haakon IV, 1217-1262Earl Birger, 1248-1266
    Haakon V, 1299-1319Magnus, 1279-1290
    Waldemar IV, 1340-1375Haakon VI, 1350-1380
    Olaf III, 1380-1387Albert, 1365-1388
    Margaret, 1387-1412Margaret, 1387-1412
    Christian I, 1448-1483Christian I, 1448-1483
    Hans, 1483-1513Hans, 1483-1513
    Christian II, 1513-1523Christian II, 1513-1523
    Frederick I, 1523-1559Frederick I, 1523-1559Gustavus I, Vasa, 1523-1560
    Christian III, 1533-1559Christian III, 1533-1559
    Frederick II, 1559-1588Frederick II, 1559-1588Eric XIV, 1560-1568
    John III, 1568-1592
    Christian IV, 1588-1648Christian IV, 1588-1648Gustavus II, Adolphus, 1611-1632
    Frederick III, 1648-1670Frederick III, 1648-1670Christina, 1632-1654
    Charles X, 1654-1660
    Christian V, 1670-1699Christian V, 1670-1699Charles XI, 1660-1697
    Frederick IV, 1699-1730Frederick IV, 1699-1730Charles XII, 1697-1718
    Christian VI, 1730-1746Christian VI, 1730-1746Frederick I, 1720-1751
    Frederick V, 1746-1766Frederick V, 1746-1766Adolphus, 1751-1771
    Christian VII, 1766-1808Christian VII, 1766-1808Gustavus III, 1771-1792 (assassinated)
    Gustavus IV, 1792-1809
    Frederick VI, 1808-1839Frederick VI, 1808-1839Charles XIII, 1809-1818
    Christian VIII, 1839-1848Christian VIII, 1839-1848Charles XIV, 1818-1844
    Frederick VII, 1848-1863Frederick VII, 1848-1863Oscar I, 1844-1859
    Christian IX, 1863-1906Christian IX, 1863-1906Charles XV, 1859-1872
    Oscar II, 1872-1907
    Frederick VIII, 1906-1912
    Christian X, 1912-1947Haakon VII, 1905-1957Gustavus V, 1907-1950
    Frederick IX, 1947-Olaf V, 1957-Gustavus VI, 1950-

    Serbia (Yugoslavia)
    Karageorge, Prince, 1812-1813
    Miloš Obrenovic, 1817-1839
    Milan, 1839
    Michael, 1839-1842
    Alexander Karageorgevic, 1842-1859
    Michael Obrenovic, 1860-1868
    Milan I, 1869-1889,
    King,1882-1889
    Alexander, 1889-1903
    Peter Karageorgevic, 1903-1921
    Alexander I, 1921-1934
    Peter II, 1934-1945

    Spain
    Aragon - Castile

    Ferdinand V, 1506-1516
    Charles I, 1516-1556 (aka
    Emperor Charles V)
    (sponsored Magellan)
    (Spain's Bankruptcy I, 1547)

    HABSBURG:
    Philip II, 1556-1598
    (Spain's Bankruptcy II, 1597)

    Philip III, 1598-1621
    Philip IV, 1621-1665
    Charles II, 1665-1700
    BOURBON:
    Philip V, 1700-1746
    (See War of Spanish Succession)

    Ferdinand VI, 1746-1759
    Charles III, 1759-1788
    Charles IV, 1788-1808
    BONAPARTE:
    Joseph, 1808-1813
    BOURBON:
    Ferdinand VII, 1813-1833
    Isabella II, 1833-1868
    (Overthrown; then Interregnum)
    SAVOY:
    Amadeo, 1870-1873
    Republic, 1873-1874
    BOURBON:
    Alphonso XII, 1875-1885
    Alphonso XIII, 1886-1931
    Republic, Civil War and Francisco Franco,
    1931-1979 (background and history)

    BOURBON:
    Juan Carlos, 1979-
    (Grandson of Alphonso XIII)

    Sweden
    Olaf, 993-1024
    __________
    Eric IX, 1150-1162
    __________
    Earl Birger, 1248-1266
    __________
    Magnus, 1279-1290
    __________
    Albert, 1365-1388
    __________
    Gustavus I, Vasa, 1523-1560
    Eric XIV, 1560-1568
    John III, 1568-1592
    Gustavus II, Adolphus, 1611-1632
    Christina, 1632-1654
    Charles X, 1654-1660
    Charles XI, 1660-1697
    Charles XII, 1697-1718
    __________
    Frederick I, 1720-1751
    Adolphus, 1751-1771
    Gustavus III, 1771-1792
    Gustavus IV, 1792-1809
    Charles XIII, 1809-1818
    Charles XIV, 1818-1844
    Oscar I, 1844-1859
    Charles XV, 1859-1872
    Oscar II, 1872-1907
    Gustavus V, 1907-1950
    Gustavus VI, 1950-
    For more information, click here,
    http://www.historiesajten.se/

    Venezuela Presidents
    See Wikipedia list
    Current November 2007 News: "Coup D'Etat Rumblings In Venezuela," by Stephen Lendman (19 November 2007)

    United States Presidents

    During the "Continental Congress" / Revolution Era
    1. Peyton Randolph, 5 Sep 1774 - 21 Oct 1774
    2. Henry Middleton, 22 Oct 1774 - 10 May 1775
    3. Peyton Randolph, 10 May 1775 - 23 May 1775
    (same as #1)

    4. John Hancock, 24 May 1775 - 30 Oct 1777
    5. Henry Laurens, 1 Nov 1777 - 9 Dec 1778
    6. John Jay, 10 Dec 1778 - 27 Sep 1779
    (later first U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice)

    7. Samuel Huntington, 28 Sep 1779 - 28 Feb 1781

    Under the Articles of Confederation
    1. Samuel Huntington, 1 March - 6 July 1781
    (same as #7 above)

    2. Thomas McKea, 10 July 1781 - 4 Nov 1781
    3. John Hanson, 5 Nov 1781 - 4 Nov 1782
    4. Elias Boudinot, 4 Nov 1782 - 3 Nov 1783
    5. Thomas Mifflin, 3 Nov 1783 - 3 June 1784
    (interregnum)

    6. Richard Henry Lee, 30 Nov 1784 - 23 Nov 1785
    7. John Hancock, 23 Nov 1785 - 6 June 1786
    (same as #4 in prior era above)

    8. Nathan Gorman, 6 June 1786 - 13 Nov 1786
    (interregnum)

    9. Arthur St. Clair, 2 Feb 1787 - 29 Oct 1787
    (interregnum)

    10. Cyrus Griffin, 22 Jan 1788 - 4 March 1789

    Under the Constitution

    1. George Washington, April 1789 - 4 March 1797
    2. John Adams, 4 March 1797 - 4 March 1801
    3. Thomas Jefferson, 4 March 1801 - 4 March 1809
    4. James Madison, 4 March 1809 - 4 March 1817 (Lecture,
    cites his per-slave profit from slavery)

    5. James Monroe, 4 March 1817 - 4 March 1825
    6. John Quincy Adams, 4 March 1825 - 4 March 1829
    (he had come in second in the Electoral College; the
    House of Representatives then chose Adams,
    who had come in second)

    7. Andrew Jackson, 4 March 1829 - 4 March 1837
    (Had come in first in 1824 in the Electoral College,
    but was not chosen by the House; did War of
    Aggression, against Seminole Indians; resisted 1830's
    secession)

    8. Martin Van Buren, 4 March 1837 - 4 March 1841
    9. William H. Harrison, 4 March 1841 - April 1841
    10. John Tyler, April 1841 - 4 March 1845
    11. James K. Polk, 4 March 1845 - 4 March 1849
    (Did War of Aggression against Mexico)

    12. Zachary Taylor, 4 March 1849 - 9 July 1850 (supported, later
    opposed, extending slavery, so was evidently murdered by the
    Slave Power. For background, see Michael Parenti, Ph.D., History as Mystery (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1999), Chapter 6, pp 209-239, "The Strange Death of President Zachary Taylor, A Study in the Manufacture of Mainstream History" [cites poisons found in the body, e.g., arsenic and antimony, from the second poisoning effort, the one that succeeded, after the first poisoning was only partially effective]).

    13. Millard Fillmore, 9 July 1850 - 4 March 1853 (signed Fugitive
    Slave Law, helping trigger the Civil War)

    14. Franklin Pierce, 4 March 1853 - 4 March 1857 (alcoholic,
    slavery expansionist; obituary. His Commodore Parry Expedition threatened Japan with naval guns shelling Japan's capital city, threats leading to the counter-attack at Pearl Harbor, see, e.g., David Bergamini (1928-1983), Japan's Imperial Conspiracy (New York: Morrow, 1971).)

    15. James Buchanan, 4 March 1857 - 4 March 1861
    Abraham Lincoln 16. Abraham Lincoln, 4 March 1861 - 12 April 1865
    (had opposed aggression against Mexico (1846); made Peoria Anti-Slavery Speech (1854); won First Civil War; was murdered by the Slave Power)




    17. Andrew Johnson, 12 April 1865 - 4 March 1869 (Enabled the
    "Second Civil War" which the South would win, see, e.g., Profs. James M. Smallwood, Barry A. Crouch, and Larry Peacock, Murder and Mayhem: The War of Reconstruction in Texas (College Station: Texas A & M Univ Press, 2003) (Review 1,   2,   3).

    18. Ulysses Grant, 4 March 1869 - 4 March 1877
    (opposed U.S. aggression against Mexico; was killed
    by slaver tobacco)

    19. Rutherford B. Hayes, 4 March 1877 - 4 March 1881
    (Quoted; Election Background)

    20. James Garfield, 4 March 1881 - 19 September 1881
    (said, "The people are responsible for the character of
    their Congress. If that body be ignorant, reckless, and
    corrupt, it is because the people tolerate ignorance,
    recklessness, and corruption. If it be intelligent,
    brave, and pure, it is because the people demand
    these high qualities to represent them in the national
    legislature [Congress].")

    21. Chester A. Arthur, 19 September 1881 - 4 March 1885
    (had been anti-slavery lawyer in the Lemmon case)

    22. Grover Cleveland, 4 March 1885 - 4 March 1889
    23. Benjamin Harrison, 4 March 1889 - 4 March 1893
    (conquest of Hawaii; Pledge of Allegiance composed)

    24. Grover Cleveland, 4 March 1893 - 4 March 1897
    25. William McKinley, 4 March 1897 - 1901
    (Began war vs Philippines, killing 600,000; pretended
    God told him to do it!)

    26. Theodore Roosevelt, 1901 - 4 March 1909
    (Continued war vs Philippines, to force them into the
    U.S. Empire; supported use of atrocities to demoralize
    civilians; was anti-union, predicted death penalty for
    union leaders; for background on the U.S. war of
    aggression vs. the Phillippines, and atrocities authorized
    by Roosevelt, see e.g., Profs. Fred Anderson and
    Andrew Cayton, The Dominion of War: Empire and
    Liberty in North America, 1500-2000 (New York:
    Viking, 2005), Chapter 8, pp 332-339 [HNN Review;
    PMHB Review; AHR Review.])

    27. William H. Taft, 4 March 1909 - 4 March 1913
    28. T. Woodrow Wilson, 4 March 1913 - 4 March 1921 (Video; Fourteen Points)
    29. Warren Harding, 4 March 1921 - 4 March 1923
    30. Calvin Coolidge, 4 March 1923 - 4 March 1929
    31. Herbert Hoover, 4 March 1929 - 4 March 1933
    32. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 4 March 1933 - April 1945
    (See Anti-FDR Coup Plot against America; for pre-War background, see, e.g., Lynne Olson, Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America's Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941 [Random House, 2013])

    33. Harry S. Truman, April 1945 - 1953 (he defeated the anti-tobacco Thomas Dewey, 1948, by using large sums of tobacco lobby money; other of his bad decisions got the U.S. entangled in Vietnam, the Mideast, and other ill effects from which the U.S. still has not recovered)
    34. Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953 - 20 January 1961
    (anti industrial-military complex; quoted in 1945 (in "Trouble in Germany," Time Magazine Monday, 22 Oct 1945) as saying, "let Germany find out what it means to start a war." Background.)

    35. John F. Kennedy, 20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963 (Vietnam War;
    Executive Order 11110; Speech April 1961)

    36. Lyndon Johnson, 22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969 (Senate Background)
    37. Richard Nixon, 20 Jan 1969 - Aug 1974 ("The only place you and
    I disagree . . . is with regard to the bombing. You're so goddamned concerned about the civilians, and I (in contrast) don't give a damn. I don't care . . . I'd rather use the nuclear bomb. . . Does that bother you? I just want you to think big" -- speaking to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on the Watergate tapes. And see
  • David Cortwright, Ph.D., Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today (Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday, 1975)
  • Anthony Summers with Robbyn Swan, The Arrogance of Power: The Secret World of Richard Nixon (New York: Viking, 2000)
  • David Zeiger, "Sir! No Sir!" (April 2006) [on GI's vs the
    Vietnam War. GI opposition to the war brought it to an end as they came to refuse en masse to fight it any longer]
  • Ana Radelat, "Thousands of Troops Say They Won't Fight"
    (Gannett News Service, 5 August 2006) (a modern parallel to the troops being the ones to end the Vietnam War, this time to end the US aggression against Iraq).)

    38. Gerald R. Ford, Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977
    (pro-genocide; Obituary)

    39. James R. Carter, 20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981
    40. Ronald Reagan, 20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989
    (Symptoms; Cigarette Advertiser with
    Rock Hudson; Behavior)

    41. George Bush, 20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993
    42. William J. Clinton, 20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001
    43. George W. Bush, 20 Jan 2001-20 Jan 2009
    (Election Background; Bush's Mental Disorder Background;
    Wife's Background; Details; Vincent Bugliosi, "The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder" (10 May 2008) (Review 1, and 2, due to the illegality of the Bush War of Aggression Against Iraq) (context))

    See also Prof. Elvin T. Lim, The Anti-Intellectual Presidency: The Decline of Presidential Rhetoric from George Washington to George W. Bush (Oxford Univ. Press, 2012) (it's "been so long since an American xpresident has effectively and consistently presented well-crafted, intellectually substantive arguments to the American public")
    And see data by Jonathan R. T. Davidson, MD; Kathryn M. Connor, MD; and Marvin Swartz, MD, "Mental Illness In U.S. Presidents Between 1776 and 1974: A Review of Biographical Sources," Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 194 (#1): 47-51, January 2006. They reviewed the "37 US Presidents from 1776 to 1974. . . . Eighteen (49%) Presidents met criteria suggesting psychiatric disorder: depression (24%), anxiety (8%), bipolar disorder (8%), and alcohol abuse/dependence (8%) were the most common. In 10 instances (27%), a disorder was evident during presidential office, which in most cases probably impaired job performance." Note also Brooklyn College English Prof. Eric Alterman, When Presidents Lie: A History of Deception and Its Consequences (Viking, September 2004).
    44. Barack Obama, 20 Jan 2009- (IRS analysis of alleged 501(c)4 "Teap Parties" doing no "social welfare" but instead were tobacco lobby fronts and paid for as widely publicized)
    And see data by Prof. Clarence Lusane, Ph.D., Black History in the White House (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2011).
    Re default on national debt contemplated in October 2013, see
  • US May Join 1933 Germany in Pantheon of Deadbeat Defaults”   (MoneyNews, 14 October 2013). See also Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton University Press, 11 September 2009) (book analyzing sovereign bankruptcies by "sixty-six countries across five continents" and show that "financial fallouts occur in clusters and strike with surprisingly consistent frequency, duration, and ferocity. They examine the patterns of currency crashes, high and hyperinflation, and government defaults on international and domestic debts--as well as the cycles in housing and equity prices, capital flows, unemployment, and government revenues around these crises.")

  • "The U.S. Has Repeatedly Defaulted" (14 October 2013) ("It’s a Myth that the U.S. Has Never Defaulted On Its Debt . . . The first time was in 1790 . . . in which the United States defaulted on its external debt obligations. It also defaulted on its domestic debt obligations then, too. . . . in 1933, in the midst of the Great Depression, the United States had another domestic debt default related to the repayment of gold-based obligations. . . . on August 15, 1971, President Nixon “closed the gold window”, refusing to let foreign central banks redeem their dollars for gold, facilitating the devaluation of the U.S dollar which had been fixed relative to gold for almost thirty years." Note also: "The United States defaulted on some Treasury bills in 1979.")

  • Michael Kling, "Millstein: Devastation From Default Could Last Generations" (MoneyNews, 14 October 2013) ("The ability of financial institutions to return the money deposited with them depends on the government's ability and willingness to pay principal and interest on Treasurys they're holding. If financial institutions are not paid, they'll be in 'a big pinch,' [James] Millstein [chairman of Millstein & Co. and former chief restructuring officer at the Treasury Department.] predicts. 'And when big financial institutions feel a pinch, the rest of us get squeezed, just like we did in 2008. Lending will come to a halt, spending will freeze up, businesses will stop hiring.'")

  • "Red States Discover The Pain of Paying Their Own Way (14 October 2013) ("Everyone knows that national monuments are just there - right? The Federal government doesn't actually 'do' anything to operate them, right? Well many of these states that depend on tourism dollars from national monuments discovered in no time flat how much they count on the Federal government to subsidize them. And were forced to admit it. . . . Well isn't that exactly what conservatives want - private donations to keep unessential things like 'monuments' functioning? Just like we're supposed to rely on charity for our healthcare? . . . While blue states are also ponying up to keep their monuments and attractions open, it is well known that red states take more money from the federal government than they put in while the reverse is true of blue states. So it's a bit of an irony that they scream the loudest about intrusion from the nanny state and another bit of schadenfreude when they learn just how much they count on it.")

  • Joan McCarter, "How House Republicans guaranteed a shutdown: by changing the rules" (14 October 2013) ("under normal procedure, any member would have been able to make a motion to bring the Senate bill to the floor. . . . Republicans changed the rule. They did it on the night of September 30, the eve of the shutdown, in a Rules Committee meeting. The rule change said that any motion to take up the Senate bill 'may be offered only by the majority Leader or his designee.'")