The Case Against the Little White Slaver|
by Henry Ford
(Detroit: Henry Ford, 1914, revised 1916)
Table of Contents
|Mr. Edison's Letter|| 2|
|To My Friend, The American Boy|| 5|
|Mr. Hill's Defense|| 7|
|Reply to Mr. Hill by Mr. Ford's Secretary||10|
|Some Scientific Facts||11|
|Non-Smokers More Efficient||11|
|The Brain Acts More Slowly||11|
|Mind Wrecked by Cigarettes||12|
|Cigarette Evil is Most Serious||12|
|Makes Slaves of Boys||12|
|Smokers in Football Tryout||13|
|Smoking Causes Lower Efficiency||13|
|What Dr. Wiley Has to Say||14|
|Cigarette Injures Morally||15|
|The Cigarette as Related to Disease and Mortality||15|
|What Mike Donovan Says||17|
|Worst of Tobaco is in Cigarettes||18|
|How about This Experiment||18|
|What A Noted Sport Writer Thinks||19|
|Tobacco Killed A Cat||19|
|And This is From the London Lancet||20|
|Connie Mack Speaks||21|
|Cigarette is One of Worst Habits||21|
|Hudson Maxim on the Cigarette||21|
|Makes Boys Soulless||22|
|Want Cigarettes More Than Liquor||22|
|To the Man of Tomorrow--The American Boy of Today||25|
|How Employers Feel Toward Cigarette Smokers||29|
|Here is an Automobile Company's Attitude||29|
|Where the Employee Shares the Benefits||30|
|Cigarettes Spoil Boys for His Business||31|
|Nonsmokers Given Preference||31|
|Puts the Ban on Cigarette Smokers||32|
|Cigarette "Fiends" Not Employed||33|
|Cigarettes Detrimental to Development||33|
|What A Merchant Prince Says||34|
|No Cigarette Smokers Employed||34|
|No Smoking Is Better All Around||34|
|Why Cigarette Smoking Boys Are Not Wanted||35|
|The Way of the Transgressor||37|
|A New Arithmetic||42|
|To the Boy Who Wants to Play Fair With Himself||43|
|One of the Most Baneful Influences to Combat||45|
|The Boy and the Cigarette||47|
|Physically, Mentally, Morally Deficient||49|
|Will Power Broken, Moral Sense Blunted||49|
|Cigarettes Make Wrecks of Men||50|
|Should Prohibit Smoking By Boys||50|
|Moral as Well As Financial Gain||51|
|Once Defended Tobacco--Now He Feels Differently||52|
|Cigarettes Caused Insanity||53|
|Precept Safer Guide Than is Example||53|
|English Investigators Are Alarmed||54|
|Our Tobacco Bill||55|
|Is the Cigarette A Slaver?||57|
|To the Boy Who Expects to Make Good||61|
|Again We Quote Connie Mack||64|
|Clarke Griffith's Ultimatum||64|
|What Ty Cobb Thinks of Cigarettes||65|
|Seventy-Five Per Cent of Drink Due to Tobacco||65|
|No Slavers for These Fighting Men||67|
|Practice As Well As Preachment||67|
|Smoking By The Young Is Deadly||68|
|Catches the Little Fellow||69|
|Half the Liquor Patients Smoke Cigarettes||69|
|The Tobacco Habit: by Dr. Robert Abbe||70|
|How Cigarettes Affect Boys' School Activites||71|
|Group A (Promoted Pupils)||71|
|Group B (Conditional Pupils)||72|
|Twenty-Three Years Watching Failures||73|
|Kill the Habit or It Will Kill You||73|
|The Remaking of Casimir||74|
Mr. Edison's Letter
Cable Address, "Edison, New York"
From the Laboratory
Thomas A. Edison
April 26, 1914
The injurious agent in cigarettes comes principally from the burning paper wrapper. The substance thereby formed, is called "Acrolein."
It has a violent action on the nerve centers, producing degeneration of the cells of the brain, which is quite rapid among boys.
Unlike most narcotics this degeneration is permanent and uncontrollable.
I employ no person who smokes cigarettes.
Thos A Edison
Thos A. Edison
TO MY FRIEND, THE AMERICAN BOY
While spending some time in Florida with Mr. Thomas A. Edison [1847-1931], the noted electrical genius, and Mr. John Burroughs, the eminent naturalist, the question of cigarette smoking and its evil effects, particularly upon boys and young men, came up for discussion.
Mr. Edison advanced some pronounced views in condemnation of the cigarette. For several years he had been experimenting with combustion of various substances for the purpose of discovering a suitable filament for use in incandescent lamps, and it was during this research that the harmful effects of acrolein were observed. I asked Mr. Edison to put his conclusions in writing. He did so, and the letter is herewith reproduced in facsimile.
Following receipt of this letter, I authorized an interview in which I went squarely on record as opposed to cigarettes, making it plain that
|"I do not feel called upon to try to reform any person over 25 years of age because by that time the habit has been formed. Then it is only a question of the strength of will or mind of the smoker which will enable him to stop. He knows the injurious effects and controls his own destiny.
| [Ed. Note: But for medical analysis on-point, see abulia data].|
"With the boys it is a different matter. Most boys are told to refrain from many things. Seldom are they given a reason. Boys must be educated so they will know why cigarettes are bad for them.
"If you will study the history of almost any criminal you will find that he is an inveterate cigarette smoker. Boys, through cigarettes, train with bad company. They go with other smokers to the pool rooms and saloons. The cigarette drags them down. Hence if we can educate them to the dangers of smoking we will perform a service."
Mr. Percival I. Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, in a letter sent broadcast, challenged me to produce proof of assertions he charged me with making, he declaring among other things that
|"the scientific facts are all in favor of the cigarette;" "that it contains less nicotine than any other form of tobacco products; that it is absolutely pure; that the combustion of the paper is harmless in its effects on human physiology."|
I was challenged to either prove my contention or enable the manufacturers to disprove it; to give as much publicity to the retraction Mr. Hill felt certain would be forthcoming as was given to my "original unwarranted attacks."
I do not ask you to accept my word alone in this matter. I want you to read carefully Mr. Edison's letter, Mr. Hill's defense, and the opinions of doctors, judges, university instructors, athletes, etc.—a few selected at random from hundreds who have testified. Then you will be in a position to judge for yourself whether "the scientific facts are all in favor of the cigarette;" whether you can afford to become a slave to a habit that a no less noted person than Hudson Maxim [1853-1927] declares [p 21] is "a maker of invalids, criminals and fools."
MR. HILL'S DEFENSE
|New York, May 16, 1914.
Mr. Henry Ford,
Statements relative to cigarettes, credited to yourself and Mr. Thomas A. Edison, have appeared in the newspapers recently.
The statements are so erroneous and so misleading that in justice to the millions of intelligent men who use cigarettes we are compelled to resent your unjustified attack. Slander of the cigarette by parties of less prominence than yourself attracts no attention, certainly from us. Since your prominence and fame give your words greater weight than the words of men of no importance, there is imposed upon you a corresponding responsibility to make no statement reflecting on a product—and one million of users of such product—without investigation and the certainty that comes from investigation
The form of your statement is of a character that denies us an opportunity to demonstrate its falsity and to prove the harmlessness of our product in a court proceeding. If you see fit to make a statement of the harmful effect of any of our brands, in such form that being false it is libelous, we will be delighted to institute suit for damages, and will devote the proceeds to some designated charity.
The scientific facts are all in favor of the cigarette, and no man can change these facts because he personally prefers a pipe to a cigar or a stogie, or a chew of plug to a cigarette.
Several years ago it was quite the fashion to attack cigarettes. Lurid statements of the evils of cigarette smoking were circulated extensively by well-intentioned, ignorant people, by notoriety seekers and thrifty legislators. Anti-cigarette bills swept through the assemblies of several states. [Ed. Note: Iowa, Tennessee, Michigan, etc.]
The agitation was such that medical men and other scientists undertook thorough examination of the cigarette. Everything in connection with cigarettes—the tobacco, the ingredients with which it is treated, the paper, even the printing on the paper—was analyzed by the ablest chemists in America and Europe. Packages of all the leading cigarettes were purchased in the open market by representatives of state and municipal health boards, medical journals and other investigators, and analyzed thoroughly by public and private chemists. Scores of such tests were made in practically every state in the union, in London, and, I believe, in various other European cities.
|Every one of these investigations resulted in exactly the same act of finding, viz.: that the cigarette is absolutely pure; that it contains less nicotine than any other form of tobacco products; that the combination of the paper is harmless in its effect on the human physiology; that its temperate use is in no way injurious to normal users.
I am enclosing herewith extracts from the London Lancet a famous British medical journal, which has been making examinations of tobacco since 1853. Also an extract from the Medical Journal of New York; also an extract written by Leonard K. Hirshberg, M. D., M. A., A. B., Johns Hopkins University, taken from an article in Harper's Weekly entitled "The Truth About Tobacco," in which he quotes Dr. Osler and other prominent authorities.
Pages of extracts from medical journals could be published and more pages could be filled with the statements of famous physicians and chemists, all of whom testify to the same general effect.
As a rule, attacks on cigarettes are so vague and indefinite that it is impossible for manufacturers to bring the slanderers to account. However, some years ago a prominent Chicago newspaper gave a manufacturer an opportunity for action, which he promptly embraced by suing the newspaper for libel. Scientific examinations were then made by the newspaper—which might have made them before publishing its falsehoods—and the cigarettes were found to be absolutely pure. The newspaper settled the libel suit out of court and published a retraction and apology in its own columns and in various other newspapers at its own expense.
Certain customs officials of Great Britain made a similar attack, and the manufacturers immediately called the matter to the attention of the government. The government, in its desire to be fair and unbiased, caused a complete scientific examination to be made by experts, with the result that a public retraction was authorized and made by the officials.
As the results of these various scientific investigations and court actions became known, and as doctors and thinking men generally came to study the cigarette carefully, the prejudice against it died out even more quickly than it had arisen.
Aside from the overwhelming weight of scientific testimony, common sense will convince any reasonable man that the cigarette is not injurious. That this must be true is proven by the number and types of men who use cigarettes. Unquestionably the cigarette is the favorite smoke of doctors in every city and large town throughout the country. Preachers, lawyers, bankers, business men, laboring men and men|
|of all classes have deliberately turned from cigar and pipe to the cigarette. Inasmuch as ten or twelve million American men use cigarettes, and perhaps even a larger percentage of Europeans, your charge of feeble-mindedness lies against an overwhelming proportion of the commercial, professional, artistic, musical and industrial world.
The increase of cigarette smoking in the United States in recent years is significant. In 1900 two billion six hundred thousand cigarettes were made in this country. In 1913, fifteen billion eight hundred million cigarettes were made here, an increase of 700 per cent.
This tremendous popularity, which is growing all the time, is possible only because millions of American men have convinced themselves that cigarettes are good for them.
If cigarette smoking is to be treated fairly, you must admit that the subject is one that can be discussed only as a matter of personal taste. You may or may not like cigarettes. That is, of course, the right of any man. But it is hardly wise to use one's personal likes and dislikes as a basis for declaring that several million men are feeble-minded—especially when that sweeping indictment is directed against thousands of doctors, lawyers, college professors, ministers, business men and other leaders in every department of thought and activity Also, when one confuses his dislikes or likes with scientific facts he certainly can hardly be expected to be taken seriously.
You may exercise your personal privileges in liking or disliking anything, but you place yourself in an unfortunate light when you attempt to use your position as an employer of labor to coerce your employees into an agreement with your personal point of view. Americans cling tenaciously to the belief that they have the right to entire freedom of opinion and freedom of action so long as they do the work for which they are employed. The man who happens to be working in a factory has just as much right to his personal likes and dislikes as his employer; and the employee might as well resent any effort on the part of the man who happens to be at the time his superior in authority to tell him how he must regulate his personal private affairs.
In fairness to our industry, and in fairness to the millions of intelligent men who smoke cigarettes, you should either prove your contention or enable us as manufacturers to disprove it. We believe that upon investigation and reconsideration you will admit your error and give as much publicity to your retraction as you gave to your original unwarranted attacks.
PERCIVAL I. HILL,
President, The American Tobacco Company
REPLY TO MR. HILL
MR. FORD'S SECRETARY
|May 19th, 1914.
Mr. Percival I. Hill, President,
The American Tobacco Company,
New York, N.Y.
Your latter of May l6th addressed to Mr. Ford received during his absence from the city, and, inasmuch as the matter mentioned therein has had the attention of the writer, I take the liberty of replying thereto.
Not being entirely familiar with the extent to which the newspapers have referred to our attitude on the cigarette, I am not in a position to qualify their statements, except to say that the interview referred to in the clipping enclosed was given out by the writer and will be defended.
Our efforts have not been directed against any manufacturer, nor against the tobacco industry; but primarily to prevent our youths from acquiring and continuing the cigarette habit.
That this practice is injurious, even to adults, is evident from your letter, which defends the cigarette if used only to a temperate extent by normal users.
That the smoking of cigarettes is injurious is further evidenced by the fact that reports from colleges and other educational institutione show that young men addicted to the cigarette habit seldom if ever lead in their studies.
I also call your attention to the statement of one of the magistrates in your city, who states that 99% of the boys between the ages of 10 and 17, who come before him charged with crime have their fingers disfigured by cigarette stains.
If, as your letter indicates, scientists and others have thus far failed to find any injurious element in the cigarette, then we must laud Mr. Edison for being the first man to find the reason for the degenerative effect of cigarette smoking.
I doubt very much the statement you make in your letter that the popularity of the cigarette is possible only because millions of American men have convinced themselves that cigarettes are good for them, and would therefore ask you to point out what beneficial result has ever been experienced by anyone thru indulgence in this habit.
It would appear that the statements contained in your letter are not of such a nature as to be for the benefit and uplift of our wayward lads, and in justice to the American youth who knows not what permanent injury accompanies this habit, this growing evil should be combated.
|Ed. Note: Before education's decline, the tobacco taboo, and murderous media disinformation, tobacco use had been dropping in America.
See J. B. Neil, 1 The Lancet (#1740) 23 (3 Jan 1857).
Prior to mass advertising, non-smoking was "common" in the U.S., said Prof. John Hinds, The Use of Tobacco (Nashville, Tenn: Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, 1882), p. 10.|
Very truly yours,
E. G. Liebold
Secretary to HENRY FORD.
SOME SCIENTIFIC FACTS
Non-Smokers More Efficient
Dr. A. D. Bush, who enjoys a world-wide reputation as a physiologist, recently decided to conduct an investigation along the lines of tobacco smoking in its relation to mental efficiency. In its issue of May, 1914, Efficiency Magazine had this to say in regard to the results:
"As a result of a series of experiments by Dr. A. D. Bush, it has been ascertained that tobacco smoking causes a decrease of 10.5 per cent in mental efficiency. There was a series of 120 tests on each of fifteen men in several different psychic fields. The men who volunteered for the tests were all medical students ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, of varying previous experience, from the farm laborer to the life-long student. The mental capacity of the students varied from the failure to the honor student. The subjects were attendants at the University of Vermont, where Dr. Bush is an instructor in physiology."
Even "second-hand smoke hurts children's grades. See "Can secondhand smoke hurt kids' grades?" (Reuters, 29 July 2010). This article cites the study by Dr. Sai-Yin Ho, et al., in Journal of Pediatrics, online July 20, 2010. "Ho's team notes, it is biologically plausible that the many toxic compounds in tobacco smoke -- including lead, arsenic, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide -- could affect children's cognitive abilities."
Tobacco's toxic chemicals include both the ingredients and the emissions.
The Brain Acts More Slowly
As superintendent of Walnut Lodge Hospital, Inc., in Hartford, Conn., Dr. T. D. Crothers had exceptional opportunities for observing the effects of cigarette smoking. Here are some of his conclusions:
In young persons who begin on cigarettes there are always pronounced symptoms of poisoning, such as pallor and dullness of activity. The brain seems to act more slowly to outside impressions, and the reasoning is always more or less inaccurate; minute statements of events and capacity to carry out work that requires steadiness, accuracy and persistency is lacking.
Later there are distinct marks of palsy, twitching of the nerves of the face, absence of expression from loss of nerve force. In older persons these symptoms are not so prominent, but are all present in greater or less degree. I consider cigarette smoking the most dangerous because the products of combustion are drawn into the mouth directly and absorbed
Loss of power, loss of control, diminished vitality and general inefficiency and profound weakness are almost certain to follow. Other diseases are invited, and show greater persistency and fatality. The one conclusion, to which there are no exceptions so far as we are able to determine, is that tobacco
is a more or less dangerous narcotic to the senses and the higher brain activities, and no person can be in complete possession of his faculties and power of control and exercise the highest efficiency possible who uses tobacco.
Mind Wrecked by Cigarettes
The following item which appeared in the Detroit Times on March 20, 1916, is significant testimony in the indictment of cigarettes and their use, even by men of mature age and development. The clipping tells the whole story, and so we reproduce it without further comment:
"One hundred cigarettes a day were too much for Frank Winters aged 46 years, of this city. He was declared to have been mentally affected by excessive cigarette smoking in a certificate filed in the Probate Court, Saturday morning, by Dr. M. A. Layton.
A petition asking for the commitment of Winters to an insane asylum was filed with the probate court by Joseph Perman, No. 542 Lawndale Ave., with whom Winters lives.
"His strange actions had made his associates think him insane. Dr. Layton declared in his report that he was unable to find well defined symptoms of insanity, but that cigarettes had made him simple minded."
Cigarette Evil is Most Serious
As a principal of Eastern High School, Detroit, Mr. J. Remsen Bishop has each year had under him hundreds of youths who were at the formative stage. Here is how he regards cigarette smoking:
"Experience of many years, chiefly with boys between the ages of thirteen and nineteen, has persuaded me that of all the agencies which make for non-success in high-school work the cigarette evil is the most serious with which we have to deal."
Makes Slaves of Boys
Writing in the Scientific Temperance Journal, Rev. Ozora S. Davis, D. D., president of Chicago Theological Seminary, says:
"The power of the cigarette habit is greater than we would be inclined to think. Boys in school who are in the clutch
of it become its slaves. They cannot put their minds on their work. They are incapable of remaining long without the stimulant of another cigarette. Their whole physical and moral condition is involved. This is the universal testimony of teachers, and it is something that is known to the writer from experience as a high school principal. The fetter of the cigarette habit becomes welded at last with a grip that no act of the weakened will alone can break. This is the terrible and tragic end of the matter in case after case. Boys think that they can smoke a little now and then when they please and that they can stop when they are ready to do so. They do not know that the very continuing of the use of cigarettes involves their wills so seriously that when they want to stop they cannot. This can be proven from every school in the country."
Smokers in Football Tryout
To the athletically inclined boy who enters college the greatest honor attainable is that of "making the team." With a view to ascertaining what effect, if any, smoking had on athletic fitness. Dr. Frederick J. Pack, of the University of Utah, gathered statistics from a number of colleges, selected at random, the football tryout being chosen as affording the best comparable evidence.
Twelve colleges and universities in all parts of the country supplied the facts, according to the Scientific Temperance Journal. A total of 210 men contested for positions on the first teams. Of the non-smokers 65.8 per cent were successful; of the smokers only 33.3 per cent were successful. This was not only true in the six institutions which furnished data about the tryout when taken as a total, but in each of the six the non-smokers far outstripped the smokers. In one institution not a single smoker obtained a place on the team.
Smoking Causes Lower Efficiency
Dr. Charles B. Towns, of New York, is a recognized authority on neurotics. He has for many years specialized in the treatment of nervous diseases. Recently he has been assisting Mrs. William K. Yanderbilt, Sr., in her crusade against drug habits. Here is his estimate of the cigarette as expressed in an article in the Century Magazine:
"It is generally admitted that in the immature the moderate use of tobacco stunts the normal growth of the body and mind, and causes various nervous disturbances, especially of the heart—disturbances which it causes in later life only when smoking has become excessive. That is to say, though a boy's
stomach grows tolerant of nicotine to the extent of taking it without protest, the rest of the body keeps on protesting. Furthermore, all business men will tell you that tobacco damages a boy's usefulness in his work. This is necessarily so, since anything which lowers vitality creates some kind of incompetence. For the same reason, the boy who smokes excessively not only is unable to work vigorously, but he does not wish to work at all. If there were some instrument to determine it, in my opinion there would be seen a difference of fifteen per cent in the general efficiency of smokers and non-smokers. And despite the fact that cigarette smoking is the worst form of tobacco addiction, virtually all boys who smoke start with cigarettes."
What Dr. Wiley Has to Say
When Dr. Harvey W. Wiley was chief of the federal bureau of chemistry at Washington he had impure food and drug manufacturers on the run all the time. He is unquestionably the leading health and food authority in the United States today. Would you know his opinion of the cigarette?
"I commend Mr. Ford, Mr. Edison and all people who join them in efforts to curtail or restrict, obliterate or destroy the pernicious habit of cigarette smoking. The use of cigarettes is making inroads, on the strength of the nerves of all who smoke them, especially boys of tender years or women who smoke them because they think that the practice is smart. The effect may not be so bad on people of more mature years, but not in any case, no matter how old a man or woman, is smoking helpful. Besides constituting a nuisance, the financial strain connected with use of tobacco stands between millions of people and home comforts."
Dr. Winfield S. Hall, Ph. D., M. D., is professor of physiology in Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago; Fellow of the American Academy of Medicine, Member of the American Physiology Society. He looks at the use of tobacco from a scientific standpoint. His are the views of a man who knows by experience and observation, as he was for years a smoker before he came to realize that he was forming a "drug" habit, and quit:
"Tobacco does much to undermine the success of young men. Why? Because it is the entering wedge of two lines of dissipation. either of which may defeat success. The first line is the dissipation of money for things unnecessary. The second line of dissipation, is that of sense gratification. One uses
tobacco partly because of its flavor and partly for the sedative action which it exerts upon the nervous system. It is just this sedative effect which steals away a young man's vigilance and alertness and handicaps him in the struggle for success. The use of tobacco paves the way to other dissipation by requiring a compensating stimulant to overcome its sedative effect and by making the common wholesome food taste insipid and flat. A vast majority of drunkards were smokers before they were drinkers. The mental attitude and lack of resistance which permits a man to smoke is likely also to permit other forms of dissipation more destructive in their influence."
Cigarettes Injure Morally
Dr. D. H. Kress is the man who perhaps more than any other single individual has helped boys and men who desired to break away from cigarette smoking through the administration of treatments that effect a cure.
"The cigarette," says Dr. Kress, "strikes a direct blow at the most vital organ of the body. It weakens the heart action. For this reason it is difficult for the cigarette addict to engage in athletics. He finds he is easily winded and is lacking in endurance. He soon loses all ambition to engage in sports, or, in fact, in any useful occupation. Associating with others of his kind, he soon begins to visit the pool rooms. In time he may end up in the juvenile court, reform school or penitentiary. It is estimated that 96 per cent of our youthful criminals are cigarette addicts. The boy with a weakened heart is more apt to succumb to typhoid fever, tuberculosis or other acute diseases which especially tax the heart, should he be stricken down with them. The cigarette injures the boy morally. He is almost as difficult to impress as the cocaine fiend."
The Cigarette as Related to Disease and Mortality
In addition to the effect of cigarette smoking on the morals, Dr. Kress makes some statements concerning effects of the habit on the physical state of the nation itself. "The Medical Times" for April, 1916, contains the following paragraphs, which seem especially pertinent. Dr. Kress here says:
"In an ungraded room of a Detroit school, out of twenty-six boys, ranging from twelve to sixteen years, only two were found who did not habitually smoke cigarettes. These boys had never smoked and were, in all respects, the best developed boys in the room. The principal called my attention to two other boys, one of whom admitted using cigarettes since the age of five or six years, and the other confessed to having smoked them as long as he could remember."
"Physically, the latter two were the most defective of any in the department. The boy who had smoked as long as he could remember was unable to write his name, and a pulse tracing showed the heart in a most defective condition. Whether these two boys would have been as tall and well-developed as the other two, I cannot say. It seems more than a coincidence, however, that the only two boys who had never smoked should be the best developed in every way, while the inveterate smokers should be most defective. All four lads were of the same age, about fourteen, but in stature the smokers resembled boys of eight or nine."
It is not difficult to identify boys and young men who are habitual users of cigarettes. A small, delicate instrument known as the sphygmograph is employed, being placed on the wrist so that it covers the radial artery. As the artery pulsates against a sensitive spring, a tracing is made on smoked paper which moves through the apparatus. The diagrams below show
Pulse tracing of a non smoker.
Pulse tracing of habitual cigarette smoker. Heart in serious condition.
Pulse tracing of boy 14. Has appearance of boy 9 years of age—stunted and very nervous and feeble heart.
the heart action of the confirmed smoker of cigarettes in comparison with the strong, regular heart action of the normal healthy man—a demonstration of the most vital importance.
"It is generally recognized that any habit of life which places an extra tax upon the kidneys, heart or other vital organs, wears them out prematurely. Such a habit is the use of cigarettes as practiced today from youth up. A careful study of six Canadian insurance companies found the mortality rate of non-smokers to be 59 and that of moderate smokers 93.
"A tobacco crippled heart cannot stand the extra strain that is placed upon it during any disease accompanied by high temperature and high blood pressure. Pneumonia frequently weeds out those who possess some organic disease, and its field of operation is chiefly confined to men whose hearts are weakened by the excessive use of tobacco.
The relation of tobacco, especially in the form of cigarettes, and alcohol and opium is a very close one, declares Dr. Charles B. Towns, of New York, in an article in the Century Magazine.
"Mortality from tuberculosis is greater among men than among women after the age of twenty, due probably to a weakening of the lungs through the inhaling of cigarette smoke. The Phipps Institute in Philadelphia found that mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis is greater among smokers than among non-smokers."
"For years I have been dealing with alcoholism and morphinism, have gone into their every phase and aspect, have kept careful and minute details of between six and seven thousand cases, and I have never seen a case, except occasionally with women, which did not have a history of excessive tobacco.
"A boy always starts smoking before he starts drinking. If he is disposed to drink, that disposition will be increased by smoking, because the action of tobacco makes it normal for him to feel the need of stimulation. He is likely to go to alcohol to soothe the muscular unrest, to blunt the irritation he has received from tobacco. From alcohol he goes to morphine for the same reason. The nervous condition due to excessive drinking is allayed by morphine, just as the nervous condition due to excessive smoking is allayed by alcohol.
"Morphine is the legitimate consequence of alcohol, and alcohol is the legitimate consequence of tobacco. Cigarettes, drink opium, is the logical and regular series."
What Mike Donovan Says
Mike Donovan has been a familiar figure in athletics all his life. For thirty years he has been athletic director of the New York Athletic Club. His work has brought him in touch with all classes of men and boys under the most trying conditions. His word is law with those who know him. And when it comes to smoking he speaks out with characteristic directness. Listen to this:
"Any boy who smokes can never hope to succeed in any line of endeavor, as smoking weakens the heart and lungs, and ruins the stomach and affects the entire nervous system. If a boy or young man expects to amount to anything in athlet-"
ics he must let smoking and all kinds of liquor alone. They are rank poison to his athletic ambitions."
Worst of Tobacco is in Cigarettes
Says the Medical World speaking editorially of cigarettes:
"The worst of tobacco is found in cigarettes. The feature of their use which makes them most dangerous, and which is subtly enslaving and demoralizing, is the practically universal habit of inhalation of the smoke. This brings it into contact with many square feet of vascular tissues in the mouth, throat, bronchial tubes and air cells in the lungs, which almost instantly absorb the poisons from the fumes and nearly as quickly infuse them into the circulation.
"In young boys the effects of cigarette smoking are quickly noticeable and soon become alarming. If the habit is not checked, sallow skin, sunken eyes, loss of appetite, stained fingers, listlessness and loss of memory, of application or concentration of the mind, shortness of breath, nervousness, palpitation of the heart, insomnia, giddiness, irritable throat, impaired digestion, malnutrition, and in many of the cases impaired or permanent loss of vision results.
"Unquestionably, in the face of the facts, it is the plain duty of every practitioner of medicine not only to oppose with all the vigor at his hand the use of the cigarette among the boys of his clientele, but also to do all in his power to enforce the laws against their sale to minors."
How About This Experiment
Mrs. T. E. Patterson, of Griffin, Georgia, president of the Georgia Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and a woman of exceptional mental attainments, takes issue with Mr. Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, regarding the harmfulness of cigarette smoking. Says Mrs. Patterson:
"I have heard amateur chemists say, 'I have investigated and find that cigarette papers contain no poison.' We are told that they do contain lime, lead and arsenic, a solution used to toughen the paper.
"Several years ago I stepped into a grocery store and asked to buy a package of cigarette papers, such as were given away at that time with Durham smoking tobacco. I took two small bottles, each holding about three tablespoonfuls of water. In one I placed 15 of these cigarette papers, and in the other an equal thickness of leaves of tissue paper from between visiting cards, for the tissue papers were much thinner and it took a larger number of leaves.
"I found that a few drops of the water from the bottle containing the cigarette paper would kill a mouse quicker than
you could say 'Jack Robinson,' and teaspoonsful of the water from the other papers seemed to cause a mouse to suffer no inconvenience.
"I have killed dozens of mice with this water and there are others who have tried the experiment with the same success. Will Mr. Hill please tell me what made the difference in the same water, in the same kind of bottles, except the papers that were placed in the bottle?"
What a Noted Sport Writer Thinks
Grantland Rice is a writer of recognized authority on all sports. He has been sporting editor of some of the largest newspapers in the country, and is an athlete of renown. He should know what he is talking about. And here are his views:
"For the last eighteen years I have been either playing or covering for newspapers all different forms of sports and competition. In this way my observation has been from close range—close enough to develop facts and not mere theories.
"Smoking by the young brings a double burden to carry—a burden in both a physical and a mental way. I have noticed that those who do not smoke, who keep in clean if not exactly strict training, have far more energy, much greater stamina, much better control of their nerves, and they also appear to develop a much keener knack at picking up a game.
"In addition to this I have found that they think quicker and better. Under 25 years of age they are developing both physically and mentally, and if this development is hampered by smoking the loss can hardly be made up later on.
"The young in sport make up for their lack of experience by nervous energy and vitality. Smoking cuts in heavily upon both, wearing away the reserve force which youth needs. A cigarette smoker would have but little chance in any red-blooded competition against one who stuck to training. He would have neither the speed for the short sprint nor the stamina for the long race. If I am wrong in this the statistics of 18 years are wrong, and records and results mean nothing."
Tobacco Killed a Cat
Dr. David Paulson, president of the Anti-Cigarette League of America, tells of an experiment he conducted when a student at Bellevue Hospital Medical School, in New York, that impressed upon his mind the fact that nicotine is a deadly poison. A large, healthy cat which made night hideous for everybody in the neighborhood was the victim. Here is the incident in the doctor's own words:
"I soaked enough tobacco to make an ordinary cigarette in water. Then I injected under the cat's skin a hypodermic syringe full of this tobacco juice. In a few minutes the cat began to quiver, then tremble, then it had cramps, and in less than twenty minutes it died in violent convulsions. The poison destroyed the nine lives a cat is popularly supposed to possess.
"I take no pride in relating this experiment, for I knew a shorter as well as a more merciful way of ending that cat's life; but what distresses me now is the fact that thousands of boys are repeating that experiment upon themselves with as certain though less immediate results, and only a few people seem to be concerned over what is taking place right before their eyes."
And This is from the London Lancet
The London Lancet, perhaps the foremost medical publication in the world, made an exhaustive examination of cigarettes some two years ago. Portions of its finding were given wide publicity by tobacco interests, particularly that section in which doubt was expressed as to the quantity of nicotine found in a cigarette exerting a harmful influence. Here is an excerpt from that report, under date April 13, 1912, which was not given such wide publicity by these same men:
"To aldehydes the poisonous effects of crude, immature whisky are ascribed, although they occur in relatively small quantities, but the furfural contained in the smoke of only one Virginian cigarette may amount, according to our experiments, to as much as is present in a couple of fluid ounces of whisky. The presence at any rate of aldehydes in the smoke of the Virginian cigarette, which is so often smoked to excess, accompanied at the same time by an almost insignificant amount of nicotine, gives material for reflection when approaching the broad question of evils of the cigarette habit.
"Furfural, the principal aldehyde, which we have found present in marked quantities in the cigarette smoke of a very popular tobacco, is stated to be about fifty times as poisonous as ordinary alcohol, and small doses cause 'symptoms of transient irritation, such as ataxia, tremors and twitching,' while in adequate quantities furfural 'gives rise to epileptiform convulsions, general muscular paralysis, ending in paralysis of the respiratory muscles.'
"Again, 'one of the commonest effects of over indulgence in tobacco is a chronic inflammation of the throat and upper parts of the respiratory passages, leading to hoarseness and excessive secretions of the mucous glands. This is explained by the constant application to the throat of an irritant alkaline vapor, and is probably not due to the specific action of the nicotine."
Connie Mack Speaks
The boy who does not know of Connie Mack is not old enough to read the newspapers and take an interest in baseball. As leader of the Philadelphia Athletics, Connie Mack takes rank as one of the greatest generals baseball has ever known. He reads men and boys as an ordinary person reads a book. He contributes to the Scientific Temperance Journal this characteristically clear statement:
"It is my candid opinion, and I have watched very closely the last twelve years or more, that boys at the age of ten to fifteen who have continued smoking cigarettes do not as a rule amount to anything. They are unfitted in every way for any kind of work where brains are needed. No boy or man can expect to succeed in this world to a high position and continue the use of cigarettes."
Cigarette is One of Worst Habits
Hon. Benjamin B. Lindsay [1869-1943] is judge of the Juvenile Court in Denver, Colorado, where are handled the cases of boys and girls who have gone wrong. He is often referred to as "the golden rule judge" because of his kindness, and the deep interest he takes in boys and girls. In telling "What I Have Seen of Cigarettes," Judge Lindsay says in part:
"One of the very worst habits of boyhood is the cigarette habit. This has long been recognized by all the judges of the courts who deal with young criminals, and especially by judges of police courts, before whom pass thousands of men every year who are addicted to intemperate habits. These judges know that in nearly every case the drunken sots who appear before them, a disgrace to their parents, themselves and the state, began as boys smoking cigarettes. One bad habit led to another. The nicotine and poison in the cigarette created an appetite for alcoholic drink. The cigarette habit not only had a grip upon them in boyhood, but it invited all the other demons of habit to come in and add to the degradation that the cigarette began."
Hudson Maxim on the Cigarette
Hudson Maxim [1853-1927] has won world renown as the inventor of high explosives for use in battleship guns and torpedoes and for various other purposes. He comes out squarely against the cigarette in this fashion:
"The wreath of cigarette smoke which curls about the head of the growing lad holds his brain in an iron grip which pre-
vents it from growing and his mind from developing just as surely as the iron shoe does the foot of the Chinese girl.
"In the terrible struggle for survival against the deadly cigarette smoke, development and growth are sacrificed by nature, which in the fight for very life itself must yield up every vital luxury such as healthy body growth and growth of brain and mind.
"If all boys could be made to know that with every breath of cigarette smoke they inhale imbecility and exhale manhood, that they are tapping their arteries as surely and letting their life's blood out as truly as though their veins and arteries were severed, and that the cigarette is a maker of invalids,
criminals and fools—not men—it ought to deter them some. The yellow finger stain is an emblem of deeper degradation and enslavement than the ball and chain."
|For more from Mr. Hudson Maxim, see Dr. Jesse M. Gehman, Smoke Over America (E. Aurora: Roycrofters, 1943), pp 20-21.|
Makes Boys Soulless
"Several of my young acquaintances are in their graves, who gave promise of making happy and useful citizens," declares Luther Burbank [1849-1926], the wizard of the plant and vegetable kingdom, whose experiments have caused the civilized world to wonder, "and there is no question whatever that cigarettes alone were the cause of their destruction. No boy living would commence the use of cigarettes if he knew what a useless, soulless, worthless thing they would make of him."
Want Cigarettes More Than Liquor
At Dwight, Illinois, is located the Keeley Institute, where men from all parts of the country are sent to be cured of drug and liquor and tobacco habits Dr. Charles L. Hamilton is superintendent of the Keeley Institute, and knows what is going on there at all times. He is in close touch with every case. What does he say?
"Our experience here at Dwight, where many hundreds of cigarette cases have been treated, is that persons applying for treatment for both liquor and cigarettes dread giving up their cigarettes more than they do the liquor. Moreover, those who return to the use of cigarettes in after life are almost certain to resume the use of liquor to allay the irritability on the nervous system produced by tobacco smoke inhalation."
|Every day I am more sure of the mistake made by good people universally in trying to pull fallen people up instead of keeping the yet safe ones from tumbling after them; and in always spending their pains on the worst instead of the best material.—Ruskin.
TO THE MAN OF TOMORROW—
THE AMERICAN BOY OF TODAY
When I first made public the letter sent me by Mr. Thomas A. Edison, the world's greatest electrical genius, in response to my request for an expression on the harmful effects of cigarette smoking by boys, Mr. Percival I. Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, denied the truth of Mr. Edison's findings.
Mr. Edison, a facsimile of whose letter was published in the preceding volume, said:
"The injurious agent in cigarettes comes principally from the burning paper wrapper. The substance thereby formed is called 'acrolein.' It has a violent action on the nerve centers, producing degeneration of the cells of the brain, which is quite rapid among boys. Unlike most narcotics, this degeneration is permanent and uncontrollable. I employ no person who smokes cigarettes."
Among other statements made by Mr. Hill in his letter to Mr. Edison and myself, which was sent all over the country, was this:
"Aside from the overwhelming weight of scientific testimony, common sense will convince any reasonable man that the cigarette is not injurious.
I want you to notice how Mr. Hill speaks of American men in his defense of the cigarette. In the interview I authorized as an accompaniment to Mr. Edison's letter I made it plain that men did not enter into our discussion of the subject; that I
"The increase of cigarette smoking in the United States in recent years is significant. This tremendous popularity, which is growing all the time, is possible only because millions of American men have convinced themselves that cigarettes are good for them."
was interested in the boys of America—who are going to be the men of to-morrow—and their welfare. To quote that interview:
"I do not feel called upon to try to reform any person over twenty-five years of age because by that time the habit has been formed. Then it is only a question of the strength of will or mind of the smoker which will enable him to stop. He knows the injurious effects and controls his own destiny.
Replying to Mr. Hill's defense, Mr. E. G. Liebold, my secretary,
"With the boys it is a different matter. Most boys are told to refrain from many things. Seldom are they given a reason. Boys must be educated so they will know why cigarettes are bad for them.
"If you will study the history of almost any criminal you will find that he is an inveterate cigarette smoker. Boys, through cigarettes, train with bad company. They go with other smokers to the poolrooms and saloons. The cigarette drags them down. Hence if we can educate them to the dangers of smoking we will perform a service."
called attention to reports from colleges and other educational institutions showing that young men addicted to the cigarette habit seldom, if ever, lead in their studies;
To date no proof has been forthcoming.
So much for the moral side of the question. Let us pass that by for the time being, and consider another aspect of the subject—the economic. Let us see whether you as an ambitious American boy can afford to ruin your prospects by doing those things which are disapproved by employers generally,
that one of the magistrates in Mr. Hill's own city, New York, stated that 99 per cent of the boys between the ages of 10 and 17 who come before him charged with crime have their fingers disfigured by cigarette stains,
and challenged Mr. Hill to point out what beneficial result has ever been experienced by anyone through indulgence in this habit.
|Ed. Note: For more by Mr. Ford on the tobacco-crime connection, see, e.g., pp 5, 6, 10, 15, and 74-76.
See also our crime-causation overview site.
You may wonder why politicians do not act on this type data, ban cigarettes, and thus prevent most crimes!
Politicians are not interested, is the bottom line. They are “good ole boys” who prefer drinking, schmoozing, BS-ing, mouthing-off, to honest adherence to actual “cause and effect” truths. HAVING to go by facts, that's too "constraining"! They prefer spouting off, pontificating, mouthing off, flapping their gums, parading their personal megalomania.
Note explanatory background data by the
World Health Organization, “Wide research needed to solve the problems of mental illness,” 12 World Mental Health 138-141 (WHO Press Release, October 1960) (“people with psychopathic make-up often become leaders” / “les postes de commandement sont souvent assumés par des personnes à tendances psychopathiques”)
Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, 5th ed (Scott, Foresman & Co, 1976), p 10, by James C. Coleman, Ph.D. (summarizes pertinent 1960 data thus: “individuals with psychopathic personality makeup, who tend to exploit power for selfish purposes and have little concern for ethical values or social progress, often become leaders”)
“Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition,” by John T. Jost, Jack Glaser, Arie W. Kruglanski, Frank J. Sulloway, 129 Psychological Bulletin (#2) 339-375 (July 2003) (cites politician mental disorder symptoms pursuant to multiple studies).
Polybius [205 B.C. - 125 B.C.], “none but unprincipled and beastly men in society assume the mastery over their fellows. . . .” (Volume 4). [See context by E. C. Rogers, supra, p 17].
In addition to these depravities, and symptomatic of them, politicians prefer to act on "whims, fancy, and sudden childish notions." Awareness is at ignorant level, typically "does not know about" key factors. They listen with “little attention,” react with “remarkable irrelevancy” to reality due to “ignorance.” There is “a special failure of communication in dealing with heads of state.” “It is a feature of government that the more important the problem, the further [up the political structure] it tends to be removed from handling from anyone well acquainted with the subject.”—Barbara W. Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China (New York: Macmillan Co, 1970), pp 241, 404, 405, 464, respectively. and politicians like it that way.
Examples of such politicians' manipulations, e.g., on Crime (pretending to oppose it while actually helping cause it by supporting tobacco; by never banning it, they keep the uneducated voting for them indefinitely);
They count on the Unthinking of the Uneducated; and the Tobacco Taboo.
and which in many, many cases must put you out of the running entirely.
If "millions of American men have convinced themselves that cigarettes are good for them," they have not succeeded in convincing their employers of this fact, and this is especially true as regards boys. I want you to read the expressions of opinion from some of the large employers of the country as they are set forth in the following pages; to consider the views of others who have voluntarily stated the case as it appears to them. I know you will then be in a position to judge for yourself whether you can afford to take chances on losing everything, and I am willing to leave the decision in your own hands.
HOW EMPLOYERS FEEL
TOWARD CIGARETTE SMOKERS
Here is an Automobile Company's Attitude
"Cigarette smoking is acquiring a hold on a great many boys in our community. The habit has grown in the last year or two. Since it is such a bad practice and is taking such a hold upon so many people, we think it is a disgrace for a grown man to smoke cigarettes, because it is not only injurious to his health, but it is such a bad example to the boys.
The foregoing notice was posted conspicuously by the Cadillac Motor Car Company throughout its large factories at Detroit, Mich. Commenting on this action, the company says further:
"Boys who smoke cigarettes we do not care to keep in our employ. In the future we will not hire anyone whom we know to be addicted to this habit. It is our desire to weed it entirely out of the factory just as soon as practicable. We will ask everyone in our factory, who sees the seriousness of this habit to use their influence in having it stamped out.
"We have two objects in interesting ourselves in this matter: First, to help men and boys; second, we believe that men who do not smoke cigarettes or frequent the saloon can make better automobiles than those who do."
"Several years ago we began a somewhat active campaign against this evil. We made a study of the effect upon the morals and efficiency of men in our employ addicted to this habit and found that cigarette smokers invariably were loose in their morals and very apt to be untruthful, and were far less productive than men who were not cigarette smokers. We might mention a large number of instances which substantiate this latter statement, but space does not permit. We put up notices in conspicuous places about the plant. This had quite an effect among the employees in general. We allow no cigarette smoking about the plant; in fact, will not hire men who we know use cigarettes.
"We are proud to say that none of the prominent or executive men in this company use cigarettes for two reasons: First, that they believe the effects to be injurious, and, second, that it would be difficult to enforce a rule they themselves did not adhere to."
Where the Employee Shares the Benefits
"Factory to family," is the slogan of the Larkin Company, Buffalo, N. Y., in whose immense plants thousands of persons are constantly employed under the most favorable conditions. Mr. Wm. R. Heath, vice-president of the company, in outlining his company's attitude on the labor question, says:
"Mr. Roosevelt spoke very wisely the other day when he said:
"'The problem must be, so far as it concerns the great industries in which the immense majority of wage workers are engaged, to combine efficiency with the proper sharing of the rewards of that efficiency. There will be no rewards for anybody, no adequate wage for the working man, no proper service to the public, unless the business pays.
"'A business run at a loss will have to shut its doors. No prosperity can be passed around until the prosperity exists. The main element in the success of any business must be efficiency, and the wage worker must do all in his power to contribute to this efficiency. But the wage worker who by his efficiency adds to the productivity must have that added efficiency recognized in increased wages. The benefit must in part accrue to him exactly as it in part accrues to the man who furnished the capital, without which the business could not go on, and in part to the general public.'
"So there are three parties involved in this great industrialquestion, three parties to be benefited, three parties charged with the responsibility, and three parties who must make their contribution—the possessor of capital, the possessor of labor, and the general public.
"Mr. Gompers, in speaking with reference to the New York Workmen's Compensation Act, said:
"'We should speak out m thunderous tones our severest condemnation of employers who are attempting to nullify the act by the enforcement of physical examinations of employees, which is contrary to the spirit of the law.'
So, then, business must be successful, the country must be prosperous, and the ability of the individual to deliver must not be questioned, and the general public must be relieved of its responsibility to initiate means of efficiency by encouraging the use of leisure hours for healthful recreation and wholesome play, and by extending its protecting arm for the benefit of its subjects.
"If the general public will not awaken to its responsibilities how can the business be successful, unless the employer to the
extent of his ability selects that employee and only that one who is capable of efficient performance?
"All applicants for employment in this business must submit to a physical examination by a competent physician. Those passing a satisfactory examination are to this extent eligible for employment. Those requiring medical or surgical attention, or requiring a course of treatment or a change in personal habits, are accepted subject to conforming to instructions imposed; some of them may receive financial assistance from the company, while carrying out these instructions. Others are barred entirely from the eligible list. Among those whom we do not employ or place upon our eligible list are boys who are habitual cigarette smokers."
Cigarettes Spoil Boys for His Business
George W. Alden is head of the big mercantile establishment in Brockton, Mass., that bears his name. Here are his views on the efficiency and desirability of the cigarette-smoking boy:
"So far as I know none of my employees smoke cigarettes. We don't hire that kind of boys or men. I should not consider for a minute any candidate for a position if I knew he smoked cigarettes. It would be pretty strongly against him if he applied for a position with either a cigar, pipe or cigarette in his mouth. With the general knowledge prevalent in this state as to the injurious effects of cigarette smoking, any boy should have ambition enough and decision enough to let cigarettes alone. My observation has taught me that cigarette-smoking boys are woefully lacking in both ambition and decision. They soon become dull, smoke-befuddled boys. I let them know that cigarettes spoil boys for my business."
Non-Smokers Given Preference
The Burroughs Adding Machine Company's plant at Detroit, Mich., is one of the country's model industrial institutions, every attention being paid to the physical and mental well-being of the employees. Only the highest grade of machinists are employed and these are selected with care. Writes General Manager Lauver:
"We have taken no definite steps to suppress cigarette smoking other than to forbid the smoking of cigarettes in our office. I wish you success in your effort to correct the evils of cigarette smoking on the part of young boys, and am frank to say that, other things being equal, we will always give preference for employment to boys and young men who do not smoke cigarettes."
Puts the Ban on Cigarette Smokers
This notice may be found throughout the great laboratories of the J. C. Ayer Co., manufacturing chemists, Lowell, Mass. It was prompted not by unwarranted prejudice but by careful study of the situation on the part of Charles H. Stowell, M.D., treasurer of the Company. Commenting on this attitude, Mr. Stowell says:
Believing that smoking cigarettes is injurious to both mind and body, thereby unfitting young men for their best work, therefore, after this date we will not employ any young man under twenty-one years of age who smokes cigarettes.
"Close observation for many years among the boys employed by this company has shown that those who are most energetic, active, alert, quick, spry, do not smoke; while the listless, lazy, dull, sleepy, uninteresting and uninterested boys are, we find upon investigation, those who smoke cigarettes."
"It lessens the natural appetite for food and injures digestion. Any close observer will know at once how true is this statement. The boy who smokes has a bad digestion and a poor appetite. Because of this interference with appetite and digestion, the food is not properly digested and assimilated, cellular activity is checked, and the growth and development of the body seriously interfered with by this early poisoning.
"It seriously affects the 'nervous system. We often hear about the 'tobacco heart' of the adult. If tobacco is strong enough to affect the beating of the adult heart, how much stronger must be its effect on the heart of a young person, long before tissues have become fixed. The rush of blood to the head, the dizziness, the unsteady beating of the heart, the distressing dreams—all show how seriously is the nervous system affected.
"But a more serious charge can be brought against it under this heading. This effect on the nervous system is sufficient to produce the most marked changes in the mental activity. Recent statements from the University of Michigan, Northwestern University, Yale College, Union College, together with scores of other institutions and hundreds of the most eminent teachers of the country, all testify to the fact that cigarette smoking interferes with scholarship. If it interferes with the scholarship of young men over twenty-one years of age, how much more seriously must it interfere with the mental activities of those under this age.
"It lowers the moral tone. Boys who would not tell a lie on any other matter, not for a fortune, our best and noblest boys, do not seem to hesitate a moment to tell any kind of a falsehood in order to keep from their parents the fact that they are smoking cigarettes. They hide the cigarettes. They smoke them away from home. They try in every way to conceal the truth. Indeed, they will do all manner of things in order to deceive those who are nearest and dearest to them.
"It creates a 'craving for strong drink. There has been a great deal of discussion on this point, but I am convinced that the statement is logically true. The hot smoke from the cigarette tends to make the mouth and throat dry, and creates a peculiar sinking sensation in the stomach. Water may temporarily relieve this dryness and may temporarily check the sinking sensation. But with the 'moral tone lowered and the 'mental power weakened, the desire to yield to the first temptation is strengthened, because of the flimsy excuse that the boy must have something to wet his throat. And so it goes on, from bad to worse. In other words, the boy who smokes more easily accepts an invitation to a treat than one who does not smoke.
"It is a filthy and offensive habit. No matter how stealthily the boy may do his work, sooner or later his clothing becomes saturated with the odor of tobacco.
"It is unlawful. In nearly every state in tlie union there are most stringent laws forbidding the furnishing of cigarettes or tobacco to minors under a certain age. In most of these states there are laws against selling to such minors."
Cigarette "Fiends" Not Employed
Writes A. M. Phifer, superintendent of the Joseph Home Company, dry goods, Pittsburgh, Pa.:
"While we have no fixed rule on the subject, if we know an applicant for a position is a cigarette 'fiend' we will not employ him. We might add further that a state law in Pennsylvania makes it an offense punishable by fine or imprisonment or both, to either give or sell to anyone under twenty-one years of age cigarettes, or for minors to have cigarettes in their possession."
Cigarettes Detrimental to Development
Marshall Field & Company, Chicago, the greatest department store in America, if not in the world, bar cigarette-smoking boys, giving this as their reason:
"For many years it has been our policy not to engage boys who make a practice of smoking cigarettes, as we believe it to be detrimental to their development."
What a Merchant Prince Says
The fame of John Wanamaker, merchant prince, with immense establishments in New York and Philadelphia, where thousands of persons are employed, is world-wide. Mr. Wanamaker says:
"The question of the use of tobacco and cigarettes by the young men who make application to us for employment comes in for serious consideration, and where there is evidence of the excessive use of cigarettes the applicant is invariably refused a place in our ranks."
No Cigarette Smokers Employed
Brown Durrell Co. are importers and manufacturers of hosiery, underwear, handkerchiefs and furnishings, with headquarters in Boston, and large branches in New York and Chicago. Great numbers of men and boys are in their employ, and they have excellent opportunities for judging who are worth while and who arc not. Mr. Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, president and treasurer of the company, comes out squarely against the cigarette in this manner:
"We have found in the main that the young fellow addicted to cigarette smoking is not a profitable or desirable hand to have in our employ. This fact is so apparent that we have made a rule against employing such young men if we know that they have contracted the habit. Therefore, for business reasons, independent entirely of the moral consideration, the cigarette smoker has a handicap that interferes with his value to himself or to us."
No Smoking is Better All Around
Wm. T. Isaacs, vice-president and general manager of the Gurney Heater Manufacturing Company, Boston, says:
"The policy of our company when employing young men has been to insist upon their refraining from the use of cigarrettes, as we feel this is not only for their own benefit, but we get better service from them."
BOYS ARE NOT WANTED
The opposition of employers to cigarette-smoking boys and young men, their refusal in many cases to hire them, is not a matter of sentiment. It is a plain business proposition. They know that the boy who is not addicted to the use of cigarettes will return larger dividends on the investment both to himself and his employer; that, other things being equal, he will get to the front more rapidly, and that he is better equipped mentally, morally and physically to assume the responsibilities that come with promotion.
Prof. Selby A. Moran, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is one of the best known instructors in stenography in the world. The nature of his profession has made him a close observer of boys and young men. Here is what he writes:
"I have been a teacher of shorthand almost constantly for the past thirty years. During this time I have taught thousands of young people, ranging from students of grade school age to university graduates.
"During my experience, covering nearly a third of a century, I have yet to discover, among the thousands of young men whom I have had in my classes, a single instance where a young man who becomes a slave to the cigarette habit during his early years has ever been able to develop into more than a third or fourth rate stenographer. Such people seem to have their nervous systems so paralyzed and their mental faculties so dulled or stunted, and the control of their physical organism so weakened, that it seems utterly impossible for them to become first-class stenographers, although in many cases I have known such young men to heroically struggle to fit themselves to do high grade stenographic work.
"I recall many cases where the efforts of young men to overcome the stupefying effects of cigarette smoking have been pitiable. I have tried every possible method to help such students to overcome their weakness. In every case the effort of such pupils has resulted in failure. If this is true in the development of shorthand ability, it is undoubtedly true in every other kind of work where steady nerves, clear minds and physical skill arc required.
"To the close observer the number of young men who, without realizing it, are to-day in this deplorable condition is
appalling. It is therefore very fortunate that powerful influences such as will result from the action of your company and that of other great commercial organizations, are being added to the forces which are opposing this evil, one which is threatening the stability of the American people.
THE WAY OF THE
By Len G. Shaw
I shall not mention their names. That would be revealing identities that might better not be disclosed, for the sake of both. Neither shall I sketch the two careers too intimately. If I did it is more than likely that even in his pitiable mental state the one would recognize the portrait of himself, and there is no desire on my part to add one jot to the mental anguish he must suffer when in the few lucid moments he is permitted he looks back over opportunities that were worse than wasted.
* * *
It was in the heat of a gubernatorial campaign in Michigan that I first met them—two fellows whom to know was to like. One was the star political writer on a metropolitan newspaper, the other a reporter on a small city daily.
They had struck up an acquaintance during the afternoon, while one of the gubernatorial candidates the political writer was accompanying on a spellbinding tour was making a speech at the country fair grounds.
We sat up late that night in the hotel lobby, swapping stories and talking over matters of mutual interest, and I was impressed by the striking similarity of characteristics in the two men. Both were splendid physical specimens of manhood, clean-cut, alert, immaculately attired—men who would attract attention in a crowd.
Scarcely had we settled down in our chairs when the political writer produced a box of cigarettes, and after extracting one for his own consumption passed them to his new-found acquaintance. They were declined with thanks.
"Ha," laughed the political writer, jokingly, "you have no small vices, eh?"
The reporter looked grave.
"I am not sure that is such a small vice," he replied slowly.
"Oh, well, we'll not quarrel over that," went on the political writer. "I do not smoke much myself."
But during our session that evening he emptied one box and had made serious inroads on a second.
* * *
It was some months later, in Lansing, that I met them. They were "covering" the legislature for rival papers in the same city, but this fact had no bearing on their friendship.
They were inseparable and had come to be known as Damon and Pythias, so devoted were they to each other's interests. Only, wherever Damon was encountered he would be found puffing at a half-burned cigarette, or with feverish haste rolling a fresh one.
* * *
The years rolled by. I had kept close track of the small town reporter who had developed into a star metropolitan man, and was turning his attention to theatrical reviewing with marked success. But the political writer had dropped from view, following a disagreement with the newspaper he had served.
One day a shadow fell across my path, and I looked up to come face to face with the one-time star. He was bronzed. His clothes were in sore need of a valet, and his linen had not been on speaking terms with a laundry for some time back. He grinned at my gasp of astonishment.
"I don't wonder you are surprised." he went on. "You see, I've been down in Georgia, working on a peach farm. I had to do something, so I thought I'd cut out the old life for a time. I'm pretty near down and out—but I'll come back. I'm just as good today as I ever was, and I'll show those fellows that have turned against me. By the way, can you spare me a cigarette?"
A month or so later I was wandering along the docks, watching the operations of a gang of lumber shovers, when an overalled figure separated itself from the rest of the party and came shuffling over to where I stood. There was something familiar about the man, yet I had to look a second time before certain as to the identity of the grimy, perspiring individual.
"Yes, it's me," he volunteered, extending a calloused hand on the fingers of which the tell-tale yellow cigarette stains showed through the dirt. "You'd never have thought it of me, would you?"
There was a wistfulness in his tones, and it seemed almost as though tears glistened in the shifting eyes.
"You see," he went on, "it was a little dull in the newspaper business, and I had to live while something was turning up in the old game, so I'm down here for a little while. It doesn't pay very much—and it's awful hard work—but it's enough to keep me going until I get back. I can make good again. All I need is a fair show. I've got the stuff in me if I get a chance. And by the way"—
I hadn't. If I had possessed a cigarette, I think it would have been his without the asking. He craved it like a man recovering from a long spree craves a drink of whisky to slake his thirst.
From time to time strange stories reached me concerning the one-time political writer. He was successively panhandler, hobo and potato peeler in the kitchen of the county infirmary, to which he obtained admittance through the good offices of men who had known him in the prime of his career.
It was a crisp October morning suggestive of winter apparel. At a downtown corner stood a gaunt figure, from whose parchment-like countenance two fishy eyes stared forth uncomprehendingly. Under his arm he carried a small bundle of newspapers that he essayed unsuccessfully to dispose of to passersby. And as he called the papers in a rasping monotone he pulled away at a cigarette "butt" he had picked from the gutter.
* * *
I saw him again the other day, moving unsteadily along the street, having eyes but not seeing, possessed of ears yet not hearing. The overalls that partly encased his withered limbs were frayed at the bottom and flapped about forlornly with every step. A checked blouse took the place of a coat. A ragged straw hat, whose original color had long since disappeared beneath a coat of grime, surmounted his tousled hair. His face resembled that of a coal heaver at the end of a day's toil. His hands, swinging loosely at his sides, were. dark as those of an African.
I have seen men in the throes of delirium tremens, screeching for help at the top of their voices, while hospital attendants fought to restrain them. I never saw so horrible a spectacle as was represented by this one-time Beau Brummel, who had forfeited every claim to consideration, and sunk to unbelievable depths—victim of the Little White Slaver.
Not one of his former acquaintances would have recognized him in this pitiable condition—and it was well.
Possibly before you read these lines Death will have mercifully laid hold on this human derelict, and he will have passed to the great beyond.
* * *
The other man—the one who had "no small vices?" He is today dramatic editor of one of the leading New York newspapers, standing well toward the head of his profession, a man known personally by every actor and actress of consequence in the country, and whose opinions are accepted as authoritative.
A New Arithmetic
"I am not much of a mathematician," said the cigarette, "but I can add nervous troubles to a boy, I can subtract from his physical energy, I can multiply his aches and pains, I can divide his mental powers, I can take interest from his work and discount his chances for success."—Anon.
TO THE BOY WHO WANTS TO
PLAY FAIR WITH HIMSELF
In a letter to Mr. Thomas A Edison and myself, published elsewhere in this book in which he takes exception to our attitude toward cigarette smokng among boys, Mr. Percival I. Hill, President of the American Tobacco Company, makes one statement in which I heartily concur.
"The increase of cigarette smoking in the United States in recent years is significant," says Mr. Hill.
It is—very significant. The increase is so tremendous as to constitute one of the most serious problems confronting a nation that wants red blooded, sound-minded men for the next generation, and the next—a land that should be vitally concerned with the mental and moral and physical well-being of its bovs, who are going to be the men of tomorrow.
"In 1900," continues Mr. Hill, "two billion six hundred thousand cigarettes were made in this country. In 1913 fifteen billion eight hundred million cigarettes were made here, an increase of 700 per cent."
Do you wonder, in the light of such a showing, that thoughtful men who have the best interests of the American boy at heart are stirring themselves in an effort to check the inroads being made by this blight, as manufacturers and merchants and other employers of labor put the bars up against cigarette smoking boys because they have convinced themselves that they are less desirable than non-smokers?
To quote further from Mr. Hill, "when one confuses his dislikes or likes with scientific facts he certainly can hardly be expected to be taken seriously."
I ask you in all earnestness, after you have considered the proof submitted by each side in this
volume, who has confused his dislikes or likes with scientific facts; who, on the strength of the evidence adduced, could reasonably expect to be taken seriously?
I have enough confidence in the American boy to believe that when the facts are placed before him he will decide rightly. And here they are.
One of the Most Baneful Influences to Combat
Judge Henry S. Hulbert, of the Juvenile Court, Detroit, Michigan, is called upon to pass judgment upon hundreds of cases each year, ranging from mild truancy to larceny and incorrigibility. He has long been a student of boy problems, and his conclusions are not theories but the observations of one who knows. Says Judge Hulbert:
"I did not suppose there could longer be any doubt in the minds of men who are informed, or who follow at all closely the growing youth, of the influence of the cigarette habit upon the boy from ten to seventeen years of age. We find it one of the most baneful influences which we have to combat in this court. Perhaps nowhere is it more apparent than in the case of school truancy.
"I have in mind the case of a boy, Raymond—, brought before me, who had been addicted to the cigarette habit since he was thirteen. He was nearly two years behind his grade, efforts at improving his school conditions failed, and we were finally obliged to commit him to the Industrial School. There it was no longer possible for him to obtain tobacco in any form, and the change in his personal appearance, habits and ability to study during the brief period of one year he was confined there, was remarkable, so much so that the boy afterward wrote this court a letter in which he stated that if the school had done nothing else for him, the fact that it had broken him of this habit was worth everything to him. He is now doing extremely well, is a straight, clean, manly boy, and one we are proud of.
"There was the case of Joe —, also brought before this court for truancy. At the age of twelve years he had been smoking cigarettes for about two years. He was behind in school, was an habitual truant, and spent most of his time about the poolrooms in his neighborhood. It took nearly a year to break him of the habit of smoking, but after it was eliminated he became interested in his school, eventually caught up with his classes, has never returned to the habit, and is now doing well.
"John —, at the age of fifteen years had been smoking since he was twelve—an habitual user of cigarettes. In personal appearance he was a marked type of this class of boys. His mother had given him up completely, and felt she did not care if she never saw the child again. It required more than a year and a half of persistent work before the boy was weaned from his cigarettes. With it went most of his other bad habits. In a letter of gratitude received from his mother, the court
felt amply repaid for the many hours of hard work. Once broken of this habit, from an indifferent, lazy boy, he became bright, a good worker, and before he left the hands of the court had four other boys on probation to him, all of whom did well under his supervision.
"At eleven years George — was an habitual truant. He had been tried in four different schools, in not one of which could he make any progress. He was carried on probation nearly four years. It seemed impossible for him to make any progress in school. Finally he was placed with a teacher who gave a large part of his time to breaking George of smoking cigarettes. He began to improve rapidly, caught up with his class, and was finally dismissed from probation.
"Ross —, aged fourteen, was an habitual truant, and in the second grade in school, having been there three consecutive terms. His development was so arrested, and he was so certainly backward that it seemed he must be mentally deficient. It was planned to place him in one of the schools for defectives, but further observation convinced the probation officer that much of the trouble came from cigarette smoking. His case was taken up on this score. It was an uphill battle, for the dulled faculties were slow to respond. However, once the habit was broken he began to climb rapidly. It is now three years since he was taken in hand, and he is now in the eighth grade, averaging 86 per cent in all studies last term. He holds a prominent position in class and school work, is school correspondent for a daily newspaper, and is one of the brightest boys in the room. When he first came before the court, he lied habitually, stole, and could not be trusted with anything. He was nervous and uncertain in his movements. Now, although living in a bad neighborhood, he is holding himself up to a high standard. In addition to keeping up his studies, he is working after school to learn a trade. The good results in this case can be credited entirely to his giving up cigarettes.
"I might go on citing case after case of this kind. Sometimes the only remedy is commitment to the Industrial School, where tobacco can not be obtained. Often by persistent effort on the part of the probation officer, a boy can be weaned from his habit of smoking. In all cases the result, is the same—a great improvement in his mental and physical condition, a renewed energy, and a respect for right and wrong which seems strangely lacking in habitual cigarette smokers.
"Most of the bad examples of this type who come before me have begun smoking at the age of nine or ten years, and are steeped in tobacco when they first come to this court. We can not overestimate the effects of tobacco upon the mentality of the boy at this early age. That it is responsible in many,
many cases for the backward and truant boy has been proved beyond a shadow of doubt."
The Boy and the Cigarette
There is no better known worker among boys in this country than Eugene C. Foster, boys' secretary of the Detroit Y. M. C. A. The following is Mr. Foster's comment anent cigarette smoking:
"I have had the privilege of corresponding with many boys on the subject of cigarette smoking, and I have asked them frankly to state their opinions about this habit; besides this, I have selected from other boys' letters some statements which they have made. Here are some of the replies:
"'I smoked a little, but have given it up because I think it is a dirty habit and unbecoming a gentleman.'—F. R. O., 18, Mt. Hermon, Mass.
"'I do not smoke. At an early age my father convinced me that smoking injures a person and that it sometimes leads to drinking. As my father does not smoke I concluded that I could get along without it.'—H. D. W., 19, Lawrenceville, N. J.
"'I quit because I think the use of tobacco both unclean and unhealthy.'—E. D., 18, Philadelphia (a wireless operator who has made trips around the world).
"'A wise grandfather, who had smoked himself, urged me not to. To be free from the habit is a real asset now, while I am at the University.'—A. C., 19, Grand Rapids, Mich.
"'I quit. No sense in it, and it costs money.'—P. C., 16, Coldwater, Mich.
"'I did smoke, but I quit. I wanted to get out for athletics, and the smoking injured my chances.'—K. S., 15, Wausau, Wis.
"'I saw the effects on other boys, and saw that it was not good, so I stopped.'—L. A., 14, Eaton Rapids, Mich.
"'I never smoked because I have heard many men say that they wished they had never started the habit.'—R. E. H., 19, St. Johns, Mich.
"'I quit because a smoker does not make good in athletics. Besides this, it weakens a fellow, makes him nervous, stunts his growth, and dulls his brain.'—E. B., 16, Grand Rapids, Mich.
"'I have smoked several times. I quit because my ambition is to be, both morally and physically, as clean and as pure as I can.'—L. F. S., Milwaukee, Wis.
"'I don't smoke cigarettes for the following reasons:
|1—Poisonous||5—Waste of money|
|2—Unhealthy||6—Business houses do not|
|3—Dulls the brain|| hire boys who smoke|
|4—Causes an unpleasant odor ||7—It is a bad example to|
|about the person|| younger boys.
|—A. C. N., Oak Park, Ills.
"I wonder if we can't get together a few of the facts about cigarette smoking and put them all in a small space? Let's try. Suppose a boy should ask me whether it would be well to smoke cigarettes. What answer would I give? Here it is:
[1.]"'Cigarettes injure a growing boy physically. (a) They injure the lungs, cause shortness of 'wind' in athletic work, and weaken the lungs for attack by disease, (b) They injure the mucous membranes of the throat and air passages, and invite disease, (c) They injure the heart, as shown in the 'heart-writings' of the sphygmograph on page 16. (d) They help to increase blood pressure and to harden the arteries.
"2—Cigarettes injure a growing boy mentally. (a) Note the following statement made from studies of smoking and non-smoking students, at Kansas Agricultural College: 50 cigarette users, 62½% average, 81% failures; 50 non-smokers, 80% average, 19% failures.
"3—Cigarettes injure a growing boy socially, (a) Cigarette smoking reduces a boy's chances for business success and for advancement in his social life. (b) Cigarette smoking by boys is unlawful in most states, hence a boy who does it is a lawbreaker.
"'4—Cigarette smoking injures a boy morally, (a) The cigarette smoker is more likely to cheat, lie and steal than the non-smoker, (b) The large proportion of boys brought into the juvenile courts of the country are smokers, (c) Almost every drinker is a smoker. Drinking is a natural outgrowth of smoking on the part of boys. (d) The cigarette smoker is more likely than the non-smoker to get into other vile habits.
"So—shall a growing boy smoke?
"1—If he has a desire to be as strong physically as he can be with the body God has given him—No.
"2—If he doesn't wish for a dulled mind and reduced chances of success—No.
"3—If he cares about his companionships and his relations to more successful boys and men—No.
"4—If he does not prefer to run the chances of being a liar, a cheat, a thief, or a boy of unclean life—No.
"5—But—if he does not want to be strong physically, mentally, socially and morally, never at his best, and later, possibly a 'down-and-out'—Yes."
Physically, Mentally, Morally Deficient
For years Professor Templeton P. Twiggs was principal of the largest grammar school in Detroit, Michigan, located in the most congested section of the city, and drawing its clientele from all classes. More recently he has been supervisor of the departments of school attendance and employment permits having among other branches under his control the ungraded schools, where backward and incorrigible pupils are taught. His observations have extended over a long period, and he has made a close study of the causes leading up to truancy and incorrigibility. Referring to the general effect of cigarette smoking as observed in the ungraded rooms of the public schools, he formulates these conclusions on the physical, mental and moral effect of such indulgence:
"The physical development of the young habitual smoker is irreparably checked unless he has an unusually robust constitution. In any case the physical development is noticeably arrested. He has no ambition to enter into games or any boyish activities. He apparently cares little for his personal appearance, and could be classified as of the 'down-and-out' type.
"If he is under sixteen years of age, and the habit is well formed, his mind is a blank. He can not memorize and retain for even a period of twenty-four hours such easy matter as ordinary words in spelling. As to mental calculations required in the courses of arithmetic, he is practically helpless. He seems to have no control over himself in making a determined effort to accomplish definite things. Mental paralysis seems best to describe his condition.
"Through his loss of self control, he has no moral standard. He seems unable to distinguish between right and wrong, or to possess sufficient will power to enable him to do what is right even if he knows. He is absolutely untrustworthy, and there is usually no extreme to which he will not go.
"Such cases as these may be seen in a number of our ungraded rooms—the strongest indictment against the cigarette it seems to me it is possible to bring, an object lesson that should cause every boy who cares for his future to avoid falling into the same trap."
Will Power Broken, Moral Sense Blunted
The late Booker T. Washington [1856-1915], negro educator, and principal of TheTuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, which he organized at Tuskegee, Alabama, declared that cigarettes cause a breaking down of will power and a blunting of the moral sense. He wrote:
"We have had some interesting
experiences at Tuskegee Institute with boys who smoke cigarettes, for every year in the thousand or more young men assembled here there are, of course, a few who are addicted to this habit. We have a rule prohibiting smoking by our students.
"For disciplinary purposes our students are organized on a military basis with a commandant. Major J. B. Ramsey, who for many years has held this position, states that it is generally the students who have the cigarette habit who give the most trouble with reference to discipline. Their will power is broken down, their moral sense is blunted, and it is very difficult when inveterate smokers before coming here, to make anything of them; they will go to any length, take any sort of risk to get an opportunity to smoke a cigarette. It may also interest you to know that in connection with our hospital, boys addicted to the cigarette habit are given regular treatment for its cure."
Cigarettes Make Wrecks of Men
O. C. Hamlet, United States Navy, retired, Oakland, California, has had the harmful effects of cigarette smoking driven home in a forcible manner.
"I have a friend in government service," he writes, "who is practically a slave to the cigarette habit, and it has, in my opinion, entirely undermined his health, and he is now only fit for retirement. When on the active list and in command of a government vessel, I had an executive officer, a very bright and capable fellow when in his proper sense, but he had a craving for drink and cigarettes which finally proved to be his undoing. He had to leave the service, and I heard of his death in Cleveland, a short time ago, undoubtedly a miserable ending to what could have been a useful life."
Should Prohibit Smoking by Boys
Nathan P. Stauffer, M. D., sometime professor of hygiene in Dickinson College and head coach of the University of Pennsylvania baseball team; laryngologist and otologist to the tubercular wards Philadelphia General Hospital, the Home for Crippled Children, and ex-member of the executive committee National Collegiate Association, has had more than fifteen years of experience and contact with athletes, hence his views must carry weight. He writes:
"I am glad to see your crusade started against boys smoking cigarettes. To win in a race, or in American business competition, one must be physically and mentally fit. Smoking, drinking, gambling, overeating, sexual excesses and cigarette
smoking irritate, overstimulate and exhaust a man's principal nerve center. In inhaling cigarette smoke the delicate nasal and throat mucous membranes quickly absorb the nicotine and carry the stimulus rapidly to the nerve centers. When this controller becomes unbalanced from excesses, the heart and mind can not stand prolonged strain, consequently we find parched throats, unsteady legs and confused minds. The spark plug (brain) may become sooty from cigarette carbon and the engine (body) stops because the electric current (nerves) have been broken or run down. I believe that a law should be passed prohibiting men under twenty-one years of age from smoking; by that time they have attained their growth."
Moral as Well as Financial Gain
When the Jersey Cereal Food Company, of Cereal, Pa., decided to bar cigarette smokers from its employ in the sales force it was prompted by a desire for increased efficiency. Here is how the plan worked out, according to R. J. Foster, one of the directors of the Company:
"The past seven years we have debarred the cigarette smoker from our sales force. Out of five hundred men employed this year in our sales and advertising force not a single one uses the cigarette or liquor in any form. The cost of this department for results obtained has been cut almost fifty per cent since this rule went into effect. Past experience in our advertising and sales department has shown us that the cigarette smoker was inefficient, very frequently immoral, and practically without exception his results showed the highest cost on the unit of calculation of any of our men. The results obtained in cutting the cost in this department have been far beyond our expectation.
"Just last week the writer came across a group picture of one of our conventions seven years ago, when we made the announcement to our men of our attitude against the use of cigarettes and liquor by them. We find that only one man who used cigarettes at that time is still in our employ. He discontinued the use of them. Two of our salesmen who have captured the honor of leadership for the past three years were in the same picture. They are young men that have never at any time used cigarettes.
"At the time we took the stand we did, we were prompted from the standpoint of the dollar that we might receive on account of having more efficient men; but since we have been able to observe the great difference in results, we have felt we rather owe the business world a moral duty along this line, and emphasize the fact in as broad a way as we can."
Once Defended Tobacco—Now He Feels Differently
One of the authorities quoted by President Percival I. Hill, of the American Tobacco Company, in defense of tobacco was Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg, of Baltimore. Dr. Hirshberg did defend tobacco. He freely admits it. But he also frankly states that within a year his views have been entirely revised, because of the evidence adduced. In Physical Culture Magazine under the caption, "The Truth About Tobacco," Dr. Hirshberg says:
"Cigars, cigarettes, the pipe, and chewing tobacco are, like a certain notorious character, forever being haled into court before the bar of moral and scientific justice. With its moral aspect a scientist has nothing to do, but the truth is mighty, and must prevail, so the facts must, even though from day to day they seem to change, be brought out. Their eternal and ever shifting state may be judged from my analysis last year in Harper's Weekly, when I, a non-smoker, was forced to take up the cudgels in favor of smoking. Now after the lapse of a brief interval it must perforce be said that the world does move, because the evidence at hand seems to be against tobacco.
"Be these things as they may, comes Dr. George L. Meylan, of Columbia University, with an investigation of the real effects of tobacco upon smokers. After calmly and without moral prejudices pointing out the conflicting conclusions of many distinguished investigators, moral, medical and truly scientific, he comes at last to his own results, which are devoid of moral or economic endeavor, but aimed strictly at the physical and mental characteristics of men, more particularly college ones.
"Assisted by Dr. Hyman Cohen, A. N., they carefully tested 223 college men. There was about an equal division of smokers and non-smokers. It was soon plain that there was little difference in physical measurements between those who smoked and those who did not. What, however, was quickly discovered was the fact that muscular exertion and differences in scholarship which stand between the smokers and non-smokers are distinctly in favor of those who do not use tobacco.
"Every other possibility which might be present, such as age, sex,, weight, home surroundings, and previous conditions of servitude were excluded, and there certainly appears a striking superiority in athletics, social matters and scholarship entirely on the side of the tobacco abstainers.
"The non-smokers belong to another type, have hearts and blood-streams that are more resilient and have better endur-
ance; they grade higher in their studies; they are recruited from the poorer and more parentally attentive families; they grow better than the tobacco users; they are more ambitious; apply themselves better; and are more attentive than the smokers."
Cigarettes Caused Insanity
Dr. David Paulson, President of the Anti-Cigarette League of America, tells of an experience which caused him to enlist in the war against cigarettes:
"Years ago God used a never-to-be-forgotten incident to burn into my soul the enormity of the cigarette evil. An elderly woman with a faded red shawl thrown over her stooping shoulders came into my office and asked if I could see her boy. Two strong men then brought before me a wild-eyed, thoroughly insane youth of seventeen years. The mother wanted to know if he could recover. After investigating his case I was compelled to tell her that the outlook was hopeless and that she might as well send him to the insane asylum. She broke down and sobbed as though her heart would break. I asked her what had brought this terrible condition upon her son, and she said, 'Oh, it was cigarettes. He smoked more and more until he used fifty a day, and then his mind gave way.'"
Continuing, Dr. Paulson says:
"Some ask, 'Is it worse for a child to smoke a cigarette than for a man to smoke a cigar?' It is, for three reasons: First, a man may safely tolerate a quarter of a grain of morphine while we dare not give a child more than a sixteenth of a grain. The child's nervous system is peculiarly susceptible to the influence of such narcotic drugs as nicotine and morphine and hence an introduction to either of them early in hfe means almost certain nervous or mental disaster later in life. Second, the loosely packed cigarette does not permit the nicotine to condense to the same extent as when it is drawn through a pipe or a cigar, hence the smoker gets the full benefit of this virulent poison. Third, the oxidation of the cigarette paper produces a deadly poison that is only second in its effects to that of nicotine itself."
Precept Safer Guide Than is Example
Professor Winfield S. Hall, of Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, is one of the country's foremost physiologists. Professor Hall knows what smoking means, as he was for years addicted to the habit. Regarding the practice, and how it is viewed even by those who continue it, he says in the course of a personal letter to young men:
"Before entering the competition which is society's balance in which every aspirant for success must be weighed, suppose a young man seeks the advice of his elders as to what he can take or do to make his chances for success more certain or to make the success more complete. If he asks his father or grandfather, do you suppose he will be advised to begin the use of tobacco or opium or alcoholic beverages? If he ask a physician, will he be advised to begin the use of some drug, as nicotine, morphine, cocaine, which will blunt his sensibilities, take the edge off his alertness, and make him care less if his tailor's bill is unpaid? These powers are the capital stock of a young man. Knowingly to decrease the value or efficiency of one's capital is recognized by all men as a very poor business proceeding.
"The young man may remind us that his father and his grandfather, his legal adviser, his physician, and his pastor all smoke, even though they with one accord advise young men not to follow their example. If these men ]ust referred to have secured a measure of success, it was not because of their use of tobacco, but in spite of that habit. It is usually more safe to be guided by the precept of our advisers than by their example.
"Though many professional men use tobacco, I have yet to hear the first one advise a young man or boy to begin its use. If asked whether they would advise a young man to begin the use of tobacco, they uniformly answer, 'No.' Most men who use tobacco regret that they ever formed the habit, but make no effort, or at best only ineffectual efforts, to stop it. This is the universal experience with a drug habit, whether the drug be nicotine, alcohol or morphine."
English Investigators Are Alarmed
According to the Boston Herald, a select committee of Englishmen, of which Lord Beauchamp, the Bishop of Ripon, Lord Aberdare, Lord Heneage and Lord Riddolph were members, made a report in furtherance of a departmental report previously made on physical deterioriation, and expressed emphatically their approbation of a recommendation of the latter report
"that a bill should be brought before Parliament at an early date, having for its object to prohibit the sale of tobacco and cigarettes to children below a certain age."The committee says further that they were much impressed by the unanimous opinion of all the witnesses who came before them, including the representatives of the tobacco trade, that the habit of juvenile smoking "produced indirectly a number of ills, facilitated the work of disease, and led to the habit of
drink." Especially they were impressed by the fact that the evidences of physical deterioration that were apparent in boys were not apparent in girls, who, as a rule, are free from the habit. It was recognized that juvenile smoking had greatly increased within a few years, and the committee held that it was having a bad effect on the general health and physique of the present generation, and that these effects would be still worse upon following generations.
Our Tobacco Bill
In the Unpopular Review for January, 1914 [Ed. Note: Volume 1, pages 3-20], Henry W. Farnam, Professor of Economics in Yale University, had an intensely interesting and illuminating article on "Our Tobacco Bill," from which we have very kindly been permitted to quote. Says Professor Farnam:
|"The importance of tobacco in our national budget is shown by the latest census figures, according to which it ranks eleventh among the industries of the country, with respect to the value of the product. Our manufactured tobacco was worth at the factory in 1909, $416,690,000. It thus outranked bread and other bakery products, women's clothing, copper, malt liquors, automobiles, petroleum and distilled liquors. It was but about one-third less important than manufactures of cotton. Its value was more than twice as great as that of distilled liquors.
"A careful statistician, Professor William B. Bailey, of Yale, published, nearly two years ago, some figures showing that the people of the United States spent at that time in a single year about $1,100,000,000 on tobacco. As the receipts from the internal revenue tax on tobacco have increased by about fourteen per cent in the last two years, it seems fair to assume that the general consumption has increased by this amount. It seems, therefore, conservative to state that at the present time the people are spending at least $1,200,000,000 for the pleasure of smoking and chewing.
"The significance of these figures can best be appreciated if we compare them with other items in our national budget. To put the matter concretely, 'tobacco takers' spend in a single year twice the amount spent by the entire country on railroad travel and about three times the amount which it spends on its common school system; they pay out annually about three times the entire cost of the Panama canal; they destroy directly about three times as much property as was destroyed in the San Francisco earthquake. Their smokes and chews cost them just about twice what it costs to maintain the government of the United States, including the interest on
Had the information supplied by Mr. Percival I. Hill, President of the American Tobacco Company, regarding the increase in cigarette smoking been available at the time, Professor Farnam could have carried his analysis much further, with even more interesting disclosures, because the use of cigarettes has grown out of all proportion to the consumption of tobacco in other forms.
Mr. Hill states—and his figures are authoritative—that in 1913 fifteen billion eight hundred million cigarettes were made in the United States. That means one billion five hundred and eighty millions packages of cigarettes with ten in a package—the standard quantity.
These range in price from five cents per package of ten for the cheapest grades to thirty-five cents for the same-sized package in the choicer brands. Of course, a vastly greater quantity of the cheaper grades are sold than of the higher, because the boy who is acquiring the cigarette habit seldom has the money to squander on the more expensive brands. However, putting a price of ten cents on each package sold, it will be found that in 1913, according to Mr. Hill's production figures, there would have been spent for cigarettes alone, one hundred and fifty-eight million dollars.
That is a lot of money. Let us see how it compares with certain items in the national budget. From 1792, when the government began to mint coins on a large scale, to June 30, 1913, there had been turned out nickels. $39,010,924.60. Dimes coined during that period aggregated $68,129,827. Of quarters there were $99,653,261.25, of coppers $21,812,855.73,
|the public debt. Our smokers could in a year and a half pay off the entire bonded debt of our states, cities and counties, as it was in 1902, and in an additional nine months the entire interest-bearing debt of the United States if they were willing to exercise the self-denial which was exercised a few years ago by the Persian people.
"A well known international jurist not long ago put together, as an argument against war, figures showing the expenditure of the leading nations of the world on their army and navy. The list included Germany, Russia, France, Great Britain and Japan. The figures for 1910 footed up $1,217,000,000, or approximately the amount devoted to tobacco by the people of the United States in a single year. Our smokers impose upon the resources of the country a burden larger than the war indemnity which Germany exacted of France after a humiliating defeat in 1871; they spend about six times what it costs the German Empire to maintain its elaborate and comprehensive system of workingmen's insurance."
In other words, the nation's cigarette bill for 1913, based on an average price of ten cents a box, was equal to all the nickels, dimes and pennies minted by the government in one hundred and twenty years, with enough left over to have nearly supported the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the national government during 1914.
The money appropriated by Congress to support the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the government—both houses of congress, president, vice-president, United States Courts, etc.—was $35,172,434.50, or considerably less than one-quarter what went up in smoke in the form of cigarettes during the year on which statistics were available. It cost $94,266,145.51 to support the army in 1914—less than two-thirds the cigarette bill of the nation. To maintain our navy for the same time necessitated an outlay of $140,718,434.53, or $17,000,000 less than was invested in cigarettes. Interest and other annual charges on the national debt amount to the comparatively insignificant sum of $22,835,000—one-seventh the national cigarette bill.
Comparisons could be continued indefinitely, but enough has been brought out to give a clear idea of what the cigarette is costing the nation each year in dollars and cents, aside from the mental and moral and physical harm that is being wrought, and which is of far greater significance, although obviously it cannot be expressed in dollars and cents.
Is the Cigarette a Slaver?
Here is a story taken from the Detroit Free Press so typical of the hold the cigarette habit takes on its victims as to require no comment further than to call attention to what one addicted to the use of the little white slaver did with his last fifteen cents as prison gates yawned to engulf him:
"Neil Benstead, 32 years old, the fugitive from justice who surrendered himself to the Detroit police Sunday afternoon, even though he faces an unexpired term of seven years in Jackson, explains very frankly his reason for doing so.
"'I had done seven years of a fourteen-year sentence for forgery, and been paroled when I laid down five worthless checks for $30 apiece in Memphis, Mich., about a year ago,' said Benstead. 'I easily made my escape to Ohio. There I went to work as a boiler-maker in a locomotive works at Lima, Ohio. I was making $25 a week and had $260 in the bank.
"'Everything went along well until about two weeks ago when I saw two Lima plain clothes men looking over the men in the shop. I knew they were looking for me and made up
my mind quickly. That evening I drew the $260 I had saved from the bank. I spent it having one last fling in Ohio cities. When I got to Toledo and found that I had just enough for fare to Detroit I boarded the car, intending to give myself up.
"'I found that I had just fifteen cents left when I reached Detroit. That went for a package of cigarettes.'
Benstead did not have a cent when the detectives searched his clothes."
|Act well your part; there all the honor lies."—Alexander Pope.|
TO THE BOY WHO EXPECTS TO
Pliny, the Elder [23 C.E. - 79 C.E.], one of the wisest men of Ancient Rome, laid down the precept that "The best plan is to profit by the folly of others."
That rule holds just as good today as it did when first given utterance to; and it is particularly true in its relation to the cigarette evil.
Employers of labor are each year becoming more strict in their requirements—for their own good and for that of the men in their employ. The physical strain imposed is such that only the strong can come through with credit.
But even more essential than the question of brawn is that of brain. The youth who gets to the front in any line must be wide-awake, alert, with a mind that is clear and capable of tackling the problems that come up.
The boy or the young man whose brain is fogged by the use of cigarettes finds himself hopelessly handicapped. His services are accepted only as a last resort; and if there is anyone else available, he is not entrusted with important matters or considered for future possibilities.
This is the testimony of men in every walk of life who have spoken to you through the pages of this booklet—men who have made good, and who know exactly why some boys succeed and why others make a sorry failure of anything they attempt.
But, the most anyone can do is to point out the dangers that confront you. You must avoid them if you play safe.
A physician may prescribe a remedy—but unless you take it there will never come a cure.
It is the same with the cigarette habit—if you are ever freed from it, it will be largely because you exercise the will power given you and throw off the yoke of the cigarette.
And if you are not already enslaved, the safest and easiest way to escape the danger is to follow the advice of Pliny the Elder, who is wise in our generation as well as his own, and "profit by the folly of others," by avoiding cigarettes.
Again We Quote Connie Mack
Connie Mack, long manager of the Philadelphia Athletics, is conceded by all to be one of the brainiest leaders in the baseball world, and one of the keenest students of players the game has ever known.
He has watched the rise and the fall of countless stars in the profession he has followed with such credit—and he has made it his business to analyze their undoing. In reply to an inquiry he said:
"There is very little cigarette smoking among our baseball boys. We do everything in our power to discourage the use of cigarettes, knowing the great harm it has done to those players who have been addicted to them.
"We find that players who do smoke never amount to a great deal in the profession—and I would say that this goes for all professions. It is my candid opinion—and I have watched very closely the last dozen years or so—that boys at the age of ten to fifteen who have continued smoking cigarettes do not, as a rule, amount to anything. They are unfitted in every way for any kind of work where brains are needed.
"Players, for instance, who should have continued in the game until they were at the age of thirty to thirty-five years have had to be let out years before their time, as the cigarette poison, getting into their system, has unnerved and weakened them so that they were utterly unfit for the duty they had to perform.
"No boy or man can expect to succeed to a high position in the world and continue the use of cigarettes."
Clarke Griffith's Ultimatum
Clarke Griffith, Manager of the Washington "Nationals" is another base ball leader who has every chance to watch theeffects of personal habits on the playing abilities of his team mates.
His efforts to produce a winning team have caused him to issue this bulletin to the players.
"Our failure to come up to expectations has been largely due to the fact that some of the players on whom we depended were cigarette fiends. There will be no more of it. Any player who insists on smoking cigarettes is thru, so far as the "Nationals" are concerned; and that goes so long as I am manager of the team. No man in athletics for a living can use them."
What Ty Cobb Thinks of Cigarettes
Every body knows of Ty Cobb, foremost ball-player of his time, and probably the greatest exponent the game has ever known. Cobb is the idol of every youthful fan, the one whose success on the diamond all would emulate. He plays the hardest of any man in the game, and he can be depended upon every day.
Cobb mixes with the men of his profession; and he knows better than do most of them what their weakness is and its cause. His warning should be heeded by every boy who wants to make something of himself. Writes Ty:
"Too much can not be said against the evils of cigarette smoking. It stupifies the brain, saps vitality, undermines one's health, and lessens the moral fiber of the man. No boy who hopes to be successful in any line can afford to contract a habit that is so detrimental to his physical and moral development.
"The alert brain, the strong body, and the moral stamina necessary for success in any line of endeavor are weakened and destroyed by the cigarette habit; and young men should realize its disastrous effects."
Seventy-five Per Cent of Drink
Due to Tobacco
John D. Quackenbos, A.M., M.D., emeritus professor in Columbia University, New York City, is one of the most eminent members of the medical profession. Speaking recently before the American Society for the Study of Alcohol and Narcotic Drugs, at Washington, D. C., Dr. Quackenbos said:
"Physicians who have had much to do with alcoholic inebriates realize that there is a direct relationship between alcohol addiction and tobacco abuse. The first effect of tobacco smoking is stimulating, with a rise of blood pressure; and if the smoking be continued, the nerve cells are depressed. The depression is cumulative in the system of the smoker, and after a varying interval (of days, weeks or months) it creates an instinctive demand for the antidote to tobacco poisoning—and that is alcohol. The intemperate use of tobacco thus explains 75 per cent of all drink-habit cases. The alcoholic thirst is engendered and inflamed by smoke.
"The real danger in smoking consists largely in the habit of inhalation whereby the volatilized poisons are brought into
immediate contact with at least 1000 square feet of vascular air-sac walls in the lungs, and are thus promptly and fully absorbed to be diffused into the blood and carried on their disastrous errand to the several organs of the body.
"Inhalers of tobacco smoke are listless, forgetful, undependable, backward in study, and conspicuously lacking in power of attention and application. A patient who began to smoke at seven, and smoked all the time he was awake, until, as he described it, he 'got a jag on the smoke,' at 35 could not pin himself down to any business. As the habit is pushed, the habitué becomes excessively nervous, suffers from shortness of breath, muscular cramps and tremblings, rapid and irregular heart, nausea, giddiness, insomnia, irritable throat (cigarette cough), impaired digestion, and often from dimness of vision which has been known to culminate in blindness (tobacco amaurosis).
"Gravest of all the evils resulting is the lessening or complete loss of moral sensibility, with a conspicuous tendency to falsehood and theft. The moral propensities are eventually destroyed because of the destruction of those elements of the brain through which moral force is expressed. The victim degenerates into a sallow, unmanly, irresponsible incompetent, in splendid fettle for the penitentiary or the asylum. Such is the influence on character of the cigarette habit, which has developed into a form of moral insanity.
"Alcoholism can not be cured until the inhalation habit is disposed of.
"The government has begun a most meritorious campaign against drug taking in the enforcement of the Harrison law. But it has left unnoticed two habits that are doing infinitely more damage to the brains and physical constitutions of the people of the United States than all the drugs put many times together, viz., the drink and cigarette habits. Three times the amount of our national debt (about $3,000,000,000) is spent annually in the country on alcoholic drinks and to-bacco. Twenty billion cigarettes, it is estimated, are smoked every year in the United States. Boys and girls, men and women, are permitted without protest from high quarters to destroy their mental faculties and moral propensities by this practice. Physicians have come to realize that those who abandon themselves to the double indulgence in tobacco and alcohol are practically committing suicide on the installment plan. They can never be at their best, and a cigarette smoker represents as hazardous a risk from the viewpoint of life insurance as a consumer of liquor."
No "Slavers" For These Fighting Men
One of the first battalions to leave Canada at the call of the mother country when the European war broke out was the Victoria Rifles. And one of the first things Lieut. Col. J. A. Gunn, commanding the Twenty-fourth Battalion Victoria Rifles did, was to requisition a supply of copies of "The Case Against the Little White Slaver," for distribution among his men.
Just before leaving for England with the Victoria Rifles, on their way to the trenches, Lieut. Col. Gunn wrote Mr. Ford regarding his work among the men, and the progress they had made, in the course of his letter stating:
"I have sworn in about five hundred men, and every man I have spoken to personally, telling him that the cigarette must go. On more than one occasion men, when they have come to enlist, and have heard that the commanding officer was such a strict disciplinarian, and was down on cigarettes and drunkenness, have decided they would not like to serve with him. The men of the battalion, however, all appreciate what it means.
"It will not be many days now until we get our marching orders, and I am sending you this to tell you that your little pamphlet has done splendid work and has been distributed where it will do the most good. In fact, I am taking several hundred of them with me on our transport, so that the men will have an opportunity of reading them over again."
Practice As Well As Preachment
Professor Arville O. DeWeese, County Superintendent of Public Schools for Harrison County, Indiana, is one of those individuals who believe that what is worth preaching is also worth practicing. That is why he issued the following notice: "To the Teachers of Harrison County—
"Any action which might be construed to the interference on the part of one individual with the personal rights and liberties of another should be given the most diligent study and careful consideration. For the past two years I have observed the practice of cigarette smoking on the part of several teachers of the county. Although this practice has been discouraged, due to a dislike to interfere in a positive way with the privileges of an individual, no ultimatum has been placed on the practice.
"But my personal study and careful observation of the matter for the past two years has convinced me that this practice among our public school teachers has a tendency to affect for the worse not only the pupils of the teacher but all school children who know the cigarette smoker to be a teacher. And since the welfare of our boys and girls must be considered before the personal liberties of our teachers, and since the evils of cigarette smoking are known to all, it becomes necessary to place the following ultimatum on the practice:
'No teacher will be licensed, and the license of all licensed teachers will be revoked who, after the publication and general distribution of this notice, are known to smoke a cigarette either privately or publicly in such a manner that any school child in Harrison County might directly or indirectly know of the same.'
"I believe that the teachers of Harrison County appreciate to such a high extent the influence and responsibility of their work that they are more than willing to deprive themselves of selfish pleasures if they believe that these pleasures interfere with the development of the children entrusted to their care. I believe that none of our teachers would be guilty of this habit unless they doubted its evil influence on the boys and girls with whom they labor. This notice only gives the welfare of our boys and girls the benefit of the doubt."
Smoking By The Young Is Deadly
Dr. E. C. Helm is a physician of long standing and wide practice in Beloit, Wisconsin. He also is clerk of the Board of Education. His opportunities for thorough observation in both capacities gives weight to this condemnation of the cigarette:
"I have been a member of the school board for eighteen years, and a physician twice that long, and have long felt that nicotine was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, menace to boys.
"Nicotine is one of our most deadly drugs, and is especially dangerous to the young and growing, as are all narcotics. Mr. Edison is doing a great work by pointing out the danger from the burning paper; but the constant deadly poison always present is nicotine.
"I think there is no question but that the smoking of pipes and cigars and the chewing of tobacco by the young is deadly. However, the nicotine is so concentrated in these forms, and makes children so deathly sick, they will resort to the cigarette, thus getting the same deadly poison in less concentrated form at first.
"Soon, however, they lose this seeming advantage, because they speedily learn to inhale the smoke, thus getting the nicotine as instantaneously into their systems as though it were injected under the skin.
"You certainly are right in saying that your fight is to save those under twenty-one. And as they usually commence with cigarettes, the chief fight must be waged against the cigarette."
Catches The Little Fellow
"I am very much interested in the fight against the little coffin nail. I feel it is our greatest evil today, because it catches hold of the little fellow and has him within its grasp before he is aware of the deadening effects. I find so many users among the young people with whom I have to deal in my work, and its effect is plainly seen in their lack of development.
"I am far more interested in the making of men than of book-keepers only, for the need of today is men—real men—to do the world's work."
- Knoxville Business College,
- Knoxville, Tennessee.
Half the Liquor Patients Smoke Cigarettes
The Keeley Institute in Grand Rapids, Mich., is conducted for the cure of liquor, drug and tobacco addictions. Guy C. Beckwith, Manager of the Institute, has been familiar with this line of work for many years. He has had occasion to watch hundreds of cases—and he found that 50 per cent to 60 per cent of those who make their way to the institution use cigarettes. Writes Mr. Beckwith:
"We have observed that a great many of our patients, especially among the younger element, use cigarettes. Generally speaking, owing to the fact that they are not permitted to use them for the four weeks they are here for the liquor treatment, they very seldom return to their use after going home.
"But I have found this to hold true, that several patients who have relapsed and gone back to drinking have told the
writer when returning here for treatment for the liquor addiction, that they laid their downfall to the use of cigarettes after they went home, not following our advice to leave them alone.
"You understand that we do not blame all relapses to this condition, but I have had a number of such cases under my observation in the fourteen years with which I have been connected with this institution.
"When the writer took the treatment for the liquor addiction some fourteen years ago, few of the patients used cigarettes— probably not one in ten. At the present time 50 per cent to 60 per cent, and possibly more, indulge, some to excess, some moderately, and some just during this period of drinking.
"We find that the men who use cigarettes do not care to smoke them if they can not inhale the smoke. This is what causes the bad effects, and the men who do use them and come here for treatment for the liquor addiction especially are in much worse physical and mental condition than those who do not use them."
The Tobacco Habit
The New York Medical Record publishes an article on "The Tobacco Habit," by Dr. Robert Abbe, the senior surgeon of St. Luke's hospital. The doctor is of the opinion that in our northern climate there is little need for the stimulation of mind or body by tobacco.
"Excessive smoking during work," he says, "is a delusion when men claim that it clears their brains and keeps them active. It is like the Scotchman's snuff. If one analyzes the result, however, one can see that the false energy is as abnormal as the whip lash to a horse, and in the end hurtful. On the other hand, one sees numerous high officials in corporations of national importance, who think their weighty responsibilities are best met by cool, clear brains and natural balance of judgment, unwarped by stimulants, either alcoholic or tobacco.
The stand taken by many against tobacco is an unpopular fight. The frontier man sneers at the tenderfoot who refuses whisky and a chew with the remark: 'Don't drink? Don't chew? What do you do to smell like a man?' The college undergraduate is invited to attend a 'smoker,' and is initiated into a reeking atmosphere of tobacco. Yet, at West Point, smoking was prohibited in 1891, and fifteen years later, the summary of medical records shows the great advantage in work and discipline. In college a group of men subjected to ergograph tests during abstinence and again after four days' smoking is said to have shown a loss of 40 per cent muscle power. In tryouts for football squads it is said that half as many smokers as non-smokers are successful."
Reprint from Detroit Times, Feb. 10, 1916.
How Cigarettes Affect Boys'
An interesting investigation has recently been made by Roy Dimmitt, principal of Ensley High School, Birmingham, Alabama, assisted by Joseph Kantor, a pupil.
Being convinced that cigarette smoking was detrimental to any growing boy, Mr. Dimmitt made this investigation in his own school to obtain facts.
Mr. Dimmitt said,
"This experiment represents a series of investigations to determine the relative standing in the formal school activities of boys in the Ensley High School who are, and of those who are not, addicted to the habit of cigarette smoking.
Group A consists of boys who passed in all subjects for the semester unconditionally.
Group B consists of those who failed in one and not more than two subjects. (Conditional.)
Group C consists of those who failed in more than two topics and hence failed of promotion. (Failed.)
Group D consists of those who, for various reasons, withdrew from school before the end of the semester. (Withdrawn.)
The data was assembled by Joseph Kantor, a pupil of Ensley High.
Data—Boys in school, 152; smokers, 46 (30.26%); non-smokers, 106.
"At the time this experiment was conducted there were 152 boys in school. Of this number 46 or about 30% were cigarette smokers. Some had been smokers for several years with the habit firmly fixed; others were just beginning and had probably not yet experienced any evil effects from the habit. No distinction is made between these, however, and all are classed as 'smokers.' This may account to some extent for the closeness of the figures representing average grades. Those who do not use tobacco are herein classed as 'Non-smokers.'
"For comparison the pupils are further divided into groups of relative scholarship."
Group A (Promoted Pupils.)
|In Group A||26.1 %||73.8 %
|Average days present (88 possible)||81||85|
|Average days absent||4||0.89
|Average times tardy||1.81||0.9|
|Average deportment grades||91%||92%
|Average English grades||72%||73.4%|
|Average Latin grades||72%||73%|
|Average History grades||76%||78%|
|Average Mathematics grades||78%||87%|
|Average Science grades||79%||83%|
|Average credits received||4.5||4.8|
Group B (Conditioned Pupils.)
|In Group B||51.3 %||48.7 %|
|Average days present (88 possible)||74||82|
|Average days absent||3.4||2|
|Average times tardy||1.08||0.76|
|Average Deportment grades||87%||85%|
|Average English grades||61%||66%|
|Average Latin grades||52%||55%|
|Average History grades||63%||68%|
|Average Mathematics grades||69%||72%|
|Average Science grades||72%||79%|
|Average credits received||3.2||3.8|
Conclusions: It is interesting to note that out of the 25 groups of data given above, 24 groups are decidedly in favor of the pupils who do not use cigarettes. This is true not only in scholarship, but in attendance, punctuality and deportment as well.
The investigations failed to disclose whether the smoking of cigarettes caused the weakness in the pupils, or whether a general weakness from other sources caused pupils both to make low grades and to yield to the temptation of smoking.
However, the investigations did disclose this fact, whatever may be the causes, that unquestionably the non-smokers so far as this school is concerned, are the more desirable citizens in point of efficiency.
|In school, 152||30.26%||69.74%|
|In Group A (Promoted)||26.1%||73.8%|
|In Group B (Conditioned)||51.3%||48.7%|
|In Group C (Failed)||62%||38%|
|In Group D (Withdrawn)||68%||32%|
Twenty-Three Years Watching Failures
"Twenty-three years of my life have been spent in business college work, and I say without hesitation that the cigarette has been the one thing which has caused more failures on the part of the boys using them than any other thing I can mention. I have labored with boys to give them up—successfully with some; with others I failed. And not one that I know today, who has continued in the habit, amounts to anything."
W. H. COPPINS,
- Dixon, Ills.
Kill The Habit Or It Will Kill You
"It is often said that the cigarette is a boy's habit, which he soon outgrows," writes Rev. Lawrence N. Sirrell, of Auburn, N Y., in "The Civic Forum." "Even if this is true—of which I am not certain—there is an immense amount of injury done him while he is growing.
"Teachers and physicians agree that it is a serious hindrance and a real menace. Those who have thrown off its thrall unite in its condemnation. Every thinking man admits it is an extravagance, and even the pipe and cigar smoker dislikes to see his boy use the measly thing.
"My own experience as a smoker, and my observation of others, confirms the evidence of the physician and the teacher. An astonishingly large number of the boys and young men sent to the reformatories of the various states are victims of the cigarette; and while it may be quite true that it is not the sole cause of their criminality, it is so often a contributory vice that we cannot honestly disassociate it from the other causes.
"I have learned that the average boy who smokes lowers his moral standing, stunts his body, weakens and vitiates his mind, stains his character as certainly as he stains his fingers, and opens wide the doorway for the other bad habits which are its associates. "My advice to the cigarette smoker is not only to defeat the habit, but to kill it, or it will kill you."
The Re-Making of Casimir
Casimir first attracted attention when he appeared in juvenile court to answer to a charge of malicious destruction of property—a serious offense to lodge against one so young in everything but viciousness.
As he took his seat near the judge that morning, his feet barely touched the floor, and the shock of tow-colored hair which seemed determined to show how many different ways it could stand, just came even with the top of the chair back.
His face had the color of putty—and just about as much expression. His clothes were ill-fitting and ragged, his shoes mud-covered, and the cap he twirled nervously while awaiting his turn with the judge, had the appearance of having been fished out of an ash-barrel. His features were grimy, and a glance at his hands left doubt as to his being white or black.
Little more than a child in size, Casimir was the leader of a juvenile gang, all the members of which were some years older than their acknowledged chief, that terrorized the district in which they lived.
If there was any devilment on foot, suspicion immediately fell upon Casimir—and seldom was the blame therefor misdirected. He could conjure up more cussedness than even such a gang as he ruled, could execute.
The particular misdeed that brought Casimir and his followers into court at this time was making a target of the windows in a public school to get even with the principal who had kept one of the youthful terrors after hours for some flagrant infraction of a rule.
Casimir admitted the deed with an air of bravado that impressed his companions. But underneath an attitude of superiority there was the unmistakable evidence of moral and intellectual degeneracy.
If he chose to answer the questions put to him by the judge, he did so in guttural monosyllables. There was no indication of penitence. He was openly defiant, and threats of jail and a long term at the state reformatory failed to impress him.
The despair of truant officers, he had been given up as hope-less by his family. His mother stated that when other corrective measures failed, she had "whaled him till she busted the club."
Whereupon he left home, sleeping in a barn and in hallways, from which he directed the operations of his henchmen and conducted raids on his own account.
"Hold out your hands," the judge ordered, sternly, changing his attitude with startling abruptness.
Two grimy hands were extended almost before their possessor realized what was taking place.
"Cigarettes," said the judge, noting the tell-tale stains on the dirty fingers. "How long have you [a targeted child] been smoking them?"
A sullen shake of the frowsly head was the only reply.
"Very long?" persisted the judge, his tones softening.
There was an affirmative nod.
"How many do you smoke in a day?"
Casimir stared at the floor, and moved uneasily in his seat. The bravado of a few minutes before was passing under the kindly but persistent questioning of the judge.
"I dunno," he murmured, "more'n that, sometimes. More'n a hundred, I guess."
There was a pause, while the judge waited for the rest of the recital.
"Lots of days I smoke three packages of 'makins,' an' some-four an' sometimes four an' five, or more, if I can get 'em," confessed Casimir. "I smoke all the time."
The judge led the way into his private office, where he could talk more freely with the youthful prisoner than would be possible in the courtroom.
* * *
"What makes you act like you do?" he asked, after a little chat which served to set Casimir at ease.
The lips quivered. A sob shook the slight frame, and tears that could no longer be held back stole down the dirt-stained cheeks.
"I dunno what makes me do such things," he confessed, his voice trembling, "unless it's cigarets. I smoke an' smoke an' then I just got to do something—an' it seems as though I always do the wrong things. I ain't no good to anybody."
The fatherly talk that followed would have moved a much more seasoned transgressor than even Casimir.
"I'm going to give you one more chance, Casimir," the judge said, in conclusion. "It is going to be a hard one—but I believe you have the right stuff in you. Do you want to quit smoking cigarettes?"
There was a pathetic eagerness in the attitude of the boy, as he half sprang from the chair.
"All right. We'll send you to a clinic where they'll help cure you—but you'll have to do the real work yourself. You
|[Ed. Note: As the hypocritical, concern-faking, judge well knew, the child Casimir did not know to answer:
“Listen, you bribe-taking wind-bag, cigarettes are made available because the cigarette ban law is unenforced,
due to rampant bribery of officials and judges such as yourself, and
pursuant to post-Civil War retribution,
and your malicious, perverted fixating on individuals, not on systemic solutions
“You bribe-taking sleaze do not
so then they can't be making tobacco available any more to hook (addict) children, and cause abulia (anomie) in children such as myself, and
thus resultant crime incidents, as you (like all judges) well know for near a century.”
mustn't smoke a cigarette and mustn't go with boys who do. Keep away from them—it is the only chance to make a man of yourself. If I find you are not doing as I tell you, you will go to prison—and all the excuses you can make will not help any."
It was a vastly different Casimir who left the juvenile court that day, and his youthful admirers who lingered to greet him got never so much as a glance of recognition for their loyalty.
Almost a year later an alert, keen-eyed lad spoke to me as we met on the street. For an instant I was puzzled. Then the scene in the court room that day came back like a flash.
"Casimir," I ejaculated.
"Yes, sir," was the polite reply, as he smiled with pleasure at the recognition, at the same time extending a hand politely.
"I hardly knew you," I confessed. "How are you getting along?"
"Fine. I go to school every day, and next June I'll get my working papers, and then I'll be able to care for myself and help the family, too."
"And the cigarettes?" I inquired. "Did you quit smoking?"
"Sure thing. It was awful hard at first, but I never touched them after what the judge did for me. And I've got some of the boys I used to go with to quit. And say, you don't know what a difference it makes. No more smoking cigarettes and being tough and sleeping in a barn and taking chances on going to prison for me."
And thus we have gathered from authoritative sources the best opinions based on real facts regarding the effect of cigarette smoking. From this, we note it is evident beyond question that the use of tobacco by the young man is injurious to his health. That it is injurious to a certain extent to the adult remains for us to judge from those who have continued the habit long enough to become enslaved to it and suffer the consequences.
The world of today needs men, not those whose minds and will power have been weakened or destroyed by the desire and craving for alcohol and tobacco but instead men with initiative and vigor, whose mentality is untainted by ruinous habits.
Every young man should aspire to take advantage of the opportunity which at some time during his life beckons him and he should be ready with the freshness of youth and not enveloped in the fumes of an offensive and injurious cigarette.