Welcome to the book The Cigarette As A Physician Sees It (1931), by Daniel H. Kress, M.D. To go to the "Table of Contents" immediately, click here.
Tobacco pushers and their accessories conceal the breadth of tobacco effects, the enormity of the tobacco holocaust, and the long record of documentation.
The concealment process is called the "tobacco taboo." Other pertinent words are "censorship" and "disinformation."
Here is the text by neurologist Daniel H. Kress, M.D., of an early exposé (1931) of tobacco dangers. (He wrote a series of such books.) It cites facts you rarely ever see, due to the "tobacco taboo."
The phrase "tobacco taboo" is the term for the pro-tobacco censorship policy—to not report most facts about tobacco.
This is one in a series of reprints of a century of tobacco exposé books. As you will see, information about the tobacco danger was already being circulated in 1931, 33 years before the famous 1964 Surgeon General Report. Be prepared.
Kress proposed various solutions, 'natural' remedies, good parental examples, advertising ban, FDA action, etc., all of which have been ineffective, undermined, or otherwise to no avail.
The real solution is systemic and thus two-fold:
(a) adoption of the 1897 concept everywhere, and
(b) criminal prosecutions for tobacco-caused deaths.

The Cigarette As A Physician Sees It
by Daniel H. Kress, M.D.
(Mountain View, CA:
Pacific Press Pub Ass'n, 1931)

Table of Contents
  1. Physical Effect of Tobacco5
If Tombstones Told The Truth
The Tobacco Test at Annapolis
"Tobacco Makes Me Feel Good"
Tobacco and Degenerative Diseases
Is Tobacco A Nerve Quieter?
Chauncey Depew's Experience With Tobacco
Luther Burbank's Indictment
  2. How and Why Tobacco Injures21
Nineteen Poisons in Tobacco
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Cigarettes The Most Harmful
Into The Blood Stream
How Tobacco Affects The Smoker
Blood Pressure and Nicotine
Tobacco "Tolerance"
  3. Women Smokers29
More Injurious to Women
Prematurely Aged
Shriveled Rather Than Slenderized
Nicotine's Brand Stamped on Children
Prenatal Nicotine Poisoning
The Slaughter of the Innocents
Tends to Cause Sterility
The Halo Around Mother's Head
  4. The Boy and the Cigarette37
Turned into Dunces
Not A Good Business Risk
Dulls The Mind's Keen Edge
Poor Chance in Business World
The Testimony of a Judge
Devastates the Boy's Character
  5. The Athlete and Tobacco46
Grantland Rice Says
"Connie Mack" and Ty Cobb
They Could Not Buy Dempsey
  6. Billions for the Tobacco God52
Human Sacrifices
A Monument to Folly
Fifty Million Fire Loss
  7. Vicious Tobacco Advertising56
Does the Medical Profession Indorse Tobacco?
A Physician's Scathing Rebuke
What Coach "Bill" Roper Says
The Sham and the Shame of It
Luring Girls and Women
Tobacco Advertisers Challenged
  8. Tobacco's Effect on Character67
Nicotine's Fetters Almost Unbreakable
Personal Liberty Surrendered
The Opinion of Many Judges
What the Schoolmen Say
  9. What Shall We Do About It?76
Advertising Should Be Controlled
The Rights of Nonsmokers
The Bad Example of Adults
What Manly Men Will Do
10. A Cure for the Tobacco Habit87
Don't Try to Taper Off
Diet A Big Factor
Natural Foods Best
Fruit A Foe of Tobacco
The Aid of Religion
The Case of an Actress
Ferrin Quits Tobacco
Divorced from Lady Nicotine



DR. D. H. KRESS is eminently fitted to speak on the tobacco question. His long practice of medicine has brought him so many human contacts in varied forms that he has had a unique opportunity to study the effect upon the mind, the soul, and the body of those habits to which mankind is unfortunately prone. Dr. Kress has made an exhaustive study of tobacco and its influence on human beings. In this little volume, therefore, you have the diagnosis of an authority on the subject. His research and experience as a physician entitle him to speak with a clear voice and a certain tone.

One of the most valuable features of this book is the splendid array of quotations from eminent physicians, athletes, and men noted in the professional and the business world. Surely such an abundance of testimony against tobacco should make a deep and lasting impression, especially upon our youth.

For several decades Dr. Kress has had a real burden on his heart that the boys and girls of the land should grow up without great physical and moral handicaps. It was from this viewpoint, rather than from that of a professional reformer or agitator, that he took up the study of the tobacco question. His is primarily an educational campaign for the betterment of the race.

For this little volume, so full of vital information, we bespeak a wide circulation, especially among the youth who as yet have not had fastened upon them the tentacles of a well-nigh unbreakable habit.


Daniel H. Kress, M.D.


Physical Effect of Tobacco

OURS is an age when health is well-nigh worshiped. Newspapers.and magazines in every issue carry articles telling us how to conserve our health and how to fight the ever-present germ. Radio wakes us in the morning with cheery music and "setting-up" exercises. Health lectures are everywhere advertised and well attended. Life insurance companies pay large sums for advertising space to teach their policyholders the ways of health. Firms selling nostrums for reducing "that excess fat" do a thriving business. Tooth paste manufacturers warn us of the ever-present decay germs that "lurk around our molars. "Use more green stuff in your diet" and "Alkalize your blood" have become household mottoes all over the land. Even the twelve-year-old boy has heard much about "vitamins." In summer the beaches are packed with thousands who covet the energizing rays of the sun.

All our habits of eating, drinking, sleeping, working, exercising, and playing have been put under the rigid scrutiny of dietitians, clinicians, and physicians. It is no wonder, in this era of health seeking and scientific analysis of our habits, that tobacco has been put to the test, for a major portion of the human race are devotees of "the weed;" and many these days are asking, Are the cigarette, the pipe, and the cigar doing civilization good or ill? Are they innocent pleasures or do they harm us? Are they necessary for our relaxation and comfort, or would we be better off without them? Do they help us to live longer, or do they really shorten our lives? What is the effect of nicotine and the other constituents of tobacco upon the heart, the blood vessels, the brain, and the character?

These are all proper questions, and surely tobacco should not resent a candid examination of its merits or demerits. Since so much money arid time are spent on tobacco, it is no impertinence, surely, to demand an accounting and an audit.

If Tombstones Told The Truth

I can almost hear some of my readers exclaim, "But, doctor, certainly you are not going to say that tobacco does any great amount of harm to us physically, for practically every one is a smoker these days; and I know some smokers who have lived to a ripe old age."

Allow me to reply in the words of the late Luther Burbank [1849-1926], who was one of the world's best-known scientists:
"You have seen pictures of military cemeteries near great battlefields.

"Upon every headstone is chiseled the inscription, 'Killed in action.'

"If one knew nothing about war, these headstones would be sufficient to impress upon him that war is deadly,—that it kills.

"How much would you know about tobacco if upon the tombstone of every one killed by it were inscribed, 'Killed by tobacco'?

"You would know a lot more about it than you do now, but you would not know all, because tobacco does more than kill. It half kills. It has its victims in the cemeteries and in the streets. It is bad enough to be dead, but it is a question if it is not sometimes worse to be half dead,—to be nervous, irritable, unable to sleep well, with efficiency cut in two and vitality ready to snap at the first great strain.

''This seems like exaggeration. It isn't. It is well within the truth. You do not know the facts because you are not permitted to know them.

"Let me tell you how tobacco kills. Smokers do not all drop dead around the cigar lighters in tobacco stores. They go away and, years later, die of something else. From the tobacco trust's point of view, that is one of the finest things about tobacco. The victims do not die on the premises, even when sold the worst cigars. They go away and, when they die, the


doctors certify that they died of something else,—pneumonia, heart disease, typhoid fever, or what not. In other words, tobacco kills indirectly and escapes the blame.

"Always remember that the tendency of tobacco is to destroy.

"Don't be fooled by newspaper stories inspired by the tobacco interests about gentlemen one hundred four years old who attribute their multitude of years to the use of tobacco.

"When whisky selling was a legal method of getting a living, you used to read the same kind of stories about centenarians who had drunk whisky since they were nine years old.

"There is no doubt that some men have lived to be very old, notwithstanding the use of tobacco and whisky.

"But they are entirely mistaken in believing that it was the tobacco or the whisky that helped them to live long. Here is one proof: Look for all those who were boyhood chums of these aged survivors of tobacco and whisky and who, like them, smoked and drank. Where are they? In graveyards. Tobacco and whisky helped to put the finishing touches upon them.

"Nicotine, after you have used it awhile, puts you in a condition to be 'bumped off' by the first thing that hits you. If you saw some men undermine a building until it was ready to topple into the street, and then saw a woman hit the building with a baby carriage and make it topple, you would not say the woman wrecked the building, would you? Yet when a smoker dies of pneumonia, the doctor's death certificate gives pneumonia, and not tobacco, as the cause of death. And the tombstone man with his chisel says nothing at all.

"What a shock people would get if they went through cemeteries and saw tombstones, declaring this man died of typhoid made fatal by a tobacco-weakened heart, and that man succumbed to nervous prostration because tobacco had shot his nerves to pieces, and another one gave up the ghost because tobacco had ruined his stomach."


The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland
In a test of the students of the naval academy some years ago
as to whether smokers or nonsmokers excelled
in muscle strength, heart strength, and capacity to study,
the nonsmokers won by a wide margin.


The Tobacco Test at Annapolis

Lest some one should affirm that Luther Burbank was unwarrantably biased in his opinion on tobacco, let us call attention to the tobacco test made in the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis several years ago.

A new superintendent of that institution requested the Government to appoint a commission of scientific men to ascertain whether there were adequate reasons for the existence of a rule against smoking by the younger men, a regulation which, it seems, had been generally ignored. A number of smokers and nonsmokers were tested for muscle strength, heart strength, and capacity for study. The results obtained were decidedly in favor of the nonusers of tobacco. To verify the results, tobacco was then withheld from those who had used it in the test. Later they were again tested, with the result that muscle strength, heart power, and capacity for study had all increased. The rule against tobacco was enforced, and its use was also prohibited at West Point military academy, with the result that some classes of disease diminished one half.

Later, when a change of officers was made, the use of tobacco was again permitted for one year. The medical inspector of the navy, in referring to this period, said:
"It showed such unmistakable results that all the officers who favored the use of tobacco confessed that the experiment had proved a failure."
In his report to the surgeon-general the health officer of the academy said:
"Unquestionably, the most important matter in relation to the health of the students of the academy is that of the use of tobacco. As my last official utterance, I have urged upon the superintendent the truth of which five years' experience as health officer of this station has satisfied me,—that the future health and usefulness of the lads educated at this school require the absolute interdiction of tobacco. In this opinion I am sustained by my colleagues and all authorities in military and civil life whose views I have been able to learn."


Pres. Herbert C. Hoover
Herbert C. Hoover, the thirty-first President of the United States,
is an implacable foe to the use of tobacco by the youth.
He has said: "There is no agency in the world that is so
seriously affecting the health, education, efficiency, and
character of boys and girls as the cigarette habit. Nearly
every delinquent boy is a cigarette smoker. Cigarettes are
a source of crime. To neglect crime at its source is a
shortsighted policy, unworthy of a nation of our intelligence."


"Tobacco Makes Me Feel Good"

It is often difficult to convince the smoker that he is being seriously injured, because he feels at his best while under the immediate influence of the smoke; but this may be said of all habit-forming drugs. Taken in doses insufficient to kill instantly, nicotine acts temporarily as a heart and brain stimulant. It causes a functional constriction of the blood vessels, thereby raising the blood pressure. The excitation, or artificial up, is, however soon followed by a state of depression, or a corresponding down. This creates a demand for its repeated use in order to keep up that feeling of physical and mental fitness.

The tobacco addict is at his best only when smoking. In time, from the continuous irritation produced by the poisons absorbed, structural changes take place in the various glands of the body that have to deal with it, and later in the circulatory system. The elastic muscular tissue of the blood vessels, which normally aids in propelling the blood throughout the body, is replaced by hard, unyielding fibrous or scar tissues. The caliber of the blood vessels is lessened, and extra work is demanded by the heart to propel the blood through them. This causes hypertrophy of the heart muscles and increased blood pressure. The extra burden thrown upon the degenerate heart and the abnormal pressure within the diseased arteries may ultimately result in heart failure or apoplexy, should death not be caused from kidney or liver disease.

Tobacco and Degenerative Diseases

Dr. William W. Keen, one of Americans most eminent surgeons, in his eighth volume on surgery, informs us that 40 per cent of the autopsies he conducted on young men under twenty years of age who fell on the battlefields of Europe in the World War showed degenerative changes in the heart, kidneys, and liver. These young men were physically the best America could produce. Of those who were killed at the


Dr. Haven Emerson
Dr. Emerson, one of the renowned physicians of the nation,
and professor public health at Columbia University, declares that
mortality from heart disease has increased 187 per cent, and from
diseases of the arteries 663 per cent in New York City in the last
fifty years. Tobacco, because of its deleterious effect on the heart,
is in a measure responsible for this appalling situation.

age of forty years he says only 10 per cent were found with normal organs. Fifty per cent had confirmed sclerosis of kidneys, llver, and blood vessels. An ordinary medical examination given to these men while living would have failed to reveal these changes that were insidiously taking place.

E. E. Rittenhouse, president of the Life Extension Institute


of New York, has said that
"43 per cent of the applicants for life insurance in a large American company were declined because of physical impairment indicating the presence or the oncoming of degenerative disease, among whom 90 per cent were unaware of their true condition."
According to Dr. Haven Emerson of the Columbia University, heart disease mortality in the City of New York has increased 187 per cent, and mortality from diseases of the arteries 663 per cent, during the past fifty years.

The poisons of tobacco are indisputably a contributory cause of many of these degenerative diseases that are the great foes of civilization to-day. The startling increase in the mortality from organic diseases such as heart failure and apoplexy, and the increase in mental and nervous diseases, are without doubt all in part due to the prevalent use of tobacco, especially the cigarette.

Is Tobacco a Nerve Quieter?

It is true that smoking quiets the nerves. But this very fact constitutes one of the most convincing arguments against its use. The one who is a slave to morphine knows full well how effectively morphine soothes the nerves. I have in my medical career had under my care morphine addicts. No one knows better than I that morphine will always soothe the nerves of the one addicted to its use. But we do not say to the nervous morphine addict, "Keep on quieting your nerves with morphine." We recognize that he needs medical attention. He may have to be placed under restraint to keep him from resorting to the drug to quiet his nerves. The strongest reason that can be given why morphine should not be employed to quiet the nerves is the fact that that is just what it does. Any drug that is capable of quieting the nerves should be regarded with suspicion, it matters not what its name may be.

The fact is that narcotics and opiates always aggravate the nervous condition that they are able temporarily to soothe and


Dr. William J. Mayo
Dr. Mayo is one of the famous Mayo brothers of Rochester,
Minnesota. At a dinner given to a group of eminent surgeons,
he announced: "Gentlemen, it is customary, as we all know, to pass
around cigars after dinner; but I shall not do it. I do not smoke,
and I do not approve of smoking. If you will notice, you will see
that the practice is going out among the ablest surgeons,
the men at the top. No surgeon can afford to smoke."

quiet. It is this that makes their use an apparent necessity, and labels them as habit-forming drugs.

No one knows better than the cigarette addict that the cigarette, like morphine, is capable of quieting and soothing the nerves. But when the effect of one smoke wears off, the nerves cry out for another; and they are not quieted until another


smoke is taken. It is this dependence upon the cigarette as a nerve quieter that stamps the cigarette as dangerous dope.

Practically every one knows that tobacco is a narcotic, and that narcotics are mere make-believes. They are deceivers. They make their devotées feel fit when they are far from being fit. They quiet the troubled conscience by saying, "Peace; when there is no peace."

It is, however, only abnormals who feel the need of nerve sedatives or of narcotics; and it is only the abnormals that are more steady and who are able to do better work under their influence. While tobacco quiets the nerves of the smoker, he discovers after a time that the very symptoms that it temporarily allays are becoming more pronounced, and that, instead of making him more steady, smoking has just the opposite effect. Many a cigarette addict in time becomes a nervous wreck,—a subject fit for a sanitarium.

There is a reason why the one who has been steadying his nerves by smoking during the day, finds himself "all in" on awaking in the morning. Instead of being refreshed and at his best after a good night's sleep, he finds he is really at his worst. His nerves are on edge. His hand is unsteady, and his brain refuses to function as it should. It is only then that nature has afforded the opportunity of acquainting him with his actual condition. It isn't because he is in need of food that he is so unsteady. If it were, food would satisfy him. He merely feels the need of his accustomed nerve sedative, tobacco. Food has no attraction for the cigarette or tobacco addict until he has had his smoke. Any smoker will inform you that this picture is not overdrawn. These are the facts that every smoker has experienced; and with which every observing physician is familiar.

Chauncey Depew's Experience With Tobacco

That grand old American, the late Chauncey M. Depew [1834-1928], who lived to the age of ninety-four, and who was daily found


at his office until only a few weeks before his death, in his ninety-third year told why he gave up smoking a half century before. When a young man, he labored under the delusion that smoking steadied his nerves, and made them more dependable. He finally made the discovery that he had been under a deception. But here are his own words:
"I used to smoke twenty cigars a day, and continued at it until I became worn out. I did not know what was the matter with me; and physicians to whom I applied did not mention tobacco. I was in the habit of smoking at my desk, and thought I derived material assistance in my work from it. After a time I found I could not do any work without tobacco. My power of concentration was greatly weakened, and I could not think well without a lighted cigar in my mouth.

"One day I bought a cigar, and was puffing it with the feeling of pleasure that is possible only to the devotée. I smoked only a few minutes, and then took it out of my mouth and looked at it. I said to it, 'My friend and bosom companion, you have been dearer to me than gold. To you I have ever been devoted, yet you are the cause of all my ills. You have played me false. The time has come when we must part.'

"I gazed sadly and longingly at the cigar, then threw it into the street. I had been convinced that tobacco was ruining me. I have never smoked from that day to this." This renunciation was not, however, without a struggle. He says:

"For three months thereafter I underwent the most awful agony. I never expect to suffer more in this world or the next. I didn't go to any physician or endeavor in any way to palliate my sufferings. Possibly a physician might have given me something to soften the torture. Neither did I break my vow. I had made up my mind that I must forever abandon tobacco or I would be ruined by it.

"At the end of three months my longing for it abated. I gamed twenty-five pounds in weight. I slept well for seven or eight hours every night.


"I have never smoked from that day to this; and while no one knows better than I the pleasures to be derived from tobacco, I am still well content to forget them, knowing their effect." "If I have lived longer than others," said Mr. Depew, "it has been because I had the will to be wiser than others."

For many years before his death Mr. Depew touched neither alcohol nor tobacco. He once boasted that he bought Surgeon-General Hammond's house in Fifty-fourth Street, New York City, out of what he saved on giving up tobacco.

Thomas A. Edison
—Mr. Edison, perhaps the greatest electrical
genius of all time, says that "cigarette
smoke has a violent action on the nerve
centers, producing a degeneration of the
cells of the brain, which a quite rapid
among boys; unlike most narcotics, this
degeneration is permanent and uncontrollable."

The time will come, sooner or later, in the experience of every smoker when he, too, will have to admit that the smokes upon which he has been depending to steady his nerves have played him false.

Not all possess the will power and the determination possessed by Chauncey Depew; for instance, Professor Richet, who received the Nobel Prize of $50,000 in 1913 for physiological research, referring to his own abject slavery to this weed, said:
"Tobacco is pernicious. Tobacco smoke is noxious. It contains dangerous gases,— oxide of carbon, hydrocyanic acid, and nicotine fumes. And yet I live in the midst of these poisons. Instead of breathing the pure, free, health-giving air, I


injure my appetite, my memory, my sleep, and the action of my heart by breathing noxious vapors. To excuse myself I cannot even claim, like many smokers, that tobacco is harmless, since I am well aware that it is harmful, exceedingly harmful.

"In my case, my mania for smoking is a fresh and unexpected proof of man's incorrigible folly. Tobacco is a stupid habit to which I am enslaved, while all the time fully realizing my stupidity. And because I am more alive to it than other men, I am more to blame.

"Weird mania! Absurd aberration! I have fettered myself with this habit with no better excuse than universal folly. A stupid slavery from which I lack the courage to break away."

Luther Burbank's Indictment

Luther Burbank [1849-1926], the great horticulturist, on being asked his opinion as to the use of tobacco, gave the following reply:
"If I answered your question simply by saying I never use tobacco or alcohol in any form, and rarely coffee or tea, you might say that was a personal preference, and proved nothing. But I can prove to you most conclusively that even the mild use of stimulants is incompatible with work requiring accurate attention and definite concentration.

"To assist me in the work of certain kinds of budding and other work requiring special attention,—work that is as accurate and exact as watchmaking,—I have a force of twenty men. I have to discharge men from this force if incompetent.

"Some time ago my foreman asked me if I took pains to inquire into the personal habits of my men. On being answered in the negative, he surprised me by saying that the men I found unable to do the delicate work of budding invariably turned out to be smokers or drinkers. These men, while able to do the rough work of farming, call budding and other delicate work 'puttering,' and have to give it up, owing to inability to concentrate their nerve force."


Mr. Burbank said further: "Even men who smoke two or three cigars a day cannot generally be trusted with some of the most delicate work."

Thomas A. Edison, the great electrical genius and inventor, says:
"Cigarette smoke has a violent action on the nerve centers, producing a degeneration of the cells of the brain, which is quite rapid among boys; unlike most narcotics this degeneration is permanent and uncontrollable. No man or boy who smokes cigarettes can work in my laboratories. In my opinion there are enough degenerates in the world without manufacturing more by means of cigarettes."

Perhaps among the most forceful indictments of tobacco ever made was that of Dr. William J. Mayo, one of the famous Mayo brothers of Rochester, Minnesota, who announced at a dinner he was giving to a large group of eminent surgeons,
"Gentlemen, it is customary, as we all know, to pass around cigars after dinner, but I shall not do it. I do not smoke, and I do not approve of smoking. If you will notice, you will see that the practice is going out among the ablest surgeons, the men at the top. No surgeon can afford to smoke."

Surely the testimony of such men as Mayo, Edison, Burbank, Depew, and the others cited should be sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that the tobacco habit is a handicap, and that no one who desires to develop all his talents and capabilities to their utmost can afford to smoke. No boy can tie a stone around his neck and expect to win in the swift currents of modern life.


Col. Charles Lindbergh
The "flying colonel" spurned a large offer
from a tobacco company for his
indorsement of a popular brand of cigarettes.


How and Why Tobacco Injures

NICOTINE, the active principle of tobacco, is one of the most deadly poisons known to science. It is the poison depended upon by gardeners to kill insects and pests on plants. It is so deadly that it must be employed in a very dilute form, only a few drops to the pint of water. So virulent a poison is it that physicians have for years refrained from prescribing it.

There is no antidote for tobacco poisoning, as there is for morphine poisoning, strychnine poisoning, and poisoning by some of the other drugs used in medicine. Strychnine, better known as "rat poison," is a deadly drug, but it requires one half to two grains of strychnine to kill an adult human being, and more than that amount of morphine; but one fifteenth of a grain of nicotine has been known to kill an adult, and one seventh of a grain is always fatal.

The brands of tobacco vary considerably in their nicotine content, running from 1 per cent to 9 per cent, with an average of about 3 per cent. Those who use tobacco in pipe form get the most nicotine, owing to the less complete combustion. The cigarette contains somewhat less nicotine, and the cigar is about intermediate between the two; and yet the cigarette is the most harmful of the three. Why, we shall observe later.

Nineteen Poisons in Tobacco

Nicotine is not the only injurious substance the tobacco smoke contains. Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, one of America's leading physicians and surgeons, who is reputed to have performed more surgical operations than any other surgeon in America, says in his book, "Tobaccoism":
"The burning of tobacco in pipe, cigar, or cigarette gives rise to various substances which are not originally found in the tobacco leaf. According to Dr. J. Dixon Mann, P. R. C. P. (British Medical Journal, 1908), tobacco smoke contains a formidable list of poisons, among which are the following:


nicotine, pyridine bases, ammonia, methylamme, prussic acid, carbon monoxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbolic acid.

"The United States Dispensatory notes in addition to the above: marsh gas, nicotine, lutidine, collidine, parvoline, coridin, rubidine, viridine.

"Three other poisons—pyrrol, formic aldehyde, and furfural—are mentioned by Arnold.

"It thus appears that tobacco smoke contains not less than nineteen poisons, every one of which is capable of producing deadly effects. Several of these, nicotine, prussic acid, carbon monoxide, and pyridine are deadly in very small doses, so that the smoker cannot possibly escape their toxic effects."

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

It will be observed that one of the poisons that the tobacco user absorbs is carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is the active element in illuminating and heating gas, and it is the thing that kills when some one, accidentally or intentionally, leaves the gas jets open in a closed room. It is also a frequent cause of death these days when persons start their automobiles in garages with the doors shut.

One gram of tobacco when smoked develops from sixty to eighty cubic centimeters of carbon monoxide.

Carbon monoxide differs from most other poisons in that, when inhaled, it enters into a chemical or fixed combination with the hæmoglobin of the red blood cells. It accumulates, and by accumulating destroys in part these cells whose function it is to convey oxygen to the various glands and tissues of the body. It retards normal oxidation, and consequently favors the retention of wastes. Degeneracy of the glands and tissues results.

An animal kept in an atmosphere containing mere traces of carbon monoxide for one hour has been found to have one hundred fifty-two times as much in the blood as was present in the atmosphere that it inhaled. This shows the cumulative tendency of carbon monoxide. The blood takes


Coach Alonzo Stagg
Coach Stagg, out of his forty years of experience with athletes,
says: "From personal observation with athletes who have been
addicted to the use ot tobacco, I can speak with confidence that they
do not possess the endurance of athletes who have grown up free from the use of it."

it on readily, but finds it difficult to release it. The amount of carbon monoxide in the air need not be great to produce symptoms of poisoning.

When air contains from 1 to 2 per cent of this gas, inhalations can cause serious symptoms. When the content in the air rises to as high as from 10 to 20 per cent, persons exposed can survive only a short time, and if death does occur, as


much as from 60 to 80 per cent of the hæmoglobin in the circulation will be in combination with the carbon monoxide. When breathing an atmosphere containing 0.07 per cent for half an hour, one quarter of the red blood corpuscles are rendered incapable of uniting properly with the oxygen. It is on account of this union of the carbon monoxide with the blood that there results insufficient oxygenation. The symptoms are due in part to the toxic action of the carbon monoxide and partly to air starvation.

Carbon monoxide has also a direct action on the central nervous system, first stimulating it, and then depressing it. The brain is first affected, then the spinal cord and medulla. It also attacks other tissues, such as the muscles and glands, and produces in these a considerable amount of degenerative changes.

All tobacco smokers, though unconscious of it, are suffering more or less from carbon monoxide poisoning. Its continuous inhalation by boys and girls interferes with the normal development of both mind and body.

Cigarettes the Most Harmful

The cigarette is the most dangerous form in which tobacco is used, because of certain poisons that are found therein in addition to the nicotine and carbon monoxide. One of these is acrolein, a member of the dangerous aldehyde family. Thomas Edison says:
"The injurious agent in cigarettes comes principally from the burning paper wrapper. The substance thereby formed is called 'acrolein.' It has a violent action on the nerve centers, producing degeneration of the cells of the brain."

Another aldehyde present in the cigarette that is especially deleterious is furfural. The well-known medical journal, the London Lancet, a few years ago made the following report on this poisonous substance:

"To aldehydes the poisonous effects of crude, immature


whisky are ascribed, although they occur in relatively small quantities, but the furfural contained in the smoke of only one Virginia cigarette may amount, according to our experiments, to as much as is present in a couple of fluid ounces of whisky. Furfural, the principal aldehyde, which we have found present in marked quantities in the cigarette smoke of a very popular tobacco, is stated to be about fifty times as poisonous as ordinary alcohol, and small doses cause 'symptoms of transient irritation, such as ataxia, tremors, and twitching,' while in adequate quantities furfural 'gives rise to epileptiform convulsions, general muscular paralysis, ending in paralysis of the respiratory muscles.'

"The records show that in pipe smoke the furfural varies from 0.004 per cent to 0.031 per cent of the weight of the tobacco smoked; in cigar smoke it was absent altogether, . . . while in the smoke of the Virginia or American cigarette the amount ranged from 0.04 to as much as 0.16 per cent of the tobacco smoked."

Into the Blood Stream

That which makes the cigarette especially injurious is the fact that the smoke of the cigarette is usually inhaled, or drawn, into the lungs. The mucous lining of the lungs, the mouth, the nose, and related air passages covers an area of from eight hundred to two thousand square feet, over which the entire volume of the blood is spread every three minutes. In inhalation the cigarette smoke with its poisonous substances is brought into contact with all this delicate membrane, which readily allows the poisons to pass through it into the blood. Inhalation is recognized in surgery as the most rapid method of producing anæsthesia. Two or three deep inhalations of cigarette smoke introduce a greater amount of poison than would be introduced into the blood in the ordinary way of smoking in fifteen or twenty minutes.

Dr. Bruce Smith, Inspector of Prisons in the Province of


Ontario, Canada, who has made a deep study of the tobacco question, has said that
"the inhalation of cigarette smoke which is made by the combustion of tobacco and tissue paper produces not only a local narcotic effect upon the tissues that the smoke comes in contact with, but the absorption of the drug in the system leads to a permanent arrest of physical development."

How Tobacco Affects the Smoker

The absorption of these poisons, although gradual and in minute quantities, has a decided effect upon the body. Smoking impairs both the sense of taste and of smell, and "smoker's sore throat" is a well-known condition arising from the action of these poisons on the delicate membranes around the vocal cords. The use of tobacco has a decided effect on the eyesight. Heavy smokers of tobacco almost invariably show some defect of the color fields, especially in the red and green. A central area in the field of vision will be blind to these two colors.

According to Sir Berkeley Moynihan, an internationally known surgeon of England, tobacco smoking is a large factor in producing ulcer of the stomach. Nicotine produces an excessive amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and this excess not only is a factor in the causation of ulcers, but also keeps them from healing once they are formed. Smoking also conduces to ulceration of the duodenum. Many of the large clinics of the world refuse to treat these gastric and duodenal ulcers unless the patient will refrain from smoking.

It has long been recognized among physicians that there is a very definite relationship between tobacco and tuberculosis. Not only do the records show the users of tobacco to be more susceptible to the tubercular germ, but their recovery depends in large measure upon abstinence from the weed. All respiratory diseases are more common among tobacco users than among abstainers.

Blood Pressure and Nicotine

Repeated tests have shown that the smoker's heart beats on an average of nine beats faster during smoking, that his heart is much more irregular than the nonsmoker's, and that after exercise his heart returns to normal much more slowly than the nonsmoker's. All authorities among physiologists agree that tobacco is a heart poison. Angina pectoris and pseudoangina pectoris occur in smokers much oftener than in nonsmokers.

The nicotine in tobacco causes an elevation of the blood pressure. This can be easily proved by testing the blood pressure of a smoker before he takes a cigarette and immediately after he has finished smoking it. Blood pressure may rise from ten to twenty five points after the smokmg of three cigarettes. The heart beats more forcibly because it takes more work to force the blood through the constricted vessels.

The detrimental effect of tobacco on the heart and the arteries is undoubtedly one of the causes of the startling increase in cardiovascular ailments these days. Many a man's death certificate reads simply "apoplexy" or " heart failure," when it should read "apoplexy" or "heart failure caused by the long-continued use of nicotine."

Tobacco "Tolerance"

But some one will say, "If tobacco is, after all, such a deadly thing, how is it that smokers do not die more quickly than they do?" Simply because of the brave fight certain organs put up to dispose of the poisons as they are continually brought into the body.

[Ed. Note: Tobacco kills SIDS babies quickly.]

The best evidence of the effect of tobacco is to be seen when the first smoke is taken. Headache, nausea, and vomiting occur. But if the habit is persisted in, the body gradually builds up a "tolerance." This does not mean an immunity to nicotine. The nicotine continues to do its insidious work, but after a "tolerance" is established, the disagreeable reflex pro-


test simply ceases, and the body tries to make the best of a bad situation. In other words, nature says the smoker "is joined to idols: let him alone."

The liver is the organ chiefly to be thanked for the partial disposition of the poisons in tobacco. Its distoxicating powers are remarkable. But when called upon to do double or triple duty in disposing of the nicotine a smoker absorbs into his blood stream, the liver's usefulness for working over and refining the crude products of gastric and intestinal digestion is greatly hindered. An overworked liver allows waste elements to accumulate in the blood and tissues. This accounts for the lessened endurance of smokers in competition with nonsmokers.

Furthermore, long years of battling against nicotine finally brings about a diseased condition in the liver itself. Sclerotic and fatty changes often follow chronic nicotine poisoning.

The Good Book says that "because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil." Because the evil effects of tobacco are not to be seen by the naked eye in the smoker's heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, stomach, and brain day by day as he smokes, and because he does not fall dead after he smokes a cigarette, he thinks he is "getting by." Tobacco kills slowly but nevertheless surely. The smoker is committing suicide on the installment plan. The reckoning day is sure to come.

After the changes have taken place in heart, liver, kidneys, and other organs to the point where they can be detected by the medical examiner, the condition is as a rule hopeless as far as their restoration is concerned. The best the physician can then do is to advise the patient to "cease to do evil; learn to do well." By giving up this habit then, the crippled organs may serve him some additional years.

Women Smokers

WE ARE not going to enter into a discussion here of women's rights when it comes to the use of tobacco. Some women are fond of declaring that they have just as much right to smoke as thd men. In view of the damage that tobacco does to men we very much doubt, speaking from the strictly moral viewpoint, if even they have a right to smoke, and we know that tobacco does much more injury to the race when its women smoke than when only the men indulge.

If there is any obligation on the part of parents to give their offspring a robust and virile physique, that obligation rests heavier upon the mother than upon the father. This is a well-known physiological fact, and is indisputable no matter what our convictions may be on single or double standards of freedom, morality, etc.

Since the World War [1914-1918] the girls and women of America have gone in for tobacco at an alarming rate. The time was when only women of ill repute and a few old "grannies" among the mountains of the South smoked; now a great proportion of high school and college girls are tobacco addicts, and the women of "society" have taken to the cigarette almost en masse. In restaurants, hotels, and observation cars it used to be a source of comment to see a woman puffing at a cigarette, but it has become so commonplace now that it goes practically unnoticed. If the increase keeps on at present rates, it will not be long until there will be as many women smokers as men smokers. Because of their more delicate nervous mechanism, women become more abject slaves to cigarettes than do men.

More Injurious to Women

Let us consider more fully the effect of tobacco on women.

The nervous system of a woman, being more highly organized than that of a man, is more easily damaged by the use of this narcotic. Dr. Hugh S. Cumming, former surgeon-


general of the United States Public Health Service evidently recognizes this. He has declared:
"The cigarette habit indulged in to excess by women tends to cause nervousness and insomnia. If American women generally contract the habit, as reports now indicate they are doing, the entire nation will suffer. The physical tone of the whole nation will be lowered. The number of American women who are smoking cigarettes to-day is amazing. The habit harms a woman more than it docs a man. The woman's nervous system is more highly organized than the man's. The reaction is, therefore, more intense. It may ruin her complexion, causing her to become gradually ashen. Propaganda urging that tobacco be used as a substitute for food is not in the interest of public health, and if practiced widely by young persons will be positively harmful."

Dr. Samuel A. Brown, then dean of Bellevue Hospital, New York City, also says that smoking is much more injurious to women than to men, adding:
"Women smoke nervously. They cannot smoke moderately. Their nervous condition develops anæmia and other ills to which the sex is susceptible. From the standpoint of health, cigarette smoking among women is very objectionable. and, on the other hand, it is a let-down of moral-standards. Among growing girls, particuIarly those developing mentally and physically, the habit is extremely dangerous."

Prematurely Aged

In a recent book, Prof. Arnold Lorand of Carlsbad, whose expert advice on things medical is sought from all over the world, speaking of the effect of tobacco on women, has declared that he is amazed to find in the great number of women coming to him, once famous all over Europe for their beauty, that they have in a few short years, because of cigarette smoking, become prematurely old.

This is true because of the very decided effect of nicotine


Connie Mack, Athletics Manager
Cornelius McGillicuddy, of the Philadelphia Athletics, is one
of the greates managers baseball has ever produced.
He says: "We do everything in our power to discourage
the use of cigarettes among our baseball boys,
knowing the great harm that tobacco
has done to those in the habit of using it."

and other tobacco poisons on the sex glands, and because of their effect on the complexion. Concerning this last phase of the question we can cite no better authority than that of Joseph Byrne, managing director of the National Beauty Shop Owners' Association, who has said:

"The features of women who smoke grow sharper as the nicotine habit fastens on them, the skin becomes taut and


sallow, the lips lose their rosy color, the corners of the mouth show wrinkles, the lower lip shows a tendency to project beyond the upper lip, the eyes acquire a stare, and the lids rise and fall more slowly."

That tobacco givers a woman a sallow, dingy, pasty skin is well known. For this reason women smokers resort to the application of rouge- The young woman who wishes to retain her "schoolgirl complexion" cannot afford t6 flirt with the cigarette.

Shriveled Rather Than Slenderized

Many women have taken up the cigarette because of the allurement of the advertisers that reaching for a cigarette instead of a sweet will slenderize them. In this day when the fashion makers decree that women should be flat and pole-like, to lose flesh has become a mania, and the cigarette manufacturer's advertising seeds have fallen on fruitful soil.

It is true that the use of tobacco tends to diminish plumpness and fat. But to reduce with nicotine is by no means a healthy reduction; it lays the foundation for many serious ailments. While woman is undermining her health and making her figure slim, the tobacco manufacturer is waxing fat off the extra dividends that women smokers arc pouring into his coffers. He is the only one who profits thereby.

Nicotine's Brand Stamped on Children

But it is not in the women themselves so much as in their children that the baleful effect of the use of tobacco is seen. The woman who expects to become a mother and who smokes stamps the fateful brand of nicotine deep into her child's mind and body.

The most painstaking scientific research on the part of the medical profession both here in the United States and abroad has proved the fact that the infant of a smoking mother is always handicapped. Experimentation has shown that the


amniotic fluid (the fluid surrounding ihc embryonic babe in the uterus) of a tobacco-using woman contains nicotine, and that the milk from the breasts of a smoking mother likewise contains nicotine. These two startling facts should be enough to cause every girt and woman to let the cigarette absolutely alone. Motherhood is the crown of womanhood, and if that crown be destroyed, what joy can woman get out of puffing a cigarette? It is bad enough to have the sins of the fathers visited upon the children. Mothers of the past have been conservers of the race in this respect; when they adopt the habits of the men, little hope can be held out for the future of their offspring.

Dr. Charles L. Barber of Lansing, Michigan, in a paper read before a convention of the American Association for Medico-Physical Research, said:

Prenatal Nicotine Poisoning
"A baby born of a cigarette-smoking mother is sick. It is poisoned, and may die within two weeks of birth. The post-mortem shows degeneration of the liver, heart, and other organs. Sixty per cent of all babies born of mothers who are habitual cigarette smokers die before they are two years old."

Some years ago a nationally known lecturer made a tour of Europe. Among the interesting incidents of the trip here is one that is very significant:
"When I was in Paris, I met a man who had very tiny dogs for sale. The mother dog, though small, was normal in size. I asked the owner how it was that her offspring were so abnormally small. What had he done to them?

"At first he refused to tell me, fearing that I would divulge his secret or become his business competitor. By a little friendly conversation, I convinced him that I was simply in pursuit of knowledge. Then, with many cautions, he confided to me his process for producing these tiny dwarfs.

"'You see I put a tiny speck of nicotine in their food when


they are quite young. Then I put in a little more and a little more, and then they never get big.'

"'But doesn't the nicotine ever kill them?' I asked.

"'Oh yes, many of them die; but I get a big price for the little fellows that live.'"

The great difference between those puny nicotinized dogs and the surviving babies of cigarette-smoking mothers is that the children never amount to much and do not bring "a big-price" in the market of life. They are handicapped mentally, physically, and often morally, and are not in demand.

The Slaughter of the Innocents

Thanks to the public health authorities and the medical profession, the infant death rate in the United States has been gradually lowering during the last decade or so. But this record cannot continue if girls and women take up with the smoking of cigarettes. Nicotine will surely do its deadly work, and stillbirths, premature births, and mortality soon after birth will begin anew the slaughter of the innocents.

Many years ago one of America's leading physicians wrote a book entitled "Diseases of Modern Life." This was written long before the tobacco habit had fastened itself on our women, and before so large a proportion of the men smoked. Here is what he said in regard to tobacco and posterity:
"If a community of youths of both sexes, whose progenitors were finely formed and powerful, were trained to the early practice of smoking, and if marriage were confined to smokers, an apparently new and physically inferior race of men and women would be bred. Such an experiment is impossible as we live, for many of our fathers do not smoke, and scarcely any of our mothers; and so chiefly to the credit of our women, be it said, the integrity of, the race is fairly preserved."

There can be no doubt but that by the prevalent use of tobacco by both sexes to-day, we arc preparing to produce a "physically inferior race of men and women" to-morrow.


Tends to Cause Sterility

Cigarette smoking among women is in part responsible for the rapidly declining birth rate noticed the past few years in all civilized lands. As this practice becomes more general among women, this decline will unquestionably become more pronounced. Nature, it seems, in time interferes with the propagation of the unfit and degenerate.

Dr. Hofstaetter, the noted Vienna physician, tells us that in Vienna women smoke because of a superstition held among them that when they do, they are not likely to have children. He says,

"This belief is widespread, especially in East Europe and in Turkey."

Dr. Hofstaetter is convinced that this old wives' tale has a scientific basis. Among his many women patients who were heavy smokers, he tells us he had only a single one who was not childless or who had not stopped having children when her heavy smoking began. He also points out that women who work in tobacco factories seldom have children, and when they do have them, the children are unhealthy, and usually die early in life.

Dr. Fleig, another authority, in conducting experiments upon animals, found that by the continuous exposure of guinea pigs to tobacco smoke, not one of the number exposed developed into a normal and healthy animal. He discovered that when a pregnant mother guinea pig was exposed to the smoke, the young were either born dead or dwarfed and were far beneath the normal weight.

Dr. Herbert Tidswell of England, F. R. C. S., in observing a large number of families of smokers and nonsmokers, found that abortions were more common among the wives of smokers than among the wives of nonsmokers, even where the wives did not smoke. The smokers' wives, be says, also suffered from a higher degree of sterility. It is evident that when women take up with the practice of smoking we may look for a landslide in race decadence, for nicotine is detrimental to the bearing and nurture of children.

Ed. Note: Dr. Tidswell's Book
Is Tobacco Smoking Injurious to Health?: Medical Opinions Collated from the Lancet, by Herbert Henry Tidswell (Torquay: 1907)


The Halo Around Mother's Head

The great barrier of the past against race degeneration is fast disappearing as our women become victims of the cigarette. What a spectacle is presented before us! Does the picture of your mother that hangs on memory's wall have a cigarette between her lips? Does your memory portray her blowing rings of nicotine-filled smoke? At eventide when your mother gathered you and your brothers and sisters about her for the bedtime story, the verse of Scripture, and the prayer beside your cot, did she puff a cigarette while thus tenderly caring for her flock? Did the mother you used to sit beside in church "light a fag" the minute the services were over and she was outside the church?

No, of course not. All this seems strangely out of keeping with the whole idea of mother and motherhood. And yet today many of the girls and young women in our high schools and colleges are fast becoming addicts of tobacco, so that tomorrow's mothers will have around their heads, not a halo of tender memories and associations, but a circling billow of cigarette smoke. No man or woman living would from choice be the offspring of a smoking mother.

Women, for their own physical good, for the good of the children yet to be, and for the welfare of civilization, should let nicotine alone. Women are the bulwark between the vices that beset mankind and the future of society. They are a link between the higher things of life and their families. Let them, therefore, resist those forces that tend to pull downward. If they succumb to tobacco and to the other filthy habits that too many men have surrendered to, then, as stated, little hope can be held out as to the future of the race.

The Boy and the Cigarette

IT IS bad enough for grown men to smoke. They cannot do so without sustaining an injury. But the boy who becomes addicted to the cigarette is injured to a much greater extent. During the years before full physical and mental maturity has arrived, the poisons of tobacco do irreparable damage. Their powers of destruction especially vent their fury upon the youth. They dull the mind and stunt the growth of the boy and girl addicts. Possibly this is why Thomas A. Edison once said, "I would rather see a boy with a revolver than a cigarette. I employ no person who smokes cigarettes."

Physicians and public health authorities the world over recognize the blighting powers of tobacco on minors. Dr. Charles B. Towns of New York City, a recognized authority on the effects of narcotics, said this in an article in the Century Magazine:
"It is generally admitted that in the immature, the moderate use of tobacco stunts the normal growth of the body and mind, and causes various nervous disturbances, especially of the heart,—disturbances which it causes in later life only when smoking has become excessive. That is to say, though a boy's stomach grows tolerant of nicotine to the extent of taking it without protest, the rest of the body keeps on protesting. Furthermore, all business men will tell you that tobacco damages a boy's usefulness in his work. This is necessarily so, since anything which lowers vitality creates some kind of incompetence. For the same reason, the boy who smokes excessively not only is unable to work vigorously, but he does not wish to work at all. If there were some instrument to determine it, in my opinion there would be seen a difference of 15 per cent in the general efficiency of smokers and nonsmokers. And despite the fact that cigarette smoking is the worst form of tobacco addiction, virtually all boys who smoke start with cigarettes."


Turned Into Dunces

Dr. A. C. Clinton of San Francisco, physician to several boys' schools, says:
"A good deal has been said about the evils of cigarette smoking, but one half the truth has never been told. Cigarette smoking first blunts the whole moral nature. It has an appalling effect upon the physical system as well. It first stimulates and then stupefies the nerves. It sends boys into consumption. It gives them enlargement of the heart, and it sends them to the insane asylum. I am often called in to prescribe for boys for palpitation of the heart. In nine cases out of ten this is caused by the cigarette habit. I have seen bright boys turned into dunces, and straightforward, honest boys made into cowards by cigarette smoking. I am speaking the truth that nearly every physician and nearly every teacher knows."

Some years ago the Cadillac Motor Company posted the following notice throughout its large factories:
"Boys who smoke cigarettes we do not care to keep in our employ. In the future we will not hire anyone whom we know to be addicted to this habit. It is our desire to weed it entirely out of the factory just as soon as practicable. We will ask every one in our factory who sees the seriousness of this habit to use his influence in having it stamped out."

Not a Good Business Risk

In comment upon the company's policy, one of the officials said:
"Several years ago we began a somewhat active campaign against this evil. We made a study of the effect upon the morals and efficiency of men in our employ addicted to this habit, and found that cigarette smokers invariably were loose in their morals and very apt to be untruthful, and were far less productive than men who were not cigarette smokers. We might mention a large number of instances, which substantiate this latter statement, but space does not permit. We


Tobacco Anti-Accuracy
Repeated experiments on typists have
shown that one's accuracy and speed
both depreciate after smoking a cigarette.

put up notices in conspicuous places about the plant. This had quite an effect among the employees in general. We allow no cigarette smoking about the plant; in fact, will not hire men who we know use cigarettes.

"We are proud to say that none of the prominent or executive men in this company use cigarettes, for two reasons: First; that they believe the effects to be injurious; and, second, that it would be difficult to enforce a rule they themselves did not adhere to."

This blighting effect of tobacco on growing youth is no new discovery. It has long been recognized. As early as 1860, Emperor Louis Napoleon of France appointed a commission to make a careful investigation of facts pertaining to the in-


luence of tobacco on intellectual development. So striking vas the evidence obtained that on one day he caused the pipes of thirty thousand young men in Paris alone to be broken, and ordered the expulsion of all smokers from the school.

Such a procedure may appear a bit drastic to us to-day, but it was not altogether unwarrantable, for it has been estimated fully that one half of the money spent on educating cigarette-smoking youth is absolutely wasted. It does not pay to invest one thousand dollars to develop a hundred-dollar boy or girl.

Dulls the Mind's Keen Edge

Dr. Herbert F. Fisk, in an address to the boys of the Northwestern Preparatory School at Evanston, Illinois, on the ubject of tobacco using, said:
"Whatever may be thought of the use of tobacco by grown men, there can be no division of opinion among educators as to the injurious effects, both physical and mental, when tobacco is used by boys or by young men who have not yet reached maturity. In many cases it produces serious weakness of the heart. On this account it is prohibited to athletes while in training for competition games.

"Not less distinctly marked are the effects of tobacco using upon, the scholarship than upon the physical endurance of students. It is rarely the case that a student who makes any use of tobacco attains to superior scholarship. A complete tabulation of the scholarship and tobacco-using habits of young men in the academy at one time discovered that out of three hundred young men 22 per cent of the whole number made more or less use of tobacco. Among the seventy-five having the highest standing, only two, or 3 per cent, were tobacco users. Among the second quarter in scholarship there were eleven, or 14 per cent; among the third quarter fifteen, or 21 per cent; while among the lowest quarter there were forty-two, or 57 per cent. Of all forms of tobacco using, cigarettes are without question the most harmful."


A physician who has carefully examined the class records of Harvard University for the past fifty years says that not one tobacco user has ever stood at the head of his class, despite the fact that five sixths of the male students are smokers. Tobacco is one of the greatest menaces to mental acumen.

From personal experience in examining thousands of students, I know that it is an easy matter to pick out the cigarette smokers from a group of students. And what is true of their physical inferiority is even more marked in their intellectual powers. The use of tobacco by the youth takes the keen edge off the mind, greatly impairs the ability to study and to concentrate, and largely takes away the will and ambition to rise to the top in class work.

The noxious influence of the cigarette on schoolboys has been recognized by such organizations as the National Educational Association, which not long ago put on record this statement: "The rapid increase in cigarette smoking among people of all ages and both sexes, and especially among growing boys, is not only a cause of alarm; it is a call to arms."

Poor Chance in Business World

It seems to me that the testimony of business men and great manufacturing firms on the question of the effect of cigarettes should at least have some weight with the youth of the land. These industrial leaders cannot be accused of being puritanical, or overreligious, or biased on the tobacco question. They look at it solely as a plain business proposition. They know that the boy who is not addicted to the use of cigarettes will return larger dividends on the investment both to himself and to his employer; that, other things being equal, he will get to the front more rapidly; and that he is better equipped mentally, morally and physically to assume the responsibilities that come with promotion.
"Believing that smoking cigarettes is injurious to both mind and body, thereby unfitting young men for their best work,


Luther Burbank
The great plant wizard, as quoted in full on another
page, was an ardent foe to tobacco, for
he said its use lowers a man's resistance to disease.


therefore, after this date we will not employ any young man under twenty-one years of age who smokes cigarettes.
    J. C. AYER CO."

This notice was posted throughout the great laboratories of the J. C. Ayer Company, manufacturing chemists, Lowell, Massachusetts. It was prompted, not by unwarranted prejudice, but by careful study of the situation on the part of Charles H. Stowell, M. D., treasurer of the company. Commenting on this attitude, Dr. Stowell says:
"Close observation for many years among the boys employed by this company has shown that those who are most energetic, active, alert, quick, spry, do not smoke; while the listless, lazy, dull, sleepy, uninteresting and uninterested boys are, we find upon investigation, those who smoke cigarettes."

George W. Alden is head of the big mercantile establishment in Brockton, Massachusetts, that bears his name. Here are his views on the efficiency and desirability of the cigarette-smoking boy:
"So far as I know none of my employees smoke cigarettes. We don't hire that kind of boys or men. I should not consider for a minute any candidate for a position if I knew he smoked cigarettes. My observation has taught me that cigarette-smoking boys are woefully lacking in both ambition and decision. They soon become dull, smoke-befuddled boys. I let them know that cigarettes spoil boys for my business."

The Testimony of a Judge

The opinion of men on the bench who deal with delinquent juveniles is also to the point in this connection. Judge Hulbert of the Detroit Juvenile Court said:
"I did not suppose there could longer be any doubt in the minds of men who are informed, or who follow at all closely the growing youth, of the influence of the cigarette habit upon the boy from ten to seventeen years of age. We find it one of the most baneful influences which we have to combat in this court.


"Ross ——, aged fourteen, was an habitual truant, and in the second grade in school, having been there three consecutive terms. His development was so arrested, and he was so certainly backward, that it seemed he must be mentally deficient. It was planned to place him in one of the schools for defectives; but further observation convinced the probation officer that much of the trouble came from cigarette smoking. His case was taken up on this score. It was an uphill battle, for the dulled faculties were slow to respond. However, once the habit was broken, he began to climb rapidly.

"It is now three years since he was taken in hand, and he is now in the eighth grade, averaging 86 per cent in all studies last term. He holds a prominent position in class and school work, is school correspondent for a daily newspaper, and is one of the brightest boys in the room. When he first came before the court, he lied habitually, stole, and could not be trusted with anything. He was nervous and uncertain in his movements. Now, although living in a bad neighborhood, he is holding himself up to a high standard. In addition to keeping up his studies, he is working after school to learn a trade. The good results in this case can be credited entirely to his giving up cigarettes.

"I might go on citing case after case of this kind. Sometimes the only remedy is commitment to the industrial school, where tobacco cannot be obtained. Often by persistent effort on the part of the probation officer a boy can be weaned from his habit of smoking. In all cases the result is the same,—a great improvement in his mental and physical condition, a renewed energy, and a respect for right and wrong which seems strangely lacking in habitual cigarette smokers.

"Most of the bad examples of this type who come before me have begun smoking at the age of nine or ten years, and are steeped in tobacco when they first come to this court. We cannot overestimate the effects of tobacco upon the mentality of the boy at this early age."

Devastates the Boy's Character

During my years of practice as a physician I have received scores of letters from parents who have been worried over their boys' smoking cigarettes. I will cite one such letter:
"My boy was as fine and bright a boy as one would meet anywhere until he commenced this habit. It seems to have changed his entire disposition. He cannot study, and has given up his music, in which he was previously much interested. He has had to give up school. He will go without clothes to buy cigarettes. He is my only boy, and I had hoped much for him. I felt I could not give him up; this and this only is my excuse for troubling you with my affairs. I have been on the lockout for something or some one to help me."

A mother, at the point of death, called her boy to her bedside and said to him, "I want you to promise me two things: that you will never drink or smoke."

The lad made that promise to his dying mother, and the promise was never broken. That boy was Abraham Lincoln. Had Lincoln taken up with the cigarette when a mere lad, he would have remained in obscurity.

Would that all parents were as earnest in their effort to guard their boys against tobacco as was Nancy Hanks, and would that all boys would pledge themselves never to touch the filthy weed, as did little Abe. In the words of the great industrialist Henry Ford, we say:
"The world of to-day needs men, not those whose minds and will power have been weakened or destroyed by the desire and craving for alcohol and tobacco, but, instead, men with initiative and vigor, whose mentality is untainted by habits which are ofttimes uncontrollable.

"Every young man should aspire to take advantage of the opportunity which at some time during his life beckons him, and he should be ready with the freshness of youth, and not enveloped in the fumes of an offensive and injurious cigarette."

The Athlete and Tobacco

NEVER in the history of the world have athletics and field sports held the center of the stage as they do today. The track, baseball, golf, football, tennis, and all the others produce their heroes each year who are idolized by millions of youth the country over. Their every word and action is reported by newspaper and film, and almost memorized by their hosts of devotees.

These athlete heroes have reached the top in sports because of extraordinary fine bodies and brains. They are the choice of the country physically. Speed, endurance, coordination of muscles, and fast thinking have given them the palm. The habits of keeping themselves fit that these winners follow should make a mighty appeal to all the youth of the land, for every boy and girl wants a perfect body so that he too can win in the race of life.

When we ask leading athletes their opinion of tobacco and the cigarette, their, reply comes back to us in no uncertain terms. They all say that athletics and tobacco won't mix. They assure us that their coaches and trainers never allow them to smoker and that if they do break the rules it is to their own great detriment.

Here, for example, is the declaration of Grantland Rice, himself a one-time nationally known athlete, and to-day the premier sports writer and author in America:

Grantland Rice Says
"For the last eighteen years I have been either playing or covering for newspapers all different forms of sports and competition. In this way my observation has been from close range,—close enough to develop facts and not mere theories.

"Smoking by the young brings a double burden to carry,—a burden in both a physical and a mental way. I have noticed that those who do not smoke, who keep in clean if not exactly


Walter Johnson, Pitcher
"Tbe Big Train," one of the most respected and successful baseball
pitchers America ever had, has said, "I strongly advise any boy
who hopes to become an athlete to let cigarettes alone."

strict training, have far more energy, much greater stamina, much better control of their nerves, and they also appear to develop a much keener knack at picking up a game.

"In addition to this I have found that they think quicker and better. Under twenty-five years of age they are developing both physically and mentally; and if this development is hampered by smoking, the loss can hardly be made up later on.

"The young in sport make up for their lack of experience


by nervous energy and vitality. Smoking cuts in heavily upon both, wearing away the reserve force which youth needs. A cigarette smoker would have but little chance in any red-blooded competition against one who stuck to training. He would have neither the speed for the short sprint nor the stamina for the long race. If I am wrong in this, the statistics of eighteen years are wrong, and records and results mean nothing."

Mike Donovan has been a familiar figure in athletics all his life. For thirty years he has been athletic director of the New York Athletic Club. His work has brought him in touch with all classes of men and boys under the most trying conditions. His word is law with those who know him. And when it comes to smoking, he speaks out with characteristic directness. Listen to this:
"Any boy who smokes can never hope to succeed in any line of endeavor, as smoking weakens the heart and lungs and ruins the stomach and affects the entire nervous system. If a boy or young man expects to amount to anything in athletics, he must let smoking and all kinds of liquor alone. They are rank poison to his athletic ambitions."

"Connie Mack" and Ty Cobb

Cornelius McGillicuddy, the "Connie Mack" of baseball fame, leader of the champion Philadelphia Athletics, and everywhere acclaimed one of the greatest men baseball ever produced, says:
"We do everything in our power to discourage the use of cigarettes among our baseball boys, knowing the great harm that tobacco has done to those in the habit of using it. Boys who have continued smoking cigarettes do not as a rule amount to anything. They are unfitted in every way for any kind of work where brains are needed. . . . Every one should have will power enough to overcome the tobacco habit. There are many other ways that one can enjoy life without the ruin-


'Red' Grange
Grange, the greatest football player of the decade, says
to the youth possessing athletic ambitions: "You cannot
drink and smoke, and expect to succeed as an athlete."

ation of health, and this cannot be done if cigarette smoking is continued."

The man who has made more baseball records than any other one man in the world, Ty Cobb, is most emphatic in his denunciation of the cigarette, and any boy interested in athletics will do well to heed what he says:
"Too much cannot be said against the evils of cigarette smoking. It stupefies the brain, saps vitality, undermines one's


health, and lessens the moral fiber of the man. No boy who hopes to be successful in any line, can afford to contract a habit that is so detrimental to his physical and moral development. The alert brain, the strong body, and the moral stamina necessary for success in any line of endeavor are weakened and destroyed by the cigarette habit; and young men should realize its disastrous effects."

"Red" Grange, the greatest football player of the last decade, says to the youth possessing athletic ambitions, "You cannot drink, and smoke, and expect to succeed as an athlete." When he went to New York City to sign a contract for appearing in motion pictures, the press reported:
"He received $5,000 for indorsing a make of shoes, another $5,000 for writing that he liked a certain brand of ginger ale, and $2,500 for indorsing a Red Grange cap.

"He was offered $10,000 to say that he preferred a certain kind of cigarette, but he refused on the ground that he did not smoke."

Charles Paddock, the sprinter who for many years held the world's record for short-distance running, says:
"No boy can become a star athlete and use tobacco in any form, because it cuts his wind and affects his heart."

They Could Not Buy Dempsey

A cigarette manufacturer sent an agent to Jack Dempsey when he held the world's championship as pugilist, asking for his signature to a recommendation of a certain brand of cigarettes, and offered a tempting financial consideration. Dempsey read it and, turning upon the man, said:
"You could not get me to sign that for ten times what you offer. I do not smoke cigarettes, and never did. Do you think I am going to ask the thousands of young boys who read about me to take up cigarette smoking? If you had a harmless candy or soda water, I wouldn't mind giving you a testimonial for nothing, but I don't sign your testimonials for a cigarette."


Coach Alonzo Stagg, the grand old football coach and athletic director at the University of Chicago, out of his nearly forty years' experience with athletes, says:
"In my judgment there is no question about the bad effects of tobacco on boys, and especially on growing boys. From personal observation with athletes who have been addicted to the use of tobacco, I can speak with confidence that they do not possess the endurance of athletes who have grown up free from the use of it. The smoking of cigarettes is using tobacco in its worst form."

But why multiply these testimonials further? If we had all the athletic hosts of the country lined up before us, they would all tell us the same thing—that tobacco dulls the mind, hurts the body, and kills the athlete's chances of winning. In later years some athletes may smoke; but when they do this their best days are practically over. They know full well they are injuring themselves by the habit. They simply succumb to tobacco when custom, association, and appetite have gotten the better of their will power and judgment. But they do not use tobacco as long as they expect to win in life.



Billions for the Tobacco God

IF MARS were inhabited and the inhabitants could look down upon our earth, whom would they think we worship? The "great smoke god," for morning, noon, and night, continually and without ceasing, great billows of incense arise in his name, and his devotées spend ever-increasing billions of dollars in his cause.

Surely we think more of tobacco than we do of education, for vast as the amounts are that we spend each year on our public school system,—elementary, secondary, and college,—yet we spend more for tobacco. Neither is religion a competitor of the tobacco god, for we spend much more for smokes and chews than we do in the. name and cause of' the true God.

Americans' tobacco bill runs close to $3,000,000,000 annually. This is only the direct cost, and does not take into account the impaired health, the medical attention, and the funeral expenses that tobacco using entails.

Human Sacrifices

Do we offer human sacrifices to our "smoke god"? Oh yes, the worshipers of the fiery Moloch were not the only ones who placed their young in his arms to be consumed, for the Tobacco Trust has said that it must have twelve hundred beginners each day to keep up the ratio of increase in the use of tobacco. Twelve hundred human sacrifices—twelve hundred boys and girls—demanded daily to appease the tobacco god. Moloch never had so insatiable a maw for human life. Think of it! Twelve hundred boys and girls who, by the use of the cigarette, will dull their sense of right and decency.

And our devotion to tobacco is increasing at an unparalleled rate. In the matter of cigarettes, for example, here are some significant statistics as to the number produced in the United States during each of the following years:


1902         2,971,000,000
1910         8,644,000,000
1920       62,000,000,000
1930     123,000,000,000
1935     133,000,000,000

In other words, we smoked forty-four times as many cigarettes in 1935 as we did in 1902, sixteen times as many as in 1910, and over twice as many as m 1920. Following 1930 there was a slight slump due to the depression, but in 1934 the production had equaled former figures, and in 1935 cigarette production reached an all-time peak.

These figures include only the "tailor-made" cigarettes and do not take into consideration those that are rolled by the users. These "homemade" cigarettes probably offset the number out of the above that are exported, and therefore not used in this country.

This prodigious total of one hundred thirty-three billions of cigarettes means that on the average each man, woman, and child in the United States uses more than one thousand cigarettes annually.

At an average price of fifteen cents a packet, the American people spent $997,500,000 for cigarettes in 1935. That means that each minute of the year 255,000 cigarettes were lighted, and $1,912.50 went up in cigarette smoke,—$114,750 each hour, $2,754,000 each day.

This amount of money would buy 6,650,000,000 loaves of bread at fifteen cents each; 199,500,000 pairs of shoes at five dollars each; 997,500 automobiles at $1,000 each; 199,500 homes at $5,000 each; and would give each of 99,750 young people a $10,000 education. It would build two and one-half Panama Canals, and five and one-half Boulder Dams. And these staggering sums, bear in mind, do not take into account the huge amounts spent for cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff.

A Monument to Folly

One of the well-known feature writers of the Hearst syndicate, Bruno Lessing, in comment on the three-billion-dollar expenditure in this country each year for tobacco, says:
"The tremendous sum spent for tobacco is nothing but a monument to man's folly. Smoking would be stupid enough if you obtained your cigars or cigarettes for nothing. To pay for them is idiotic. Smoking is one of those stupid habits that must be deliberately acquired in order to be enjoyed. And, after that, the consolation derived from it is merely the gratification of an artificial craving that has been deliberately created."

The individual expense incurred by smoking can be appreciated by this statement of fact: If the boy of twenty who starts spending $2.50 a week on tobacco were, instead, to invest that money at 6 per cent compound interest, at the age of sixty-five he would have a bank account of $25,000, assuring him an income of $150 a month. Talk about money going up in smoke! The average-boy lets this $25,000 go up in smoke, and with it goes the keen edge of his physical and mental efficiency. His dividends consist of a weak heart, an impaired respiration, a raw throat, a slowed brain, nerves on edge, poor sense of taste, smell, and sight, a diminished vitality in fighting disease, and a shortened life.

Fifty Million Fire Loss

But these arc not the only costs that must be reckoned against tobacco. A conservative estimate places the amount of property destroyed by fire due to careless disposition of matches or stubs by smokers at $50,000,000, or 10 per cent of the total national loss by fire. Others say smokers are responsible for as much as 20 per cent of the total.

It has been reckoned in a recent five-year period that 5,694 forest fires in this country alone were caused by smokers. Millions of acres of the forest primeval, with their myriads


of stately green fingers pointing heavenward, were reduced to a charred pyre. Beauty, that most priceless asset of the natural world, was supplanted with ugly and blackened stumps.

The loss in money and the loss in natural resources is small in comparison with the loss of life. Each year hundreds of lives are sacrificed in conflagrations for which the smokers are responsible. If, as it is said, forty-one persons lose their lives each day by fire, and another forty-seven are injured, and if smokers are responsible for 10 per cent of these casualties, one can see how staggering the indictment against tobacco is. That means 1,500 people arc burned to death and another 1,700 are injured each year on account of tobacco.

There is a well-founded suspicion that the dreadful holocaust of Britain's dirigible, the "R-101," which burned up in France with 47 men, was caused by smoking. It has been proved that some of the terrible mine disasters have been caused by cigarette fiends breaking the rules against smoking, with resultant fire-damp explosion. Some of the big fires in the oil industry have been traced back to a cigarette smoker who threw the butt of his last smoke into an inflammable spot. The fire that destroyed the Triangle Shirt Waist Company's plant in New York City, in which 145 persons, mostly women, were burned to death, was a smoker's fault. And so we could keep on multiplying these examples.

Tobacco, like "money-making machines," patent medicines, gold bricks, and "pirate's hidden treasure," gives nothing in return except illusion. Tobacco is the one story to which there are not two sides. The column of loss is the only one in the tobacco ledger,—lost money, lost efficiency, lost health, lost lives.

It seems strange indeed that men and women, boys and girls, should spend their money and their lives on that which profits them not.

Vicious Tobacco Advertising

THIS little volume would be incomplete in its arraignment of tobacco if it were not to include a severe indictment of present methods of cigarette advertising. Not even the old liquor trade was ever so unethical and untruthful as the tobacco companies are to-day.

In a recent year three cigarette manufacturers alone spent $54,000,000 in advertising. In that year they were the third largest consumers of advertising space in the newspapers, using 13 per cent of all such space. With an appropriation in 1929 of $12,300,000 for advertising one popular brand of cigarettes, a new record was established, for this is the largest amount ever spent in one year in advertising one particular product.

It is almost impossible to pick up a newspaper or a magazine these days without having unscrupulous tobacco advertising flung in our faces. The tobacco companies have bought up the choice hours on the radio, so that if one has a program of music coming into his home as he sits with his family around the hearth in the evening, between numbers comes the blatant appeal of the tobacconist. If one gets into his car for a drive in the country, every turn in the road has its garish display boards whereon the flamboyant claims of this and that cigarette are flaunted. The nation has been made "tobacco conscious," as the advertising psychologist says.

Does the Medical Profession Indorse Tobacco?

The tobacco advertisers have of recent years tried two new leads,—the indorsement of physicians and of athletes.

Knowing full well that tobacco is injurious physically, they have tried to offset this fact in the eyes of the general public with the soothing words of some unprincipled physicians whom they have baited. One brand declares that 20,679 physicians have indorsed it. It must be remembered, however,


that no physician who is high in his profession, and who puts ethics above money and science above business has given his indorsement. Some have succumbed to the lure of the tobacco advertiser's generous money; and in the majority of cases we dare say it will be found that these physicians are addicted to the weed themselves, and their indorsement is only an alibi to cover up their own weakness for nicotine. That physicians know better is evidenced by the fact that whenever they get a really sick patient on their hands, they prescribe complete abstinence from tobacco.

To show the contempt of the medical profession as a whole for physicians' indorsement of cigarettes, let me cite an editorial that appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association (December 8, 1928):
"Who would have thought ten years ago that cigarettes would be sold to the American public . . . actually by insistence on the healthful qualities of certain brands?

"That American womanhood passed during the last five years through one of those periodic crazes that have afflicted womankind since the world began is not a secret. Indeed women everywhere began to cultivate sylphlike figures, dieted themselves to the point of destruction; and tuberculosis rates, particularly for young girls, rose inmany communities.

"At the same time the manufacturers of -—— cigarettes having secured, they claim, statements from 20,679 physicians that -— -— were less irritating than other cigarettes, arc promulgating a campaign in which they assert that these cigarettes do not cut the wind or impair the physical condition, and that — — satisfies the longings for things that make you fat without interfering with a normal appetite for healthy foods. To which the simple reply is made: 'Hooey!'

"The human appetite is a delicate mechanism, and the attempt to urge that it be aborted or destroyed by the regular use of tobacco is essentially vicious."

A Physician's Scathing Rebuke

Perhaps the most scathing rebuke the tobacco advertisers have ever had has come from Dr. William G. Lennox, of the Harvard University medical faculty. It was written to the president of the American Tobacco Company. It reads:
    "Harvard University Medical School,
    "Department of Neuropathology,
    "Boston, Mass.,
    "July 9,1929.
"President, American Tobacco Company,
"111 Fifth Avenue,
"New York, N.Y.

"Dear Mr. Hill:

"I suspect that even you may be getting tired of the statement endlessly repeated through papers, billboards, and radios, that 20,679 physicians say that your brand of tobacco is not so irritating as other tobaccos. Just for the sake of variety you may welcome the opinion of one of the 140,000 physicians of North America who did not join in the statement.

"The object of your propaganda, I take it, is twofold. First, you aim greatly to increase the smoking of cigarettes. The consumption of cigarettes in the United States is now at the rate of one hundred twenty-five billions a year. This is an average of more than three a day for each person—man, woman, child, and infant—in the United States. You think this is not enough. Second, you aim to plant in the popular mind the idea that smoking your cigarettes is not injurious, but is of positive physical benefit. 'It helps a man to keep physically fit.' 'When people ask me how I keep in physical trim, my answer is, "I just smoke —." 'Men keep healthy and fit; women retain their trim figures.' 'It is good to smoke —.' If one would be famous, successful, good-looking, heroic, healthy, apparently one need only reach for a smoke instead of food.


"These ridiculous testimonials you put in the mouths of such prominent persons or hard-up heroes as are willing to sell their names for some of the ten millions of dollars which you have to dispense in this campaign. I am not interested in this needy group.

"It more nearly concerns me that by means of a substantial gift of cigarettes you have induced a certain proportion of physicians of the country to sign the statement first quoted. This statement, implying as it does that even your cigarettes are irritating, adds nothing to your propaganda other than the superficial linking of the idea,—'physicians' and 'cigarette.' If you were not afraid of facts, you would inquire of American physicians how many had advised their patients to begin smoking or to increase their daily consumption of tobacco, whether the tobacco used was toasted or untoasted. Every physician knows that when unlimited smoking has any physical effect, such effect is harmful. Such harm is accentuated in young women, who are the special object of your dance-and-billboard attack.

"No number of good-looking women on billboards or any amount of lively dance music can, however, blur the fact that cigarettes contain a poisonous drug. The following statement

Mme. Schumann-Heink
This great singer, in a talk to a group of college girls, declared:
"I want yon to know that I have never smoked, and I never will. I
think, and I say it with all my heart, that it is a crime that
you girls are poisoning your young bodies by smoking cigarettes."


from the Journal of the American Medical Association, issue of June 22, 1929, page 2125, far outweighs any impression you would seek to gain through your mention of 20,679 physicians:
'Nicotine is to be accepted as a highly toxic chemical. One gram (half drop) is the approximate lethal dose for man,—its action is swift, and death occurs after large doses within a few minutes.'
"To imply that the unlimited use of a product containing this poison 'is good,' is not so good. In fact, companies which are so young in understanding that they don't know the difference in their advertising between a truth and a falsehood, should be gently led by the arm of the law. Senior Smoot's bill before the Senate stipulating that cigarettes, like patent medicines, be put under the Pure Food and Drug Act in order to curb such reckless statements as your company has been making, will be approved-by all truth-respecting persons.

"Let me suggest that an important item on your balance sheet is your 'good will.' If you were to spend ten million dollars and in the process change this from 'good will' to 'bad will,' the result for your stockholders would be distressing. Let me remind you also that while your present affairs are highly prosperous (with a net income last year of $25,000,000), there have been in the past other prosperous companies dispensing a product which in large amounts was not a benefit to the physical life of the people. They also broke down 'sales resistance' by every possible means. But, alas, their balance sheets have become a thing to make presidents and stockholders weep.

"The opinions which, as a physician, I have expressed have been more or less general and impersonal, There is, however, a personal matter which far outweighs these in importance. I have two adolescent daughters who do not, as yet, smoke. You are directly contradicting my statements to them concerning the physical and social effects of cigarette smoking. You are endeavoring, by every means in your power, to break


down my authority with them, and to induce them to smoke. I thoroughly resent this, and if I am not mistaken, there are many thousands of parents who feel as I do, and who are about ready to stand up and say so.

"Yours for keeping truth and 'good will' out of the red,


The question arises, Why are the tobacco men stressing the "healthful" side of cigarettes so much? Why are they saying such things as, "You can smoke all you want of — without feeling it." "There isn't a cough in a carload?" "The -—— cigarette doesn't make your nerves jumpy." "For high tension work use —." "—s do not affect your throat"?

Simply because they know that cigarettes do make the nerves jumpy, they do give a raw throat, they do make that cough, and that they cannot be smoked without the smoker's feeling it. In other words, the tobacco trust is trying to offset the indictments against tobacco by merely affirming that they arc not so. The thief always says he has never stolen; the liar always says he tells the truth. Culprits always affirm the opposite of the crime of which they are really guilty. Medical science and knowledge is against tobacco, and no one knows it any better than the cigarette manufacturers themselves. That's the reason they are so lavish with their millions in making denials. Trade depends upon deception. If the truth were known, the sale of cigarettes would be at an end.

What Coach "Bill" Roper Says

The tobacco advertisers have been playing up the testimonies of athletes. They do this because they know that the youth of America idolize these heroes and want to follow in their footsteps in every way possible. Consequently they pay very liberally for statements made by ex-athletes indorsing a particular brand of cigarettes. That this practice meets with the approval of the athletic world is far from the truth. For


example, here is what W. W. ("Bill") Roper, former well-known football coach of Princcton University has said:
"I know of nothing that has exasperated me more in my entire twenty-five years' experience with football than the flaming billboards with the pictures of several ex-football players, coaches, and officials advertising — cigarettes.

"If this cigarette advertising of football players, coaches, and successful athletes is continued, it will do more to undermine the good results accomplished by the game in building up the health of the boys and young men of this country than anything else I know of."

It is a notorious fact that many so-called famous people who have signed their names to certain statements prepared by cigarette advertisers for the sum of $1,000 to $10,000 have never smoked in their lives, or if they have, have never smoked the particular kind of cigarettes they indorsed. It is money they are after. The advertisers want the influence of their names, and the mere fact of whether the statement is true or not does not concern either party. Madame Schumann-Heink, Jack Dempsey, "Red" Grange, Lindbergh, Hunter Brothers, and others, have spurned large sums of money when asked for their indorsement. Some have, instead, rebuked the tobacco concerns in most severe language for their damaging campaign against the youth of the land. This reveals the lengths to which some of these concerns go to popularize their products and to create a demand for them.

The Sham and the Shame of It

A writer in Singing and Playing, a publication devoted to music and drama, has given us this additional glimpse into the way indorsements are sometimes obtained. He says:
"Speaking of cigarettes, I wonder if some of our artists are not going too far in testimonial writing? I sec one tenor's name, for example, attached to two rival brands; each testimonial signed by this man is so eloquent and extreme that


you wonder he could endure another brand. Yet if you meet this tenor, you will find him puffing a cigarette imported especially for him. Obviously, he signed the American dealers' testimonials purely for the publicity value. This same tenor, by the way, indorses a facial cream, a soft drink, a cigar, two makes of piano (fickle fellow that he is), and a few other items of merchandise.

"This artist, like many of his colleagues of high and low degree, has sold his name and prestige for the sake of the advertising. Very rarely does any money change hands in this testimonial traffic; frequently a solicitor who obtains the signatures of prominent persons is paid about fifty dollars a name, but the artist receives only five dollars and the assurance that his photograph will be featured in a nation-wide advertising campaign in the leading dailies and magazines.

"A few of the more resolute artists, Madame Schumann-Heink, for one, have resisted; but I must record the fact that possibly five hundred musicians have sold their opinion on various brands of cigarettes; in fact, the artist who has not been approached by a tobacco firm may consider himself completely obscure. Of course, the testimonial signer must be granted a poetic license as far as sincerity of sentiment goes, for I know some endorsers of cigarettes who have never smoked in their lives."

Luring Girls and Women

Another phase of this cigarette advertising racket that is most culpable is the direct appeal to girl and women smokers. In times gone by, the cigarette manufacturers have had a little respect for the womanhood of America; in fact, they have not dared to use their advertisements for the purpose of inducing girls and young women to smoke; but nowadays they everywhere try to convey the impression that the best women smoke, that men admire women smokers; that smoking is not incompatible with womanly ideals, that smoking will aid


in preserving beauty of face and contour, etc. The manufacturers who make these assertions must know that they are absolutely false.

Dr. Daniel A. Poling

To the lure of these advertisements can largely be attributed the amazing increase in women smokers of recent years. The tobacco men came to realize a few years ago that if they could get a large proportion of the girls and women to smoke, their business would double overnight. The cigarette manufacturers have added to their plants over and over again since women started smoking, and the flood of money pouring into the coffers of these corporations has surprised even the tobacconists themselves. But all this has but whetted the appetite of the tobacco trust, and now they are more resolved than ever to push their advertising until every girl and woman, as well as every boy and man, is puffing away at a cigarette. It is said that in such countries as China they go so far as to hand out free cigarettes to little boys and girls, in order to get the habit formed, and thus to build up their traffic. Referring to the unscrupulous methods followed by the tobacco trusts in this country, Senator Reed Smoot declared in a recent speech in the Senate:

"In many women's colleges resentment has been caused by the free distribution of cigarettes designed to start girl under-


graduates on the road to cigarette addiction. Another company sends congratulatory birthday greetings with a carton of cigarettes to boys who have reached sixteen years of age. Every temptation that greed can devise is thus placed in the path of our boys and girls."

In view of all these facts, it is no wonder that such men as Charles F. Powelson, general secretary of the National Child Welfare Association, says: "It seems to me it is high time that our schools should teach our children to look behind the methods of the scheming propaganda that in these days is being poured forth by radio, press, billboards, and similar advertising mediums."

Tobacco Advertisers Challenged

It is no wonder that such eminent men as Dr. Daniel A. Poling should declare.:

"I speak first of all as an American father who, with an American father's concern for his own children and for all children, challenges current cigarette advertising. I speak in the second place as the president of the World Society of Christian Endeavor, as the representative, therefore, of more than four million young people who share with me the deep hostility against this advertising. . . . Womanhood is being exploited for trade. Excess is being encouraged as efficiency. Boys and girls in the crucial years of adolescence are being led to stunt their bodies and dwarf their minds."

And it is no wonder that such a statesman as Hon. Reed Smoot, United States Senator since 1903 and chairman of the powerful Senate Finance Committee, said in the memorable speech delivered in the Senate on June 10, 1929:

"Mr. President, ten years ago, when in certain quarters of our metropolitan cities a saloon flourished on every corner, when red lights marked houses of Infamy, when blazing electric signs reminded the passer-by that it was time for another drink of whisky, no tobacco manufacturer, despite the vast


license permitted, had the temerity to cry to our women, 'Smoke cigarettes—they are good for you.' When newspapers were filled with cure-all and patent-medicine advertisements, no manufacturer of a tobacco product dared to offer nicotine as a substitute for wholesome foods; no cigarette manufacturer was so bold as to fly in the face of established medical and health opinion by urging adolescent boys to smoke cigarettes, or young girls—the future mothers of the nation—to adopt the cigarette habit.

"Not since the days when public opinion rose in its might and smote the dangerous drug traffic, not since the days when the vender of harmful nostrums was swept from our streets, has this country witnessed such an orgy of buncombe, quackery, and downright falsehood and fraud as now mark's the current campaign promoted by certain cigarette manufacturers to create a vast woman-and-child market for the use of their product. . . .

"I rise to denounce insidious cigarette campaigns now being promoted by those tobacco manufacturing interests whose only god is profit, whose only bible is the balance sheet, whose only principle is greed. I rise to denounce the unconscionable, heartless, and destructive attempts to exploit the women and youth of our country in the interest of a few powerful tobacco organizations whose rapacity knows no bounds.

"Whatever may be said of the moderate indulgence m the use of tobacco, it is clear that the issue raised before the country in some of the current cigarette campaigns is the issue raised by urging excessive cigarette smoking; by flaunting appeals to the youth of our country; by misrepresenting established medical and health findings in order to encourage cigarette addiction."

It is evident that the tobacco trust stands indicted at the bar of honesty. It is guilty of betraying our youth for gold. It is wilting to seduce our women for profit. It is scheming to debauch the health of millions that it may make billions.

Tobacco's Effect on Character

NO ONE can accuse ex-President [Herbert] Hoover of being either fanatical or bigoted; yet this is his estimate of the damage cigarettes do to the character of our youth:
"We in America are far behind what a national conscience should demand for the public protection of our children. There is no agency in the world that is so seriously affecting the health, efficiency, education, and character of boys and girls as the cigarette habit, yet very little attention is being paid to it. Nearly every delinquent boy is a cigarette smoker, which certainly has much to do with it. Cigarettes are a source of crime. To neglect crime at its source is a shortsighted policy, unworthy of a nation of our intelligence."

It is an indisputable fact, and one that should give us considerable concern, that although not all cigarette smokers are criminals, yet nearly all criminals are cigarette smokers. This is far more than a mere coincidence: the law of cause and effect undoubtedly operates here. From a medical viewpoint the explanation is this:

The furfural present in the smoke of the cigarette acts upon the brain cells and nerve tissues in such a manner as to bring about a degeneracy of these structures in time. This is especially true with the undeveloped brain. Thus the cigarette habit taken up by boys before the brain is fully developed tends to bring about degeneracy of the brain cells and to produce moral degeneracy. It develops criminal tendencies in these boys. These are the boys that we find in our juvenile courts, reform schools, and jails. Whenever I read of a dastardly crime's having been committed, by inquiry I have found that in practically every such case the criminal was a cigarette addict. Go with me to any juvenile court and ask the judge what percentage of the youthful offenders that appear before him are cigarette smokers. He will tell you that nearly all of them are. I have never heard a lower estimate than 93 per cent.


At a clinic I conducted at Harper's Hospital, Detroit, for the benefit of those who wanted help in their efforts to give up smoking, a boy thirteen years of age, who had the appearance of being not more than nine years old, was brought to me for treatment. He was stunted physically, mentally, and morally, as many of these boys are. One of the nurses who assisted me said to him, "How long have you smoked cigarettes?" to which he replied, "Since I was two years old." She said, "Who taught you to smoke?" He replied, "My brother." With considerable emphasis she replied, "Your brother ought to be in jail" to which the boy innocently and laconically rejoined, "He is."

John D. Quackenbos, M.D., of Columbia University, has said that
"the gravest of all the evils resulting from cigarette addiction is the lessening or complete loss of moral sensibility, with a conspicuous tendency to falsehood and theft. The moral propensities are eventually destroyed because of the destruction of those elements of the brain through which moral force is expressed. The victim degenerates into a sallow, unmanly, irresponsible incompetent, in splendid fettle for the penitentiary or the asylum."

Nicotine's Fetters Almost Unbreakable

One of the most serious aspects of the tobacco habit is its absolute enslaving powers. Very few who become confirmed addicts can break the chains that nicotine forges about them. Outside of such drugs as morphine, heroin, and cocaine, there is perhaps nothing that holds its victims more tenaciously than does tobacco. And, by the way, cigarette addiction undoubtedly leads to the use of these other habit-forming drugs.

The well-nigh unbreakable strength of this addiction was impressed upon me anew by a recent letter from a patient of mine. This gentleman is one of the highest officials in the government of a great state on the Atlantic seaboard. He is suffering from a serious heart condition, and I advised him to


give up smoking. But here is his reply in a letter just received:
"I note all you write about my smoking, and I expect that you are right about it. It may be sacrilegious for me to say so, but I am very frank to tell you I do not believe that I will ever be happy any more if I attempt to quit smoking. It has such a hold on me that although a strong man in every other respect, I am just a weakling when it comes to a question of giving up cigars. I have been at the head of a great many big business corporations, and have occupied positions of honor and trust most of my life. I have always had firmness of character and will power enough to do anything I wanted to, with one exception, and that is to quit smoking. You are not alone in saying I ought to quit smoking. Practically every doctor I ever had felt this way about it; but I have gone against their advice and kept on smoking and probably will as long as I live."

As another significant testimony as to the diabolical gripping power of tobacco, here is a portion of the sworn testimony given by Mr. Owen Dawson, clerk of the Montreal Juvenile Court, Canada, before the select committee that was appointed by the Canadian Government to inquire into the cigarette habit and its influence on youth:
"I would say that of about three thousand boys who came before the court, 95 per cent made use of cigarettes. I have been interested in the boys of Montreal for eight years, and I have tried to help one way and another about five thousand boys since I came to Montreal. I have never once succeeded in getting a boy to stop smoking cigarettes, although I have tried hundreds of times. On the other hand, in helping boys to keep away from liquor, I have succeeded in getting them to stop. The cigarette seems to get hold of the boy to such an extent that he never can give it up."

One of the well-known educators of the country, Ozora S. Davis, when connected with the University of Chicago, made this observation regarding the fateful power of the cigarette:


Henry Ford
The world's greatest industrial genius has declared that
"the world of to-day needs men;
not those whose minds and will power have been weakened or destroyed
by the desire and craving for alcohol and tobacco,
but, instead, men with initiative and vigor,
whose mentality is untainted by habits which are ofttimes uncontrollable."


"The power of the cigarette habit is greater than we would be inclined to think. Boys in school who are in the clutch of it become its slaves. They cannot put their minds on their work. They are incapable of remaining long without the stimulant of another cigarette. Their whole physical and moral condition is involved. This is the universal testimony of teachers, and it is something that is known to the writer from experience as a high school principal. The fetter of the cigarette habit becomes welded at last with a grip that no act of the weakened will alone can break. This is the terrible and tragic end of the matter in case after case. Boys think that they can smoke a little now and then when they please and that they can stop when they are ready to do so. They do not know that the very continuing of the use of cigarettes involves their wills so seriously that when they want to stop they cannot. This can be proved from every school in the country."

Personal Liberty Surrendered

How can boys and girls allow themselves to be drawn into the clutches of such a relentless and enslaving thing as the tobacco habit? Is it right, or is it even expedient, to surrender one's will power and self-control to the extent the tobacco habit demands? Should we give up our freedom and right of individualism to "the little white slaver"? Talk about "personal liberty"! The cigarette takes it away forever. Those who begin smoking are selling themselves into a bondage that is well-nigh perpetual and unbreakable.

Another phase of the question that should cause the young to pause before beginning to smoke is the fact that cigarette addiction leads to other pernicious habits. In my medical practice I have had occasion to treat a great many morphine addicts. Never once have I succeeded (nor has anyone else, so far as my knowledge goes) in curing a morphine addict who was unwilling to give up cigarettes at the same time. With nonusers of cigarettes, I have been more successful. I


am convinced that nicotine addiction many times leads to morphine addiction.

The worst and most hopeless drunks I have had to deal with have been excessive smokers. In treating them, if they refuse to give up smoking, I have found that they invariably return the second time as drunks for treatment. I never consider a whisky inebriate cured who has refused to give up tobacco. The two habits are very intimately associated. The one leads to the other. They are Siamese twins, inseparably joined together." Every bootlegger, without exception, I have found, is also a heavy smoker, and invariably a smoke inhaler. Practically every customer the bootlegger has is likewise a tobacco user. These are facts that stand scrutiny and investigation. That these two forms of addiction are associated, Horace Greeley had evidently observed, for he said, "Show me a drunkard who does not smoke, and I will show you a white blackbird."

The Opinion of Many Judges

In corroboration of my statement earlier in this chapter that the cigarette habit predisposes to delinquency and crime, let me cite the findings of some well-known judges and officials whose long service has placed them in close contact with multitudes of youthful lawbreakers and offenders. Judge Ben Lindsey, former judge of the Denver Juvenile Courty has said:
"One of the very worst 'habits' of boyhood is the cigarette habit. This has long been recognized by all the judges of the courts who deal with young criminals, and especially by judges of police courts, before whom pass thousands of men every year who are addicted to intemperate habits. These judges know that in nearly every case the drunken sots who appear before them, a disgrace to their parents, themselves, and the state, began as boys smoking cigarettes. One bad habit led to another. The nicotine and poison in the cigarette created an appetite for alcoholic drink. The cigarette habit


not only had a grip upon them in boyhood, but it invited all the other demons of habit to come in and add to the degradation that the cigarette began."

Judge Crane of New York City says: "Cigarettes arc ruining our children, endangering their lives, dwarfing their intellects, and making them criminals fast. The boys who use them seem to lose all sense of right, decency, and righteousness."

Hon. George Torrence, former superintendent of the Illinois State Reformatory, says: "I am sure cigarettes are destroying and making criminals of more boys than liquor. Manliness and good conduct can be aroused and stimulated in most boys, no matter what the offense of which they have been guilty, if only they are not cigarette fiends. We have found that when a boy is guilty of a grievous offense, he is generally found to be a user of cigarettes."

Judge B. S. Shaw of Hart, Michigan, says: "In every instance of juvenile delinquency in this court I have found that the boys were cigarette users."

Judge Allen of Lisbon, North Dakota, says: "Every male juvenile delinquent brought before me for the last seventeen vears has been a cigarette smoker."

Judge Pollock of Fargo, North Dakota, said: "Every boy brought into this court the past sixteen years was a cigarette smoker."

Dr. Hutchinson of the Kansas State Reformatory, said:"Cigarettes arc the cause of the downfall of more boys in this institution than all other vicious habits combined."

Dr. Coffin, who for over twenty years was connected with the Whittier Reform School of California, said: "Fully 98 per cent of all youthful criminals who have been confined to this institution were cigarette smokers, and 95 per cent were cigarette fiends."

Miss Winters, principal of one of the largest schools for delinquent girls in America, has said concerning her institu-


tion, "Out of over eleven hundred inmates, only twenty were nonsmokers of cigarettes."

What the Schoolmen Say

Educators of the nation have always taken a firm stand against the use of cigarettes on the part of the youth, not only because of the physical damage done, but also because tobacco addiction seems to promote incorrigibility, truancy, and delinquency. In the Journal of Education, Principal John J. Lynch of Holyoke, Massachusetts, writes:
"Much of our serious and unpleasant school discipline comes in consequence of the mental and moral defects caused by cigarettes and their attendant evils. The habitual practice completely changes the temperament and disposition of the boy. He gradually becomes unkind, unsympathetic, unclean, and insolent. He develops an offensive attitude to all school discipline and regulations. His school morality is of a low standard, extremely selfish and impudent. Those moral deficiencies and scholastic dullness demand unusual tact and effort to prevent his total estrangement."

Prof. Templeton P. Twiggs, for many years principal of the largest grammar school in Detroit, Michigan, and later supervisor of the Department of School Attendance, and particularly interested in the backward and incorrigible class of pupils, says:
"The physical development of the young habitual smoker is irreparably checked unless he has an unusually robust constitution. In any case the physical development is noticeably arrested. He has no ambition to enter into games or any boyish activities. He apparently cares little for his personal appearance, and could be classified as of the 'down-and-out' type.

"If he is under sixteen years of age, and the habit is well formed, his mind is a blank. He can not memorize and retain for even a period of twenty-four hours such easy matter as ordinary words in spelling. As to mental calculations required


in the courses of arithmetic, he is practically helpless. He seems to have no control over himself in making a determined effort to accomplish definite things. Mental paralysis seems best to describe his condition.

"Through his loss of self control, he has no moral standard. He seems unable to distinguish between right and wrong, or to possess sufficient will power to enable him to do what is right even if he knows. He is absolutely untrustworthy, and there is usually no extreme to which he will not go."

This high-power bomb was thrown at the cigarette by the late Hudson Maxim, the inventor of high explosives:
"If all boys could be made to know that with every breath of cigarette smoke they inhale imbecility and exhale manhood; that the cigarette is a maker of invalids, criminals, and fools, but not men, it ought to deter them some."

Thus we see that the most serious charge against the cigarette is its powers of ruining character. Bad as it is to injure physically, yet a hundredfold more culpable is it to break down the morals. And who is there that dares to say that the widespread moral delinquency and crime that is ravaging our civilization to-day has not been in some measure at least worsened by the almost universal use of the cigarette?


What Shall We Do About It?

AFTER all this delineation of the evils of tobacco upon the body, mind, and morals, the question arises. What are we going to do to help remedy the situation?

The primary need, it seems to me, is an aggressive educational campaign the nation over, calling the attention of our youth to the injurious nature of tobacco. While the nicotine trust is spending tens of millions to convert the people to tobacco, it certainly seems that those who are alive to its dangers should spend thousands in an effort to counteract this universal propaganda?

Let the truth about tobacco and especially about the cigarette be known. Truth is all powerful. Let us begin with our boys and girls. I am aware that very few adults who are confirmed addicts will ever give up the habit; our hope of the future lies in educating the youth against tobacco before the habit grips them. In California and several other states the teaching of the injurious effects of tobacco in the public schools is compulsory by law. Every state in the Union should pass similar legislation, and see that it is faithfully and efficiently carried out in every grammar school and high school. Let regular instruction be given as to the poisons in tobacco and their effect on mind and body. The case of medical science and common sense against tobacco is so overwhelmingly convincing that it appeals to boys and girls if they are put in possession of facts pertaining to it.

We are urging legislation to protect our boys and girls, not from the viewpoint of narrow-minded reformers who want to take all the joy out of life. We arc justified in such a step by the fact that we owe it to society and civilization that "the next generation" shall not be rendered deficient physically, mentally, and morally by this unnatural habit.

Along with the educational campaign that all the schools of the land should put on should go a similar campaign on


the part of the churches, Y.M.C.A.'s, Y.W.C.A.'s, etc. Surely it is not out of harmony with their program of uplift and enlightenment to give frequent instruction on the serious physical and moral effects of the use of tobacco. If they fail to do this, it is because they are unfaithful to their trust. If the church has any duty toward the youth, it is to save them from the formation of handicapping habits and from moral injury.

Let the young people's societies in the various churches give consideration regularly each year to the fruits of the nicotine habit. Let the pastors schedule annually or semiannually a sermon on this and other habits of intemperance. Let the teachers in the Sabbath schools and Sunday schools, under whose tuition the young and formative minds of hundreds of thousands of children are, give regular instruction in the evils of the tobacco habit.

Every state should also pass legislation making it impossible for tobacco advertisers to flaunt their lure to the young. Such advertisements as the one on tens of thousands of billboards recently, showing a young girl smoking, should be prohibited by law. Indeed, all advertisements urging women to smoke should be outlawed in view of the acutely detrimental effect that the smoking of mothers has on their infants. If we are justified in requiring by law that a baby's eyes be washed out at birth with a disinfectant to prevent infection and blindness, surely we are justified in demanding that tobacco companies must cease this campaign to urge women to smoke, the effect of which is actually transmitted to the babe both before and after birth.

Advertising Should Be Controlled

The tobacco trust should be prohibited from advertising tobacco as a food when it is in reality a poison. Furthermore, they should be required to state the poisons contained in tobacco on every packet of cigarettes, on every can of pipe to-

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley
Dr. Wiley did a monumental work in sponsoring the
Pure Food and Drug Act, which requires manufacturers
to list the poisons in their products on the outside of the
container. By a technicality, tobacco escapes this provision.

bacco, and on every plug of chewing tobacco. Our Pure Food and Drug Act requires the manufacturer to print upon the container the name and the amount of any deleterious substance, adulterant, etc., in the product he markets. We owe that bit of praiseworthy legislation to that great physician and advocate of public health, the late Dr. Harvey W. Wiley. Time and public opinion have fully justified that enlightened


act. Can any good reason be given why this legislation should not apply to tobacco?

It is only a technicality that allows tobacco to go unregulated by the Pure Food and Drug Act. That act stipulated that it controls "all medicines and preparations recognized in the United States Pharmacopœia." Since tobacco is not recognized as a medicine, it does not come under the Pure Food Act. Tobacco used to be included in that Pharmacopœia, but has been dropped. It is no longer recognized as possessing any medicinal value. In a late revision of the Pharmacœpoeia a very significant reason is given why tobacco has been left out. It reads:
"Tobacco, the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, was official in former Pharmacopœias, but was dropped in the last revision. It was formerly highly esteemed as a vulnerary, but is little used as a drug by intelligent physicians. A decoction of tobacco in which corrosive sublimate has been dissolved makes a satisfactory bed bug poison."

Our legislation for the control of foods and drugs should be so revised as to regulate the sale of tobacco.

Why should we allow the tobacco companies to get by with such an atrocious campaign of misrepresentation as they have put on in recent years? They seek to make the public believe that tobacco is more healthful than candy, cake, pie, ice cream, and other sweets. The public is entitled to know the truth in the matter. Our innocent children should at least be protected against such flagrant falsehoods. France will not allow tobacco to be advertised as a food product. Japan goes still further. In the year 1900 a law was unanimously passed by parliament in which it was urged,
"If we would make our nation superior to the nations of Europe and America, we must not permit our children, who will be the future fathers and mothers, to smoke cigarettes."
Why should America lag behind France and Japan in protecting the health and morals of her youth?


A concerted effort should be made to bring pressure to bear on reputable magazines, newspapers, and radio stations to debar certain forms of cigarette advertising that are deceptive and untruthful. Hearty approbation should be given such magazines as Good Housekeeping, the Ladies' Home Journal, and others, which, at great financial loss to themselves, have refused to run cigarette advertisements that arc intended to increase cigarette business among our youth and women. But "the love of money" is still the "root of all evil." Few possess principle and moral stamina sufficient to withstand the tempting offers as do the journals named.

The Rights of Nonsmokers

All tobacco smokers should be educated as to the rights of nonsmokers; for certainly nonsmokers do have some God-given rights. Why should we who of our own free will choose not to use tobacco be forced to inhale nicotine-laden smoke, and at secondhand? Can there be any justification for smokers' preempting all the space in the world and polluting it with their smoke? Smokers should be courteous and thoughtful enough to realize that those who do not smoke have a right to the clean, pure air, untainted with their exhalations. Why should not smokers, if they feel they must smoke, at least be willing to do their smoking where the smoke does not reach the general public, especially in public buildings, hotels, restaurants, conveyances, etc.? Is this too much to expect and demand on the part of nonsmokers ?

While I admit that tobacco chewing is one of the filthiest habits imaginable, one thing can be said in its favor, and that is this,—while the one who chews tobacco injures himself the same as does the smoker, he does not by his presence injure those with whom he associates, as does the smoker. When he spits out the poison, he does not spit into the water others have to drink. On the other hand, the smoker contaminates the air others are compelled to breathe. Compared


with the smoker, the chewer is quite polite and harmless.

Is not every human being entitled to heaven's pure air? If so, no man has a right to pollute it with opium smoke or with tobacco smoke, and yet this is what every smoker, thoughtlessly perhaps, does. The tobacco smoker has no more right to pollute the air others have to breathe than the chewer has to spit into the water others have to drink. Municipalities carefully protect the water supply of our cities; why should not the same protection be given the air supply?

John Burroughs, the well-known naturalist, who used to accompany Edison and Henry Ford on their vacation tours, once said,
"I am an implacable enemy of tobacco in any form. The habit is one of the filthiest and most offensive mankind ever formed. A smoker is a nuisance indoors and out. He poisons the air even on the street, and in cars and hotels and restaurants the taint of his foul fumes is over all. A public smoker is a public nuisance of the most disgusting kind. He should be compelled to retreat to some underground cave or cell when he indulges his passion for the poisonous weed. The cigarette habit is undermining the health of tens of thousands of our young men."

That may seem like pretty strong language. We may not agree with Mr. Burroughs in every particular, but it is nevertheless a fact that smokers, as a rule, are brazenly callous of the welfare and rights of others. As David Starr Jordan has said,
"consumers of tobacco soon lose consideration of the rights and comforts of others. If they could or would consume their own smoke, the affair would be their business mainly, and. not ours. But this they do not do. They pollute the air almost everywhere, and in greater and greater degree. To the man of normal nerves there is nothing in the way of odors more offensive than that of stale tobacco."

The tobacco advertisers aver that they are seeking to make the public "tobacco conscious." Why can't we in turn seek to make the tobacco users "courtesy conscious"?


The Bad Example of Adults

One of the most serious aspects of the constant increase in cigarette addiction among our youth is the example of adults,—parents, teachers, doctors, and even preachers. It is an uphill fight to persuade boys and girls to pledge themselves against the use of tobacco when most of the elders whom they highly respect are constantly puffing smoke around them. Example is far more influential than precept, and while nearly every adult solemnly tells the young not to smoke, yet just as soon as the sermonette is given, out comes the cigarette, the pipe, or the cigar, and the effect of good words is obscured or obliterated by the smoke of the bad example.

At a mass meeting where an appeal was made to boys to sign the pledge against smoking cigarettes, a manly boy stepped forward, accompanied by his father and mother, and said, "I want to sign the pledge." The father and mother encouraged him to do so. But this was not all. The father, who stood by the boy's side, felt that he had a duty to perform. He said, "For the sake of my boy I will give up cigars," and he too signed the pledge. I feel certain that this did more to keep that boy from breaking his pledge in the future than anything that father could have said. It was the consistent thing for that father to do. Why expect his boy to do what he was not willing to do?

At a meeting of ministers in one of our large cities, a prominent minister, who had for twenty-five years been a smoker, arose and said:
"I have signed this pledge so that I can advocate it with a clear conscience among the schoolboys. And I would advise you brethren who smoke to quit. I don't know how many of you indulge, but I know that some of you do. I saw the light when I saw that any father in my congregation, in trying to persuade his boy to stop smoking, would find it difficult to get around his son's retort, 'But, papa, the preacher smokes.' Gentlemen, cut it out; it does not pay."
This was the consistent thing for that preacher to do. Preach-


ers are paid to be good, and to set a worthy example before their flock. Certainly they, above all men, ought not to defile God's living temple with tobacco. In this as in all else they should be an example to their flock.

We wonder why boys and girls smoke. A little juvenile offender, who was questioned by an officer in Judge Arnold's court of Chicago, explains it. The officer said to him, "Why do you smoke?" The boy hung his head and replied, "Because I like to smell like a man." Boys smoke because they consider it one of the evidences of real manhood. The fact is, boys smoke because men smoke, and girls smoke because women smoke, "and this being so we shall never meet with success in influencing our boys and girls until fathers and mothers begin to teach by example. It is said of Christ that He " began both to do and teach," hence it was witnessed that He spoke with authority and power and " not as the scribes," who said and did not.

What Manly Men Will Do

After I had given an address at the Central High School in Detroit some time ago, a number of young men came forward and said, "Doctor, what you have said appeals to us; but tell us, why do doctors smoke?"

What could I say? All I could say was, "Doctors are human; they smoke for the same reason that lawyers smoke. They formed the habit in their youth, and now find it just as difficult to give it up as do the lawyers; and they possess no more power than do the men in other professions. Doctors know better than they do. They do not always practice what they preach, that's all."

That afternoon I was introduced to a physician who was in the act of smoking a cigarette. When he heard my name, he smiled and said, "Well, doctor, you do not approve of this, I know. If I had a boy, I would not smoke." I replied, "My dear friend, other men have boys that are influenced by what


David Starr Jordan
This world-renowned educator made this observation:
"Cigarette-smoking boys are like wormy apples;
tbey drop long before the harvest time."
Dr. Jordan here alludes to the blighting effects
of tobacco physically and mentally.

you do." I then told him of what the boys at the Central High School said to me that morning. Doctors should be the guardians of the health of the people. They certainly should not do that which they know will prove an injure not merely to themselves but to those who are influenced by their example.

A short time before leaving Chicago, where I was conducting a clinic, one of the leading ministers called me up over the


telephone. He said, "I am anxious to to see you." An appointment was made. When he came to my office, he said, "Doctor, my church is near a high school. Smoking is very prevalent among the boys. Teachers are doing their utmost to discourage the practice. When the mothers and fathers speak to their boys about it, they are met with the retort, 'But dad, the pastor smokes.' Now," he said, "what am I to do? When I attempt to give it up, I get as cross as a bear. I cannot study or sleep. Is it safe for me to give it up ?" I replied, "It is perfectly safe. It is unsafe not to give it up."

A month later I was invited to present the educational work along this line that was being carried on in the schools of Chicago, after which it was moved and seconded that this work receive the indorsement of the Ministerial Association. Before it was voted, however, this minister arose and, in speaking in its favor, said: "Gentlemen, you all know I have been a smoker." He then related how a month ago he had come to my office, and after receiving the assurance that it was safe to abandon the use of tobacco at once, he said he gave it up and had not smoked since, and never expected to again. That afternoon a picture of this pastor appeared in the paper, and also the remarks he had made before the meeting. He telephoned to me a day later, and said, "I am receiving a great deal of publicity. My telephone is ringing almost continuously. People are calling me up and expressing their appreciation."

I said to him, "That is splendid. Our confessions should always be as widely known as our transgressions, in order to counteract our wrong influence."

Let all of us adults who, though we may not at all times be aware of it, are nevertheless the constant patterns by which the younger generation arc fashioning their lives, resolve that they shall not be stunted physically or injured morally because of our example. Let us be able to say to them, "Do as I do," as well as, "Do as I say."

"Twas a sheep, not a lamb, that strayed away,
In the parable Jesus told,—
A grown-up sheep that had gone astray
From the ninety and nine in the fold.

"Out in the meadows, out in the cold,

'Twas a sheep the good shepherd sought,
And back in the flock, safe into the fold,
'Twas a sheep the good shepherd brought.

"And why for the sheep should we earnestly long,

And as earnestly hope and pray?
Because there is danger if they go wrong,
They will lead the young lambs astray.

"For the lambs will follow the sheep, you know

Wherever the sheep may stray;
If the sheep go wrong, it will not be long
Till the lambs are as wrong as they.

"And so with the sheep we earnestly plead,

For the sake of the lambs to-day;
If the lambs are lost, what a terrible cost
Some sheep will have to pay!"

Shepherd Carrying A Sheep


A Cure for the Tobacco Habit

MY EXPERIENCE with tobacco addicts warrants me in saying that but few of them ever succeed in giving up the habit when once it is acquired, even when they have a desire to do so. I do not say that the habit cannot be given up. I know it can. I have seen it done again and again. But I have also seen repeated failures,—many more failures than successes; the fact is, it is about as hard to sever company with the cigarette as it is to break away from any other form of drug addiction. Every one who is a smoker of cigarettes and has attempted to give them up, knows that what I am saying is true. But it can be done by going about it in the right way.

Before closing this booklet, I must give you what has proved helpful to many hundreds of tobacco addicts who have come to the place that they want to break the bonds of nicotine. In my general practice over the years and out of the contacts with many tobacco users, I have found certain things to be very helpful in ridding one's self of the appetite for tobacco.

Don't Try to Taper Off

The way to go about it is not by tapering off, that is, by smoking a few cigarettes less to-morrow than to-day, and thus keep cutting them down gradually to three a day, then two a day, then one, and finally none. I have seen this tried again and again, and I must confess I have never known it to succeed. If you are desirous of giving up the smokes, do not adopt this method, for it is almost certain to result in disappointment. In fact, it might be compared to amputating a leg or an arm by sawing oft a little each day. The process is too painful to endure.

The first step in giving up tobacco is to give it up. Many fail because they never reach this decisive point. They may want to, but they do not will to. Their determination is not


set as a flint toward the conquering of the habit. All the will power and determination must be mobilized for action. The will placed determinedly on God's side becomes omnipotent thus making the impossible, possible.

Keep away from smokers and from a tobacco-laden atmosphere as far as possible for about three weeks. As a valuable aid, after each meal for one week, rinse out the mouth with a three-fourths-of-one-per-cent solution of silver nitrate. This creates a distaste for tobacco smoke, and will also relieve throat irritation.

Purchase five cents' worth of gentian root (or camomile blossoms), and chew it during the day when there is a desire to smoke.

To assist in eliminating the poison, take a dose composed of half a teaspoonful each of Rochelle salts and cream of tartar each morning before breakfast for one week. If possible, take a Turkish bath, or a good sweat bath of some kind, twice during the first two weeks. Drink water, orange juice, or grape-fruit juice freely. When tempted, reach for an orange instead of a cigarette.

Keep out in the open air as much as possible and keep the mind occupied.

Diet a Big Factor

One of the greatest physical aids, however, is a complete change of diet. Smokers are as a rule fond of highly seasoned foods and stimulating drinks. The one who is resolved to break away should stop the use of pepper, mustard, hot sauces, and all other condiments, since these help to create the appetite for narcotics and tobacco. When their use is stopped, the craving, it will be found, will be greatly lessened in a short time.

Of course, it is hardly necessary to say that if one is a drinker of alcoholic beverages these must be absolutely abstained from, for it is practically impossible to break with


tobacco if alcohol is used. The two are so closely united that it is absolutely necessary for John Barleycorn to be buried with Lady Nicotine.

The smoker will also find it a great aid to stop the free use of meat. The adoption of a vegetable and fruit diet largely takes away the appetite for tobacco.

The following diet will be found of the greatest aid, and, if followed carefully, the discovery will be made, by the end of the first week, that the craving has materially lessened, and by the end of the third week it is not unusual to find that the craving has almost entirely disappeared. With this assurance held out, the effort is certainly worth a trial.

For a period of two or three weeks make use of cereal foods, as Shredded Wheat Biscuit, bran flakes, Krumbles, Puffed Wheat, whole-wheat bread, rye or Graham bread, etc., with milk and cream, buttermilk, cottage cheese, and nuts (well masticated). At the close of the meal use fresh subacid fruits, as oranges, peaches, pears, apples, pineapples, grapefruit. Figs, dates, raisins, apple sauce, and canned fruits are also indicated.

A patient who had used tobacco for forty-two years, after adopting this simple treatment for three months, wrote: "It seems wonderful to me that I now have no craving for tobacco or drink."

Another one wrote me: "I am glad to say I have not used tobacco in any form in three weeks, and have no desire for it." These testimonials might be multiplied.

Natural Foods Best

There can be no doubt in the mind of anyone who is at all observing that there exists a very intimate relation between the unnatural food men eat and the unnatural craving that they possess for narcotics. I was especially impressed with this several years ago while conducting a clinic for smokers in the cities of Chicago and Detroit. I inquired of each applicant as to his fondness for certain foods. In every case, with-


out one exception, I found that those who were great lovers of meats, tea, and coffee were also among the heaviest smokers. A chef of one of the large hotels in Chicago came to the clinic for treatment. He was a heavy cigarette smoker. After I told him what to eat, he said: "Doctor, I cannot eat that kind of food. It is tasteless to me. I have the finest fruit in the city of Chicago pass through my hands daily, and I never eat it."

"Well," I said, "what do you eat?" He then told me that for breakfast he had ham and eggs and a couple of cups of coffee,—sometimes three cups. Dinner and supper were composed largely of highly seasoned foods and meats. Such meals create an unnatural craving that leads either to the use of alcohol or tobacco for relief. It creates a thirst that water cannot quench. It is a thirst, not for water, but for a narcotic. In the absence of beer or whisky, a cigarette will quench such a thirst more effectively than will water. This explains why, immediately after meals, the cigarette is in demand. Grains, nuts, milk, and fruits, on the other hand, lessen the desire for both alcohol and tobacco.

A young smoker who came to me for aid, after I had advised him to use milk freely, especially buttermilk, and to eat freely of ripe fruits, especially oranges and grapefrult, assuring him it would lessen the craving for the smoke, said:
"Now I have the explanation of an experience I had some time ago. I was stealing a ride in a box car containing nothing but apples. The door was sealed on the outside. For three days I had nothing to eat but apples. I had cigarettes and matches with me, but I found that after the second day smoking was distasteful to me. Not until after I was released and again began my accustomed diet did the desire to smoke again appear."

Fruit a Foe of Tobacco

It is, in fact, impossible for anyone to live exclusively on oranges, peaches, pears, or other sweet or subacid fruit for


any length of time without becoming conscious that the craving for the accustomed smoke is lessening. In time it will disappear. This is no mere theory. As a physician I have had opportunity to observe this in many instances.

My attention was first called to this thirty years ago. The president of a city railway who was suffering from ulceration of the stomach came under my care for treatment. I ascertained that he was an inveterate user of tobacco. No doubt the symptoms accompanying the gastric irritation that finally resulted in ulceration were temporarily relieved by the smoke. He promised faithfully that he would give up its use. From the time he first began treatment his diet was simple and non-irritating, excluding irritating foods and condiments. At the end of six weeks he called at my office and said: "Doctor, I have ]ust returned from the city. On the way I passed a man smoking a cigar, and the smoke was actually offensive to me. I never thought such a thing possible." His firm will and determination, combined with the aid received by a carefully prescribed diet, made it comparatively easy for him to give up the use of tobacco. I have since seen this experience repeated again and again.

The Aid of Religion

What I am about to say may not appeal to non-Christians, but those who are really acquainted with the transforming power of Jesus Christ in the lives of men know that the gospel is a mighty help in overcoming such habits as that of tobacco.

In the first place, I do not believe a Christian can consistently be a user of tobacco unless he is entirely ignorant of its effects. Note that challenging declaration of Paul's, "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. Let no man deceive himself." I Corinthians


3:16-18. It is beyond dispute that tobacco is a defiler of the human body, and that man who has given hmself to God cannot deliberately and knowingly, defile his body-temple without sinning against his God. "To him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.''

Life, after all, is not a possession. It is a grant. We are but the caretakers. It is a serious matter, willfully and knowingly to destroy the body God has lent us. It needs no extended argument, I am sure, to point out the inconsistency of the use of tobacco with the Christian life. Certainly no one can imagine the Lord Jesus Christ, were He on earth today, going about with a cigarette between His lips. Christ in us will to-day do as He did when walking among men. "He that saith he abideth in Him ought himself also so to walk, even as He walked."

"Oh, I say," said a trader to Missionary Wicks in the Solomon Islands, "I have not been able to sell one case of tobacco in this lagoon the last two years. You must have great power over the natives to compel them to give up tobacco."

"No, my friend," the missionary replied, "there is no compulsion about it. We are simply teaching the people that it is important for the Christian to keep the inside of the body as clean as the outside."

"Well," the trader replied, "whatever you do, I know this, that I can't sell tobacco here. But I sell more calico, blankets, cooking utensils, etc., so it is all the same to me; but it is wonderful how you do it."

There is a power in Christianity that helps men to break with evil habits. Many times the craving for tobacco is so strong in a man's life that he knows he needs some outside influence, some superhuman force, to overcome it.

The Case of an Actress

Two years ago there came to me a woman asking if we would admit into our institution a friend of hers, a very brilliant woman, an actress and playwright who was in a most


pitiable condition. She was extremely nervous and smoked incessantly, she told me. I said to her, "Yes, we will admit her on one condition; that is, she must understand before she comes that she cannot have one cigarette after arriving here." This seemed rather hard and unsympathetic, but two days later they brought her. The first two days I kept her in bed with a nurse constantly by her side, giving her the treatments indicated.

On the second day, she called me to her room. As I entered she said, "Doctor I cannot stand this any longer. I am so nervous, I am afraid I will do something desperate. I will jump out of that window. I must have just one cigarette." Then she added: "Before coming here, I consulted two nerve specialists. They both said it would be unsafe for me to cut out the cigarettes entirely since I smoked so incessantly; they advised me to smoke only five or six a day."

I said: "Did you do it?" She admitted she could not hold herself down to that number. Then I said: "Of course, you could not. Your mind was thus kept continuously upon the cigarette, by looking forward for the time to pass for the next smoke. This was a continuous torture. The only way for you to do is to come to the point where you will say, 'I will give them up altogether, regardless of what I may suffer.'"

She said: "I can never do that."

Then I said: "I shall have to give up your case as a hopeless one."

This startled her. I then said: "I know you are up against a difficult task, but provision has been made for you. Jesus Christ came to help those who cannot help themselves; and we are all poor, helpless creatures. If we were able to help ourselves, His sacrifice would not have been necessary." I assured her of God's willingness and anxiety to help her. After a serious talk for a few minutes, I had prayer with her. When I was through praying, she snapped her fingers, and said: "Doctor, I will never smoke another cigarette, never, never, never! How can I smoke after this?"


Two weeks later she came to my office and said: "Do you know that I have now no desire whatever for cigarettes? It is just wonderful to me. It seems like a miracle. Can you explain why this is so?"

I said, "No, a miracle cannot be explained, only in the words of the scripture: 'The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.'" [John 3:8] I then told her that when her will was placed without reservation on God's side, it became omnipotent, and the impossible was made possible. This was the only explanation I could give. This woman gained over thirty pounds in weight. She left the sanitarium with calm nerves, and was the picture of health.

Ferrin Quits Tobacco

During the year 1893 I aided in opening up a medical mission in the city of Chicago to help the many "down and outs," as they were termed, who had flocked into the city. Among others was a man by the name of John Ferrin. He was one of the most hopeless characters to be found in the city of Chicago. He was on the point of having delirium tremens when he appealed to me for help. Day after day I gave him his bath and dressed his sores, and after doing so would read a few verses from the New Testament about the life and works of Christ. Then we would bow in prayer, and Ferrin would go out in search of something to do. Although an inebriate of many years, he at once gave up drink. He did not taper off.

One day he came to me and said, "I see you do not smoke. Tell me why not."

I told him I did not smoke because I considered my body to be God's temple, and that Christ dwelling in men would not resort to a habit that would defile His Father's dwelling place. Without a moments thought he handed me his pipe and tobacco and said, "I will never smoke again."


I said to him, "Ferrin, you will have a hard time of it."

He was an inveterate smoker, but he replied, "Oh. yes, I can give it up. That little Book you gave me [referring to a small New Testament] says, 'Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound."

From that day to the last day he was associated with me in Chicago he never mentioned tobacco. The craving for it was gone.

In the same mission Tom Mackey was converted. Tom had been the terror of that terrible community known as Customs House Place, where the mission was located. He was a confirmed drunkard and a heavy smoker. At one of the night meetings Tom was converted. He dropped drink and tobacco. One year after this he was recognized in that same community as one of the most successful gospel workers. For more than thirty-five years Tom Mackey was engaged in evangelistic work. Thousands were converted under his ministry.

Needless to say that my experience among these so-termed "down and outs" greatly increased my faith in the gospel of Christ to save.

Divorced From Lady Nicotine

In conclusion permit me to give my own experience in obtaining my divorce from Lady Nicotine, for I too was once a heavy smoker.

At the age of twelve I began to smoke occasionally. I had the experiences that others had [Ed. Note: Examples: Dr. Thorn and Dr. Jackson] , of sickness, but, believing smoking to be a manly accomplishment, I persevered until I was able to smoke and really en)oy it. I had been married about three years when one night my wife persuaded me to attend a gospel meeting with her, which I did. During the meeting something was said that touched my heart, and I there determined to give up my former life and become a Christian.


On our way home I told my wife of my resolution, and added, "I do not see how I can be a Christian and continue to smoke." No one had said anything to me about tobacco. I simply could not harmonize Christianity and tobacco. My wife said, "Well, give it up." On our arrival home, the first thing I did was to get my cigars and pipe and a can of tobacco, and hand them over to her for safe-keeping.

I got on very well that night, but in the morning about ten o'clock the craving for my accustomed smoke was so intense that I felt I could not endure it any longer. I called my wife and pleaded for just one smoke, no more. Fortunately, she knew better than I what would be involved in that one smoke. She did not yield, but invited me to accompany her into the bedchamber, where we knelt and asked for divine help. I there on my knees promised the Lord, regardless of suffering, never again to smoke.

With Paul I wish to say, "I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth." Help has been provided for the tobacco addict to break the bonds that hold him, if that aid is sought. Liberty has been proclaimed to every captive. [Isa. 61:1]

[The End]


Related Books by Dr. Kress
The Tobacco Habit (Washington, D.C.:
Review and Herald Pub. Ass'n, 1900)
The Cigarette or Tobacco Smoke Inhalation
and its Influence on Civilized Races:
Is the Habit Curable?

(Chicago: Methodist Book Concern, 1916)
Economic Repercussions of a Common Habit
(London: Science and Society, 1937)

Other Books on Tobacco Effects
by Other Authors
The Mysteries of Tobacco,
by Benjamin I. Lane (1845)
Tobacco: Its History, Nature and Effects
by Dr. Joel Shew (1859)
The Use and Abuse of Tobacco,
by Dr. John Lizars (1859)
Tobacco and Its Effects: Report
to the Wisconsin Board of Health

by G. F. Witter, M.D. (1881)
Tobacco and Health:
Some Facts About Smoking
by Prof. Arthur Steinhaus and
Florence M. Grunderman (1941)
What You Should Know About Tobacco,
by Frank L. Wood, M.D. (1944)
Click Here for Titles of Additional Books