TCPG Presents
Criminology 001, Lecture 001:
Profiling Criminals: Identifying
WHO
Commits Most of the Crimes
What EVERY Police Officer, Prosecutor, and Judge Knows
PREVENT CRIME AND VIOLENCE
Here's How—According to Professional Data

The U.S. is No. 1 in incarcerations in the world. The U.S. has more people per capita incarcerated than any other nation in the world.

This site assists in opposing crime and violence
  • by citing the medical data on the subject 1836 to present, and

  • by revealing what judges "everywhere" know, via data generated in the criminal processing system.

  • First, let's note that doctors and other researchers have thoroughly and long studied the crime problem. They have studied, in short, the process how noncriminals are changed, turned, into criminals.

    Criminals are, in other words, manufactured. Medical researchers analyze and show how this manufacturing process is done. Such people know, describe, and report the manufacturing process. This site reveals that information; and now you too can know what they have found about the criminal-manufacturing process.

    Medical research techniques are well-established. They have been thoroughly established and fine-tuned since the 1530's, as particularly applied by Dr. James Lind's 1740's - 1790's activism campaign, discussed more below.

    A bibliography, and a section quoting judges, follows, after these introductory comments:

    The underlying factor in crime is the single most-studied health risk factor in the history of medicine, in the history of mankind.

    The underlying studies are in the tens of thousands. The data is voluminous. The subject is, has long been, very long been, important to researchers. It is about time that you be told what doctors found so long ago on the subject, and continue to verify, re-verify, and re-re-verify.

    Doctors long ago found that the 90% factor underlying crime is the same one underlying

  • lung cancer,

  • alcoholism,

  • drug abuse, and

  • suicide.
  • What is that factor? What is the common 90% factor in all these seemingly different matters? What did researchers find out about criminals? How are non-criminals turned into criminals? What is the common link? When did doctors find out? How long ago did they begin publishing the data?

    A detailed journal and volume listing is below, but please read this introduction first.

    This is significant data that they found. If used, this data
  • could and would prevent most crimes,

  • prevent non-criminals being turned into criminals,

  • prevent you and loved ones becoming victimized,

  • prevent media citing you, and your tragedy, in one of their news "sob stories" ("if it bleeds, it leads"), and

  • reduce the pressures for phony 'tough' or 'feel-good' solutions and punishments.
  • It is about time that you be told what doctors found, what has been published in medical journals and other places not easily available to the non-specialist.

    Remember the question: What did doctors (using their long and well-established methods) discover about criminals?

    Answer: They found—and repeatedly published voluminously time and time again, 1836 to present—that about 90% of crime is committed by one specific, discrete, easily identifiable population category. That one group doing 90% of the lung cancer, the alcoholism, and the suicide is also doing the crime.

    Before you go on, you must get out of your head, the media myth, the innuendo of the media pundits on "Action News," that doctors are too stupid to have ever studied the crime subject!

    Media, and politicians, would have you believe that doctors, though they had a great proven technique for problem-solving, did not use it to analyze crime causation!

    According to them, doctors are just too stupid to use their proven cause-finding technique,
    • to study the crime subject,
    • to study who commits crime,
    • to study to see if they can find any solution to prevent crime.

    If you believe the media and politicians, there is nothing further for this webpage to say. Sorry, we researchers just don't know, we never studied the subject!!

    Too bad, doctors just never looked into the crime-causation subject! Sorry, doctors study everything else, not this!! Sorry, doctors just don't know!

    That's the impression you get from the media pundits, and politicians.

    But ask yourself, "If doctors did study the subject, just WHO did doctors find commits about 90% of the crimes?" Take your time before answering. . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . .

    It is about time that you be told what doctors and other researchers found; that you be told what law enforcement officials and judges a CENTURY ago told our ancestors about.

    "[I]t is evident that . . . punishment is not imposed until after the deed is done. It is . . . directed against effects, but it does not touch the causes, the roots, of the evil."

    "[W]e have but to look around us . . . to see that the criminal code . . . remedies nothing."

    The hope is "That which has happened in medicine [prevention] will happen in criminology."—Enrico Ferri, Lecture (Univ. of Naples, 24 April 1901), in The Positive School of Criminology: Three Lectures Given at the University of Naples, Italy, on April 22, 23 and 24, 1901 (Chicago: C.H. Kerr & Co., 1906 and 1912).

    Ferri (1856-1929) was a legal scholar involved in developing criminology as an academic discipline.

    Likewise, a then classic crime analyst, Cesare "Lombroso . . . understood crime as arising from the interplay of social and biological causes," says reviewer Elun Gabriel, on Cesare Lombroso, Criminal Man (1876), translated and edited by Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter (Durham: Duke Univ Press, 2006). (Review).


    Eliminate the cause; the effect disappears. "Sublatâ causa, tollitur effectus: Otez la cause, l'effet disparaît."—Dr. Hippolyte Adéon Depierris, Physiologie Sociale (Paris: Dentu, 1876), p 328.

    Dr. Depierris (1810-1889) was a contemporary researcher on this subject in Ferri's era.


    "The solution to crime is not punishment. Crime is due to poverty, ignorance, emotional problems, and similar causes that cannot be reached by punishment. . . . Change a man's circumstances and you change the man," says Daniel P. Mannix, The History of Torture (New York: Dell, 1964), Chapter 20, p 214.
    "[L]ike eruptions on the human body," crimes "are symptoms of more fundamental conditions of personal or social deficiency or imbalance."

    For "the crime problem to be solved, the attack must be made at the source of the trouble and the remedy must be found in the removal of the causes."—Henry W. Anderson, Chairman, Committee on the Causes of Crime, National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (1931).


    See a similar analysis by Charles B. Towns, Ph.D., Habits That Handicap (New York: The Century Co, 1915), pp 248-249.
    Note "the truth of [the] remark [analysis] that behind every criminal deed lies a secret. But more important, we have glimpsed the utter futility, the sheer waste, of confining individuals in barred and turretted zoos for humans. [Evidence] makes a mockery of current penological pretense. It points the finger of ridicule at the sterile corridors of modern prisons . . . the custodial hierarchy—in short, the whole hollow structure . . . based upon expediency, untested hypotheses, unwarranted conclusions from a pseudo-science empiricism . . . [the] system flatters itself that it is doing other than substituting psychological for physical brutality. In spite of the self-flattery in which criminologists, penologists and the assorted professional and warder complement of the modern prison indulge . . . we [society] do nothing fundamental about crime or the criminal," says Robert M. Lindner, in Rebel Without A Cause: The Hypno-Analysis of a Criminal Psychopath (London: Research Books Limited, 1945), Summary, Part II, pp 320-321.
    Bluntly, "we have been making a wrong approach to our crime problem."—Earl Warren, Proscutor, Governor, Chief Justice of the United States, 4 Jan 1943, cited in Jim Newton, Justice for All: Earl Warren and the Nation He Made (New York: Riverhead Books, 2006), p 167. Thus Warren came "to the conclusion that crime prevention was more important than crime suppression."
    Flatly, or ironically, "punishment does not deter."—C. R. Jeffery, "Criminal Behavior and Learning Theory," 56 J. Crim. Law, Criminology & Pol. Sci. 294-300 (1965), a fact learned by every criminology student. For an example of the savagery in U.S. prisons, see, e.g., Jean Casella and James Ridgeway, "America’s Most Isolated Federal Prisoner Describes 10,220 Days in Extreme Solitary Confinement" (7 May 2011).
    If you would prefer to NOT be a crime victim, and would rather that the incident (e.g., your being murdered) be prevented, as distinct from your name being added to the list of those re whom the perpetrator was 'punished' or 'rehabilitated,' you should know that the 90% factor in prevention has long, long been known.

    Doctors found the specific operative profile factor in the criminal manufacturing process.

    Yes, they found it.

    What did they find?

    They found that most, about 90% of crime, is due to mental disorder, brain damage, impairing memory. 90% of crimes are committed by mentally ill persons, with one specific mental disorder, which is listed in the International Classification of Disease, page 233, medical coding number 305.1, "tobacco use disorder" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1980).

    Knowledge of laws, ethics, self-control, involves the memory. When brain damage (like a "shot through the head," explained below) impairs the memory, criminals don't follow the laws because they can't remember the laws.

    Nor can they remember the concept of 'getting caught.'

    Vernon H. Mark, M.D., and Frank R. Ervin, M.D., in their book Violence and the Brain (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), explain in exhaustive detail this basic medical fact.

    This basic medical fact has been reported for a century and a half, that most criminals have brain damage tantamount to having suffered "a shot through the head". It has been researched and reported in great detail.

    This lecture, this site, long as it is, provides an introductory overview of that voluminous data, and, especially, the cause of that said brain damage so common among criminals.

    As Dr. Samuel Solly said in 1856, it would help readers on this subject if they would go to medical school, to study anatomy and physiology! Our ancestors did.

    This site can't send you to medical school, but it can give you an overview of this one narrow facet of what is known, and some pertinent bibliography. So please keep reading this, the linked sites, and the medical references.

    'The life you save may be your own.'

    When medical researchers state that they have found the cause (the 90% factor) of lung cancer, that assertion is not deemed unacceptable. But let's see how people react when told that, by the same analytical process, the same occupation has found the 90% factor in crime.

    Let's dare to say what was found. But first, be aware that the reason you have not been told this is . . . the answer offends some people. Yes, offends people, just as in the Middle Ages, people were offended to be told that their bad sanitary practices were what was causing the plague. Doctors' research is ok, except . . . when they find facts that some people don't like. So as you have kept reading, it is hoped that you won't be offended.

    Who is the one discrete, identifiable population group with the memory problem that is involved in about 90% of the crime? What did doctors find, and report? ________________________

    Decide Your Answer, Then
    Check Your Answer Below




















    That one group with the memory problem is called

    "smokers."

    Do not be surprised at this, and at the role of memory loss in crime. Smokers are also the people disproportionately getting Alzheimer's Disease disproportionately.

    Oops, the media pundits never told you that medical fact either! It is realized that you likely have never been taught this fact (the cigarette-crime link) though children of the turn-of-the-century were.

    Education a century ago on the cigarette-crime link was then so comprehensive, even among children, and so widely known, that in 1897, Iowa and Tennessee, and in 1909 Michigan, passed laws to ban this 90% factor—another fact you likely have never heard of. Quotes from the vast literature on the subject are listed below.

    Doctors have been trying hard for well over a century (since at least 1836) to get the public to realize the tobacco-role-in-crime, and to favor crime prevention via tobacco control. (Tobacco control includes enforcing pertinent existing constitutional rights and anti-poisoning, etc. laws.) The courts know this; here's a quote from a court decision upheld by the United States Supreme Court:

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21; 59 USLW 2544 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded by U.S. Supreme Court, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    The courts, the judges, know that most criminals are smokers. You should too!

    "Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring."—Patrica A. Brennan, Ph.D., Emily R. Grekin, Sarnoff A. Mednick, Ph.D., Dr.Med., "Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Adult Male Criminal Outcomes," 56 Arch Gen Psychiatry (#3) 215-219 (March 1999).

    A 1997 study had likewise linked maternal smoking and subsequent aggression by the child. See Jacob F. Orlebeke, Dirk L. Knol, and Frank C. Verhulst, "Increase in Child Behavior Problems Resulting from Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy," 52 Archives of Environmental Health (#4) 317-321 (July/Aug. 1997).

    These studies, and others, involve doctors repeatedly citing an aspect of the tobacco-crime link, yet more studies added to the stack since 1833.

       This webpage summarizes the repeatedly medically-verified role of cigarettes in the crime process (the cigarettes-crime link). Here are details.

    Cigarettes are the gateway drug delivery agent, initiating children into the drug lifestyle. Cigarettes contain toxic chemicals, and cause abulia or anomie (impaired impulse and ethical controls—the medical terminology for a deadened conscience). This can be described as a "state of dethronement of reason from its governing power," People v Carmichael, 5 Mich 10, 21; 71 Am Dec 769 (1858). Wherefore (as published since the 1830's), about 90% of crime is by smokers. This fact analysis may seem unusual, but here is an example of the analysis-process we may remember from grade school.

    We learned (as alluded to above) that Dr. James Lind (who was aware of similar 1537 data), observed in 1747 that statistics showed a scurvy-fruit juice link, or correlation. Sailors who drank fruit juice (from oranges, lemons, or limes) did not get scurvy. The others who did not, did get scurvy.

    Dr. Lind did not know why the statistics showing a scurvy-fruit juice link were true. (Vitamins such as vitamin C would not be discovered for almost two centuries. Data on studying/researching the "why" of activities is a University level subject.)

    Since Dr. Lind had nothing to prove his link claim but statistics ("who" gets the scurvy, not, "why" they get it), the government, the politicians, refused to accept Lind's statistics for almost fifty years. Many people suffered as a result.

    Doctors pleaded that the statistics be acted on. NO. NO. No. No. NO. NO, was the government's answer, the politicians' answer, 'We hate your d—n statistics.' They violate people's rights!! :)

    Dr. Lind died. People kept suffering from scurvy.

    Finally, in 1795, the British navy agreed not to wait for proof the statistics are true in terms of why, but simply to respect them, in terms of who. The navy put limes on its ships, so many that British sailors would sometimes be called "limeys." Scurvy ceased among them!

    Knowing who gets a problem and dealing with that, works, doctors said. Knowing the who factor alone is sufficient to act—no need to wait centuries until some research doctor discovers why!

    Not until almost two centuries after Dr. Lind's discovery did chemist Jack C. Drummond call the mysterious statistical thing that was working—"Vitamin C"—in 1920.

    A reader-friendly book on this subject is by Isaac Asimov, Ph.D., How Did We Find Out About Vitamins? (New York: Walker and Co, 1974), pages 8-10.

    A number of lives were saved, many were made healthier, beginning in 1795, by finally simply accepting the 1747 statistics, and not waiting for that 1920 discovery.

    And doctors likewise solved (without knowing "why," just "who") problems such as smallpox, rabies, streptococcus infections, sewage-caused diseases, etc.

    Do NOT believe the innuendo of the media pundits on "Action News," do not believe the politicians, do not believe that doctors NEVER studied the crime subject! Never used the proven technique for problem-solving. Never studied who commits crime. Never studied to see if they can find any common factor in crime.

    Sorry, doctors study everything else, not this!! Sorry, doctors just don't know!

    Remember, media don't get viewers by giving boring statistical "background" news! They give "action news." Said one TV news "senior producer, Ted Kavanau, 'I'll make you [the reporter] famous on the air. Just remember, if it bleeds, it leads,'" says long-time journalist Peter Arnett, Live from the Battlefield: From Vietnam to Baghad: 35 Years in the World's War Zones (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), Part III: 1974-1990, "In the Trenches with CNN," page 324.

    Politicians don't get votes by citing scholarly data. They get votes by being good ole' boys, smoozing, talking surface talk, no depth. These people (media, politicians) are personally lazy arrogant 'know-it-alls.' They hate doing in-depth work themselves; they resent people who do do it; and they don't want to know about those people who do do it. (If you don't believe this, try contacting such types about the data here; listen to their disbelief, their ridicule of same!) They make their living, feeding (like vultures) off your tragedies. If you don't have tragedies, lots of them, they won't have "talking points," they'll be unemployed!

    You are still reading. You believe it likely that doctors did, in fact, apply their long proven type of successful, result-oriented analysis to crime.

    You are right. Of course they did. Of course they found the common factor. They found out "who" does the crimes:

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney, supra, 924 F2d 1507, affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25, supra.

    "In a survey of . . . incarcerated youths with an average age of 15.5 years, 94% were smokers. . . . Drivers who smoke are arrested for drunken driving more than three times as often as nonsmokers . . . receive 46% more traffic citations and are involved in 50% more automobile accidents than are nonsmokers, even when alcohol is taken into account." J. R. DiFranza, and M. P. Guerrera, "Alcoholism and Smoking," 51 J Studies Alcohol (#2) 130-135 (1990), p 134.

    Statistics show the cigarette-crime link. The government, the politicians, should act on those statistics, not wait for two centuries, with many suffering needlessly and dying while we wait for the proof of "why" the statistics are true.

    Actually, we don't need to wait. We already know the proof for, the why of, the statistics on the cigarette-crime link. We have known for over four centuries.

    Yes, we already long ago, centuries ago, knew why the cigarettes-crime link exists, and have known since the 1600's. We know why as a "natural and probable consequence," it is statistically smokers who commit most (90%) crime.

    The same type of analysis as done on scurvy is true on the cigarette-crime link. Doctors long ago found that cigarettes' toxic chemicals cause brain "injury" that impairs memory, e.g., "takes away the power of resistance" to impulses and harm up to and including death. Cigarettes' toxic chemicals lead to abulia, a "state of dethronement of reason from its governing power," People v Carmichael, 5 Mich 10, 21; 71 Am Dec 769 (1858) [And see full text].

    We know, and have known for over a century, what specific part of the brain burns out so to speak, opening the door to sociopathic and psychopathic behavior such as crime and violence. In law, of course, ignorance is no defense, so in law, we all know this—in law, not necessarily in reality.

    That is why this website exists, to let you know in fact, what you and everybody already "knows" by reason of the legal doctrine that ignorance is not a defense.
    See examples of data on the subject of smoker mental disorder, e.g.,
    *Lennox Johnston, "Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine," 243 The Lancet 741, 742 (19 Dec 1942).
    *Johnston, Smoking Cure, 263 Lancet 480-482 (6 Sep 1952);
    *Brown, Tobacco Addiction, 50 Tex St J Med 35-36 (Jan 1954);
    *Am Psychiatric Ass'n (APA), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1980) pp 159-160, 176-178, and (1987) pp 150-151, 181-182;
    *Nat'l Org. for Reform of Marijuana Laws v Bell, 488 F Supp 123, 138 (D DC, 1980) (referencing tobacco as a drug)
    *Caprin v Harris, 511 F Supp 589, 590 n 3 (D ND NY, 1981);
    *Comment, Tobacco Addiction, 81 Mich Law Rev 237-258 (Nov 1982); and
    *A. Ott, et al., Smoking, Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease, 351 Lancet 1840-1843 (20 June 1998). (To acess Ott's article, register at the journal's website, http://www.thelancet.com.)

    See also Ronald M. Davis, M.D., (a health authority working for Michigan Governor John Engler during his first term), "The Language of Nicotine Addiction: Purging the Word 'Habit' From Our Lexicon," 1 Tobacco Control 163-164 (1992), opposing the malicious tobacco lobby / politician / media lie that smoking is merely a habit.

    Cigarettes' toxic chemicals impair impulse and ethical controls, impair self-control, i.e., cause anomie and abulia (typically understated as mere addiction). Cigarettes are the delivery agent for nicotine, the gateway (starter) drug for children (average age 12). Alcohol follows, average age 12.6; then marijuana, average age 14. Drug dependence develops in stages, requiring intervention at the earliest stage—cigarettes.

    References:
  • Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 17, Research on Smoking Behavior, DHEW Publication ADM 78-581 p vi (Dec 1977);

  • Robert DuPont, M.D., Teen Drug Use, 102 J Pediatrics 1003-1007 (June 1983);

  • Fleming, et al., Cigarettes' Role in The Initiation And Progression Of Early Substance Use, 14 Addictive Behaviors 261-272 (1989); and

  • Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Surgeon General Report (1994). Page 10 supports law enforcement, saying, "Illegal sales of tobacco products are common."
  •  Smokers suffer, then many self-medicate with alcohol. Drunk drivers are typically smokers, as police often see. "Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."—J. T. Hayes, et al., Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment, 15 J Addictive Diseases 135 (1996).

    So cigarettes lead, in turn, to licentiousness, promiscuity, pregnancy, SIDS, birth defects, and abortion. See for example the Surgeon General Report (1994), supra; and Joseph DiFranza, M.D., et al., "Effect of Maternal Cigarette Smoking," 40 J Family Practice 385-394 (April 1995).

    "When we take a thorough drug history, we are forced to admit that nicotine—not alcohol or cannabis—is the drug of entry for most young people."—Emanuel Peluso and Lucy Silvay Peluso, "The Challenge of Treating Teenagers," 9 Alcoholism & Addiction (#2) 21 (Dec 1988).

    "The first step toward addiction may be as innocent as a boy's puff on a cigarette in an alleyway," said the U.S. Supreme Court in Robinson v California, 370 US 660, 670; 82 S Ct 1417; 8 L Ed 2d 758 (1962).

    Once the abulic process of impairing ethical and impulse controls occurs, tobacco's 90% role in crime results. Most crime is committed by smokers, just as most lung cancer, suicide, etc., not to say that all smokers get/do such. "Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring." See Brennan, et al., 56 Arch Gen Psychiatry 215-219 (March 1999). (This significant fact—doctors once again pointing out a facet of the cigarettes-crime link—received scant media attention.) There was also little media notice of the July 1997 study by Lauren S. Wakschlag, Ph.D., Benjamin B. Lahey, Ph.D., Bennett L. Leventhal, M.D., Rolf Loeber, Ph.D., stating the same in Archives of General Psychiatry.

    It is well-established in significant detail (far beyond mere "correlation") how cigarettes can have the brain effects that lead to decisions to commit crime. Tobacco smoke emits high quantities of carbon monoxide (42,000 particles though carbon monoxide is unsafe in quantities above 100 particles), as our site on cigarettes' toxic chemicals shows.

    Additionally, cigarette smoke is quite radioactive, as noted by, e.g., E. A. Martell, "Tobacco Radioactivity and Cancer in Smokers," 63 American Scientist 404-412 (July-August 1975). Radioactivity renders artery walls "highly permeable to the passage of red cells."

    That permeability fact, helps explain what was described a century ago:

  • "Autopsies have revealed large foci of softening in the brain, hemorrhages into the meninges, and capillary apoplexies in the brain substance."—G. W. Jacoby, 50 New York Medical Journal 172 (17 August 1889).

  • "Ecchymosis occurs in the pleura and peritoneum. Hyperemia of the lungs, brain, and cord is found. . . . Coarse lesions have been found in the brain and spinal cord."—L. P. Clark, 71 Medical Record (#26) 1073 (29 June 1907).

  • Tobacco damages the conscience, says Count Leo Tolstoy, Why Do People Intoxicate Themselves? (1890), p 5, thus leads to crime, p 10.
  • This combination of brain damage effects from cigarettes' toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide and radioactivity, foreseeably, as a "natural and probable consequence," leads to mental disorder and crime.

    The tobacco-crime link has been cited many times by prison officials, judges, doctors, and crime analysts since Dr. Alcott (1836), e.g., by the Auburn Report (1854); by Hodgkin, 1857; Buckley and Trask, 1860; Ellis, 1901; Lindsay, 1914; Torrance, 1916; Brum, 1924; Danis, 1925; Healy and Bonner, 1926; Crane, Dawson, Pollock and Shaw, 1931; Gehman, 1943; Wood, 1944, etc., etc.

    As these experts have shown, the 90% factor in crime has remained constant, unchanged across all the variables, societal changes 1836 to present, including radio, movies, television, Internet, pornography, depictions of graphic violence, and all other alleged factors. (Such irrelevant factors/variables are cited typically by persons who have NOT studied the subject, and/or are malicious, and/or wish to make money off crime and the suffering of others, by their circulating sensationalist disinformation to the gullible).

    For in-depth background, see
  • Eric Schlosser, “The Prison-Industrial Complex,” 282 Atlantic Monthly (#6) 51-77 (Dec 1998). “Crime is down, but the prison biz is booming--it creates jobs and corporate profits.” “[E]very one of them . . . becomes another lasting monument . . . to the fear and greed and political cowardice that now pervade American society,” p 77.
  • Prof. Michael A. Hallett, “Faith-Based Corrections as Symbolic Crusade,” 25 Humanity & Society (#4) 219-238 (2002) (notes misdirection of cited anti-crime activities)
  • Prof. Angela Y. Davis, Ph.D., “Are Prisons Obsolete?” (Toronto: Publishers Group, 2003)
  • Prof. Michael A. Hallett, “Commerce with Criminals: The New Colonialism in Criminal Justice,” 21 Rev Policy Research (#1) 49-62 (January 2004) (cites links between slavery and modern day private prisons)
  • Connie Cass, “Report: 1 of Every 75 U.S. Men in Prison” (Associated Press, Friday, 28 May 2004)
  • Sasha Abramsky, "Incarceration, Inc.," 279 The Nation (#5) 19/26 July 2004, pp 22-25 ("Under the current Administration, the private prison industry has aggressively expanded its reach at both the state and federal levels [p 23]." "Many impoverished counties have in recent years essentially converted themselves into for-profit prison speculators [p 24].")
  • Charlie Cain, et al., "Prisons full by fall; now what?" (Detroit News, 19 Feb 2007). ("Michigan's prisons are bursting at the seams, sucking up precious state dollars at an alarming rate and could close to new inmates by fall. . . The state is paying more for corrections ($1.94 billion) than it does for its 15 public universities ($1.78 billion)."
  • Fr. John S. Rausch, Director, Catholic Committee of Appalachia, discussing the Bible position (visiting inmates): "It isn't 'I was up for charges and you made sure they threw the book at me.'" (Cited by the Associated Press, Samira Jafari, in "'Get saved or get busted': Kentucky churches toughen up on addicts," in The Macomb Daily, p 3B (21 July 2007). See also his article on prisons, "Rural Gulags" in Glenmary Challenge (Spring 2007), citing data that, e.g., “the prison population has been escalating to cataclysmic proportions.”
  • Adam Liptak, "Inmate Count in US Dwarfs Other Nations’" (The New York Times, 23 April 2008)
  • The Sentencing Project, "Do Prisons Equal Less Crime?" (25 June 2008) (rebuts the myth of more prisons causing less crime; as you learn here, as smoking rates go down, crime rates go down)
  • GRITtv, "The Prison Crisis" (11 August 2009) ("The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any industrialized nation. In the face of an unprecedented economic crisis, some states are beginning to consider reducing their prison populations. But other states are looking to do just the opposite in an effort to create jobs.") ("The United States has less than 5 percent of the world’s population. But it has almost a quarter of the world’s prisoners. . . . The United States . . . has 751 people in prison or jail for every 100,000 in population. . . . The only other major industrialized nation that even comes close is Russia, with 627 prisoners for every 100,000 people. The others have much lower rates. England’s rate is 151; Germany’s is 88; and Japan’s is 63. The median among all nations is about 125, roughly a sixth of the American rate.")
  • Pamela Clark, "An In-Depth Look at the U.S. Prison Industry" (2011) ("The U.S. prison system is the largest in the world, not only in terms of overall number of inmates, but as a percentage of the total population as well. With over 2.3 million people behind bars, U.S. prisoners represent almost 25% of the world's total prison population (the U.S. population is 5% of the world)."
  • Cash Cons: American private jails reap record profits" (RT, 15 November 2013) ("If you're looking for somewhere to invest, and aren't too bothered about the moral implications - private jails could be an option. The number of inmates being held in them has swelled. And that's giving private shareholders bumper profits.")
    Note the contrast with, for example, the Netherlands. See "Netherlands Close Eight Prisons Due To Lack Of Criminals" (26 June 2013): "Declining crime rates in the Netherlands mean that although the country has the capacity for 14,000 prisoners, there are only 12,000 detainees, reported the nrc.nl."
    Note the contrast with the ancient world, "the Germanic tribes of the north" and "in England." "By and large, imprisonment was not used as a punishment," say Phyllis Elperin Clark, M.A., and Robert Lehrman, M.F.A., Doing Time: A Look at Crime and Prisons (New York: Hastings House, 1980, p 24. Instead of prison, and logically, restitution was made "to their victims," p 25.
    Indeed, note the contrast with even modern nations. The U.S. has a much higher incarceration rate than even so-called "dictatorships" (e.g., Libya, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, China and Pakistan). Their incarceration rate is from 57 - 207 per 100,000. In contrast, New Jersey does 313 per 100,000, and 600 per 100,000 in Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Texas. See data from Ronald Fraser, "Nation of gulags in land of the free" (Tuesday, 22 May 2007).
    Sarah Lazare, "Skyrocketing Prison Population Devastating US Society: Report" (2 May 2014)   ("skyrocketing incarceration . . . has quadrupled the prison population and torn apart families, communities, society, and the lives of the incarcerated people.")
    Note Illinois, for example, population cited at Wikipedia (accessed Friday 25 October 2013), "12,875,255 (2012 est)." Illinois has "nearly 4 million men and women in our state with criminal records,” says Todd Belcore, at "Should Job Seekers Have to Reveal Criminal Record Upfront?"   (Corporate Counsel, 25 October 2013). That's almost one-third the entire Illinois population of adults and children.
    The role of tobacco in crime is known world-wide. See, e.g., the article, "Heading to jail? You're likely a smoker" (Australia, 28 September 2011), repeating centuries old data, once again re-verified.
    Jenny Truax, "The U.S. System of Punishment: an expanding balloon of wealth, racism and greed" (28 October 2010) ("The prison system in the U.S. remained generally unaltered until the Civil War ended. Following the Civil War, slavery was abolished as a private institution, but the cleverly worded 13th Amendment provided a very large exception, stating: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime…shall exist within the United States.” In the ensuing months and years, states revised the Slave Codes into new “Black Codes,” imprisoning former slaves for acts such as missing work, handling money carelessly, and performing “insulting gestures.” A massive influx of former slaves into the penitentiary resulted, a new form of slavery was born, and the racialization of the U.S. punishment system took root. The unpaid labor of the newly created, mostly black, convict lease system helped the South achieve industrialization."
    Victor E. Kappeler, Ph.D., in "A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing" (7 January 2014), says "The birth and development of the American police can be traced to a multitude of historical, legal and political-economic conditions. The institution of slavery and the control of minorities, however, were two of the more formidable historic features of American society shaping early policing. Slave patrols and Night Watches, which later became modern police departments, were both designed to control the behaviors of minorities."
    "Transportation Safety Administration [TSA] Agents: The Scum of the Earth" (Video, 26 November 2010)
    Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., "Police Are More Dangerous To The Public Than Are Criminals" (Tuesday, 17 September 2013) ("At the state and local level every American faces brutal, armed psychopaths known as the police. . . . The American police perform no positive function. They pose a much larger threat to citizens than do the criminals who operate without a police badge. Americans would be safer if the police forces were abolished.")
  • This cigarette-crime link's constancy 1830's - present confirms beyond the court standard of "reasonable doubt," i.e., beyond ALL doubt, that the only, the exclusive, the sole 90% factor in crime is tobacco, ruling out all other alleged factors/variables.

    Statistics (and chemistry) ARE how doctors know this, have long known this, and more, as the analysis is of the same typical medical type done since at least the year 1537.

    Just as with scurvy, all other variables have been ruled out. (Doctors knew how to do that long ago, as our website refuting alleged variables allegedly causing cancer in the 1920's shows.) The same data analysis is true with crime.

    All other alleged variables—the 2% correlations (the Internet, guns, TV, pornography, even saying '98% of criminals eat bread, or drink milk' [as buttheads have told the web-writer] etc.)—have been proven irrelevant. But the latter are the only ones the public hears!! and loves to hear on "Action News"!! (some media-pundit airhead's 2¢ worth).

    A classic example of an exposé of the scam of citing a common factor, a non-variable, in the crime-causation field, was published at the turn of the twentieth century. This exposé was in the book by Charles Goring, M.D., The English Convict: A Statistical Study (Darling and Son, Ltd, for H.M. Stationery Office, 1913). Goring was debunking mythology of that era, phony assertions about criminals purporting to explain causation, but which included factors common to non-criminals!! Including common factors, vs focusing on the genuine variables, is an obvious methodology error. But it was scamming people then, so Dr. Goring took aim at it! Such an error is obviously a "fatal flaw" in methodology! as competent honest researchers well know! But watch, you see this scam perpetrated over and over again, even yet. The scammers (media, politicians, etc.) are confident that most people are uneducated compared to a century ago, so can not recognize that the scam was detected, exposed, debunked as long ago as 1913. (Our statistics site has more details).

    Note the term “press prostitute” concerning media types, by George Seldes, Witness to a Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1987), pp. 331, 347, and 297. Note the phrase, “crooked and prostituted journalist,” p 347. Seldes also said of one such, that “he had sold himself . . . for money,” p 399. Sadly, the term “press prostitute” is a “now disused term,” says p 331.
    “You cannot hope to bribe or twist,
    thank God! the   .   .   .   journalist.
    But, seeing what the man will do
    unbribed, there's no occasion to!”
      —Humbert Wolfe (1930)
            (1886-1940)

    Though the post-gateway drugs, alcohol and other drugs, get media-blame for crime, the real truth is that the cigarette-crime link (90%) is higher; and tobacco is the starter drug, leading to the others in the first place.

    Even the most conservative figure is 70%. According to David Ingram of the Winston-Salem Journal (North Carolina), 16 January 2006 article, “Tougher Times: Prisons adjusting to limitations on smoking: New State Law: Inmates Must Step Outside to Smoke,” “an estimate last year said that 70 percent of inmates do, about triple the percentage in the population at-large.”

    A 1997 U.S. Department of Justice survey found that what media-pundits tirade about, is not verified. Other factors such as they often allege, are significantly lesser in number. Hardly slightly over half, 52.4%, of state and federal prison inmates convicted of murder, reported having been under the influence of alcohol or drugs when they committed the offense. 52.4% is far less than 90%; yet the former is what media-pundit airheads aka presstitutes (and other poorly educated people) emphasize. This site brings you the rest of the story.

    Here is something that should be clear even to an airhead . . . smoking and fires! Smokers' abulia results in fire-setting and rule-defying rebelliousness, as courts repeatedly deal with, e.g., in cases such as Haller v City of Lansing, 195 Mich 753; 162 NW 335 (1917); Tanton v McKenney, 226 Mich 245; 197 NW 510 (1924); Jacobs v Michigan State Mental Health Dep't, 88 Mich App 503; 276 NW2d 627 (1979); and Stevens v Inland Waters, Inc, 220 Mich App 212; 559 NW2d 61 (1996).


    "Nowhere is the practice of smoking more imbedded than in the nation's prisons and jails, where the proportion [ratio] of smokers to non-smokers is many times higher than that of society in general." Doughty v Board, 731 F Supp 423, 424; 1989 WL 182545 (D Colorado, 1989). [See ALR Context].

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21; 59 USLW 2544 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    "William Wilkes, a Canewdon shepherd, was hanged on 19th July 1898 for murdering his wife by kicking her to death after they had quarreled over some tobacco." Source: "Tobacco causes crime of passion," in the History Notebook (Issue # 32, November 1998) by the Essex Police.

    By 1904, "it was found that nearly all of the incorrigible truants were cigaret fiends," and that "the Police Magistrates of this and other cities have stated again and again that the majority of juvenile delinquents appearing before them are cigaret fiends whose moral nature has been warped or destroyed through the instrumentality of this vice."—Charles B. Hubbell, President, New York City Board of Education (1904).

    "Recent careful investigations by many persons show that cigarette smoking not only clouds the intellect, but tends to make criminals of boys. Dr. Hutchison, of the Kansas State Reformatory, says: 'Using cigarettes is the cause of the downfall of more of the inmates of this institution than all other vicious habits combined.' Of 4117 boys received into the Illinois State Reformatory, 4000 were in the habit of using tobacco, and over 3000 were cigarette smokers."—Alvin Davison, The Human Body and Health: A Text-book of Essential Anatomy, Applied Physiology, and Practical Hygiene: Advanced (New York: American Book Co., 1908).

    "Investigations in prisons, and houses of correction, and State reform schools show that a vast majority of their inmates used Tobacco before they committed crime. . . . 'The more Tobacco, . . . the more . . . licentiousness, crime.'"—B. W. Chase, M.A., Tobacco: Its Physical, Mental, Moral and Social Influences (New York: Wm. B. Mucklow Pub, 1878), pp 70-71.

    "The Chaplain of the State Prison, at Auburn, for the year 1854 . . . reports. . . that five-sixths, or five hundred, out of six hundred who were convicted for crime . . . use . . . tobacco. Outside of this statistical statement, my own investigations, in a much larger measure, corroborate the truth of this record."—James C. Jackson, M.D., Tobacco and Its Effect Upon the Health and Character (Dansville, NY: Austin, Jackson & Co, Pub, 1879), p 19.

    And, "The testimony of those who have the care of our prisons and penitentiaries, is, that the inmates, most of whom have been habituated to using tobacco before they come there. . . . "—William A. Alcott, M.D., The Use of Tobacco: Its Physical, Intellectual, and Moral Effects on The Human System (New York: Fowler and Wells, 1836), p 19.

     In Iowa, the Legislature in 1897 reacted to such data, and made cigarettes illegal. Michigan's Legislature in 1909 made cigarettes with deleterious ingredients illegal. Cigarettes are not to be here—no manufacture, no sale, no giveaway. Contraband is "any property which is unlawful to produce." Black's Law Dictionary (St. Paul: West Publishing Co, 1990), p 322. Cigarettes are contraband. There is no right to use contraband. Bringing cigarettes into Michigan is "smuggling."

    "'Smuggling has well-understood meaning . . . signifying bringing . . . goods
    . . . importation . . . whereof is prohibited. Williamson v U.S., 310 F2d 192, 195 [CA 9, 1962]; 18 USC §§ 545-546.'" Black's Law Dict, supra, p 1389.

    The eminent Thomas Alva Edison in 1914 identified one factor—acrolein—in the permanent and irreversible brain damage that cigarettes cause. This evidence is in addition to the fact that a century+ of unvarying statistics conclusively show the cigarette-crime link.

    The government should act on those statistics, not wait for two centuries, with many suffering from crime needlessly (by being robbed, raped, murdered, etc. by criminals 90% of whom are smokers) while we wait for more proof of why the statistics are true. We already have adequate evidence. (Tennessee thought so in 1897! And so did Iowa.)

    In fact, in 1909, during the administration of three-term activist Governor Fred Warner, the Michigan legislature passed a law forbidding cigarettes for reasons such as this one. The data on the cigarette-crime link was already well-established then. Members of the clergy were concerned. That 1909 law, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, bans
    "any person within the state" from action that "manufactures, sells or gives to anyone, any cigarette containing any ingredient deleterious to health or foreign to tobacco . . . ."
    Analysis of the Michigan Cigarette Control Law

    By the law banning the 90% factor in crime, the idea is to reduce the resultant crime significantly. The intent is to reduce crime so much so that the suppliers and sellers will cease operation, reducing availability, thus potentially eliminating both crime and other cigarette effects, examples of which are listed or detailed at our home page and its various links.


    "There are certainly studies documenting the different growth and brain development [of children whose mothers smoke while pregnant]."--Pamela Spry, Certified Nurse-Midwife, Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA. "Babies of women who smoke tend to have less brain development, a lower birth weight, and less growth. Smokers also tend to have more problems with premature births, and the placenta separating during pregnancy. Women who smoke restrict the amount of oxygen going to the unborn child. Tar, nicotine, carbon dioxide, and other harmful substances replace the oxygen, Spry said."--Kristin Storey, "Smoke now, pay later with bratty children?," The Detroit News (10 Jan 1996), p 3J. Note also data on "Aggressive Behavior Linked Specifically to Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Childhood" (Science News, 21 May 2013).

    And note bratty adult smoker incident! cited in "Arrested man – ‘I want a cigarette first’" (Spalding Guardian, U.K., 14 December 2013), saying “Rubikis was arrested on suspicion of causing the damage, but refused to leave the address without first smoking a cigarette. When this wasn’t allowed, he 'started throwing his arms and body around and he eventually threw himself on the floor.'”

    Another similiar incident is "Woman trashes supermarket after being refused cigarette" (10 June 2014). "An angry woman smoker turned violent and ransacked a supermarket . . . Saturday morning after her repeated requests for cigarettes was turned down by the shop’s staff. . . . [she] damaged weighing scales, office equipment, cash machines, cooling equipment, etc."

    According to "Tobacco Causes Crime?" (16 May 1996), the Texas Commission for Alcohol and Drug Abuse surveyed pre-incarceration drug use, and found the following:

    Females
    Males
    LifetimePast MonthLifetimePast Month
    Tobacco
    95%
    78%
    90%
    74%
    Alcohol
    94%
    46%
    98%
    54%
    Marijuana
    83%
    14%
    85%
    19%
    Cocaine/Crack
    77%
    31%
    60%
    19%

    Mother's StatusChild Conduct Disorders
    Nonsmoker40%
    Under 10 Cigarettes Daily70%
    10 or More Cigarettes Daily81%
    --University of Chicago Study,reported Jan 1996

    The U.S. population is 313.9 million (2012). "Adult correctional authorities supervised about 6,977,700 offenders at year end 2011, a decrease of 1.4% during the year," says Brian Doherty, "Americans Embroiled in Criminal Justice System Numbers Actually Decreasing" (3 January 2013). "An estimated 43.8 million people, or 19.0% of all adults (aged 18 years or older), in the United States smoke cigarettes," says Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in "Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults—United States, 2011," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012;61(44):889–94 [accessed 2013 June 5], cited at "Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimate."   43.8 million out of 313.9 million people means a mere 13.95% of all Americans smoke.   90% of the 6,977,700 offenders would make 6,279,930 smokers. 6,279,930 divided by 43.8 million shows 14.33% of smokers as criminals. That's about 1 in 7. And that's only the ones who were caught!

    Taking 313.9 million as U.S. population, subtract 43.8 million smokers. That makes for 270.1 million in the nonsmoking category. It is among that number that the 10% of crime occurs. 10% of the 6,977,700 offenders are nonsmokers, i.e., 697,770. 697,770 divided by 270.1 million shows only 2.58337% are criminals.

    To see the contrast, the ratio, divide the 14.33% smoker criminal rate by the 2.58337% nonsmoker criminal rate. The result is 5.5470. Smokers are more than five and a half times as likely to commit crimes than nonsmokers. Why is that? Let's note medical explanation.


    "The action of smoking on the brain" includes "great irritability of temper," Samuel Booth, LSA, 1 The Lancet (#1748) 229 (28 Feb 1857).

    Thus, "crime keeps pace with the increased consumption of tobacco . . . . Statistics will bear me out in this assertion. Witness the necessity of providing 'reformatory schools' for juvenile delinquents—the inveterate smokers of the present,"—Dr. Hodgkin, 1 The Lancet (#1751) 303 (21 March 1857).

    Smoker behavior includes "an alarming passion for fraudulently obtaining . . . money. This propensity to . . . vicious habits . . . I . . . ascribe . . . to . . . tobacco," J. Taylor, LSA, 1 The Lancet (#1749) 250 (7 March 1857).

    "It is an undisputable fact, and one that should give us considerable concern, that . . . nearly all criminals are cigarette smokers. . . . [Toxicity] present in the smoke of the cigarette acts upon the brain cells and nerve tissues in such a manner as to bring about a degeneracy of these structures . . . develops criminal tendencies. . . . Whenever I read of a dastardly crime's having been committed, by inquiry I have found that in practically every such case the criminal was a cigarette addict. Go with me to any . . . court and ask the judge what percentage of . . . offenders . . . are cigarette smokers. He will tell you that nearly all of them are. I have never heard a lower estimate than 93 per cent." Daniel H. Kress, M.D., The Cigarette As A Physician Sees It (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Ass'n, 1931), p 67.

    "John D. Quackenbos, M.D., of Columbia University, has said that 'the gravest of all the evils resulting from cigarette addiction is the lessening or complete loss of moral sensibility, with a conspicuous tendency to falsehood and theft. The moral propensities are eventually destroyed because of the destruction of those elements of the brain through which moral force is expressed. The [smoker] degenerates . . . for the penitentiary or the asylum.'" (Kress, supra, p 68).

    The foregoing data explains why our great-grandparents' era, far more so than now, was concerned about national and adults' example,
    • for setting a good one,

    • against setting a bad one:

    See instances of that era's writings (1833-1916):

    1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16;
    17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29;
    30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42;
    43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50; 51; 52; 53; 54; 55, 56

    Naturally, in that era, laws such as Michigan's cigarette-making ban followed, to ensure that adults would set a good example for children, thus prevent crime, tobacco effects, and tobacco costs to society.


    Judges, prosecutors, police, etc., know of the distinction between "criminals or would-be criminals" and "those of us who have never needed a deterrent."––Leslie Wilkins, "Criminology, An Occupational Research Approach," in Alan T. Welford (ed.), Society: Problems and Methods of Study (New York: Philosophical Library, 1962), p 323.

    Judges, prosecutors, police, etc., also know that

    "as a result of toxic or other organic destructive processes [the brain can be] considerably damaged or totally paralyzed."––Franz G. Alexander and Hugo Staub, The Criminal, the Judge, and the Public: A Psychological Analysis, 2d ed (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1956), p 119.

    And these officials know that "very great" number of "neurotic criminals" are being made, who "cannot help doing" crimes. Only a tiny "very small" number of deterrable individuals are involved in crime, Alexander and Staub, supra, pp 209-11.

    Who constitutes the "very great" group, the large, disproportionate preponderance of criminals? What is the criminal-making process? Judges, prosecutors, police, etc., know the answer. You should too.


    Pertinent Quotes From Judges,
    by Dr. Kress,
    Pp 72-74

    "Judge Crane of New York City says: 'Cigarettes are ruining our children, endangering their lives, dwarfing their intellects, and making them criminals fast. [Smokers] seem to lose all sense of right, decency, and righteousness.'"

    Judge Ben Lindsey, former judge of the Denver Juvenile Court, has said: 'One of the very worst 'habits' . . . is the cigarette habit. This has long been recognized by all the judges of the courts who deal with young criminals, and especially by judges of police courts, before whom pass thousands of men every year who are addicted to intemperate habits. These judges know that in nearly every case the [alcoholics] who appear before them . . . began [by] smoking cigarettes. One bad habit led to another. The nicotine and poison in the cigarette created an appetite for alcoholic drink. The cigarette habit not only had a grip upon them . . . but it invited all the other demons of habit to come in and add to the degradation that the cigarette began.'”

    “Hon. George Torrance, former superintendent of the Illinois State Reformatory, says: 'I am sure cigarettes are destroying and making criminals of more [youth] than liquor. . . . We have found that when a [youth] is guilty of a grievous offense, he is generally found to be a user of cigarettes.'”

    "Judge B. S. Shaw of Hart, Michigan, says: 'In every instance of juvenile delinquency in this court I have found that the boys were cigarette users.'"

    "Judge Allen of Lisbon, North Dakota, says: 'Every male juvenile delinquent brought before me for the last seventeen years has been a cigarette smoker.'"

    "Judge Pollock of Fargo, North Dakota, said: 'Every boy brought into this court the past sixteen years was a cigarette smoker.'"

    Pertinent Quotes From Others, Pp 72-74

    "Dr. Hutchinson of the Kansas State Reformatory, said: 'Cigarettes are the cause of the downfall of more boys in this institution that all other vicious habits combined.'"

    "Dr. Coffin, who for over twenty years was connected with the Whittier Reform School of California, said: 'Fully 98 per cent of all youthful offenders who have been confined to this institution were cigarette [smokers], and 95 per cent were cigarette [addicts].'"

    "Miss Winters, principal of one of the largest schools for delinquent girls in America, has said concerning her institution, 'Out of over eleven hundred inmates, only twenty were nonsmokers of cigarettes.'" [about 1.8%!.]

    "Prof. Templeton P. Twiggs, for many years principal of the largest grammar school in Detroit, and later supervisor of the Department of School Attendance . . . says: 'Through his [the smoker's] loss of self-control, he has no moral standard. He seems unable to distinguish between right and wrong, or to possess sufficient will power to do what is right even if he knows. He is absolutely untrustworthy, and there is usually no extreme to which he will not go.'" Kress, supra, pp 74-75.

    An example of smoker's impaired impulse control is this: to have the "sadistic life quite unimpeded," "liked blood," and the "powerless" aspects of the victim, said A. A. Brill, 3 International Journal of Psychoanalysis (#4) 430-444 at 437-8 (Dec 1922).

    "[C]igarettes are . . . making criminals . . . . Cigarettes are not the effect of crime, but they are the cause of it. . . . Dr. Gentry, of Chicago, says . . . 'The only way to stop the increase of . . . criminals . . . is to stop the use of tobacco, and also the raising and manufacture of it. . . . The use of tobacco is a great crime.'" Theodore F. Frech and Rev. Luther H. Higley, The Evils of Tobacco and Cigarettes (Butler, Indiana: Higley Printing Co, 1916), pp 123-124.

    Cigarettes render smokers "dépossédés du sens humain . . . par une impulsion qu'on ne peut qualifier que de folie . . . désordre . . . comme les bêtes fauves . . . . dégradation narcotique les abaisse . . . rage . . . déchirent, ils mutilent sans nécessité, par instinct féroce."—Dr. Hippolyte A. Dépierris, Physiologie Sociale, supra, p 342.

    Dr. Depierris explained the entire crime-causing process of tobacco:
  • tobacco's violent and behavior-altering effects on animals, p 129,

  • how it had already been used to poison somone (the 1851 Bocarmé murder case), pp 79ff,

  • tobacco's mind-altering, behavior-impairing effects on people, pp 345-372,

  • tobacco-produced delirium, p 202 (concept cited by Dr. Kolb, 1968, infra),

  • tobacco's violence-producing effects (like that on animals) on people, p 342,

  • and examples of this effect, pp 326-344.

  • "the cause," "the only way"
    to prevent crime
    1916

    “Judges . . . have remarked on [tobacco] as an almost invariable accompaniment and aggravator of juvenile delinquency.”—Pryns Hopkins, Ph.D., Gone Up in Smoke: An Analysis of Tobaccoism (Culver City, CA: Highland Press, 1948), p 254. And, “one will almost never find an adult criminal nor even a juvenile delinquent but who is a smoker,” p 43.

    “[J]udges of juvenile courts everywhere recognize the close relationship that exists between cigarettes and crime. . . . Not only does the use of cigarettes produce a criminal tendency . . . it also produces what might be termed [psychopathy aka abulia aka anomie aka empathy-loss] . . . a condition in which lying, thieving, and murder become as natural as eating and drinking . . . .”—Bernarr MacFadden, The Truth about Tobacco (New York: Physical Culture Corp, 1924), pp 87 and 77, respectively, describing the psychopath (“predator”) concept, as per smoker deviance/licentiousness.

    For an example of this smoker brain-damage induced lack of empathy, note this example of smoker Jayne's reaction after causing a crash by his ignoring a stop sign, hitting oncoming traffic, killing five people and injuring others: “after Jayne caused the incident he got out, sat on the side of the road and said 'this is going to mean a world of hurt for me.' He lit up a cigarette and waited for the police.”
    “Yes [says commentary], poor Jayne is in a world of hurt. Sounds like he didn’t even care that he killed 5 people and injured 3 more. 4 of the dead were children” (Details.)
    See also "Teens Ask for Smoke, Kill Woman When She Replies 'Get a Job': Cops" (NBC Philadelphia, 10 December 2012). "Police say three teens charged in the fatal shooting of a western Pennsylvania woman targeted her after she told them to 'get a job' when she saw them trying to bum a cigarette off her boyfriend."
    "Psychopathy is more widely spread today than ever before in the history of our civilization . . . it is assuming more and more the proportions of a plague . . . it is today ravishing the world with far greater ill-effects than the most malignant of organic diseases . . . it represents a terrible force whose destructive potentialities are criminally under-estimated,'" says Robert M. Lindner, in Rebel Without A Cause: The Hypno-Analysis of a Criminal Psychopath (London: Research Books Limited, 1945), § "The Problem: Criminal Psychopathy" § IV, pp 15-16.
    For overview of psychopathic traits in criminals, see, e.g., Prison Talk,   JSTOR Review, and Springer Link.
    See also the references cited by Kenneth Magid, M.D., and Carole A. McKelvey, High Risk: Children Without a Conscience (Bantam Books, 1987). (Review).

    "Judge Brum, of Pottsville, Pa., charging the jury in the case of a young cigarette fiend, accused of murder, said: 'The fact that the prisoner is a cigarette fiend must be taken into consideration.' Pointing to the cigarette-stained fingers of the prisoner, he said that the number of cigarettes used by him 'was proof in his mind that the prisoner's brain was affected.'" (MacFadden, Truth about Tobacco, supra, pp. 88-89).

    "What has been called a 'crime wave' in the United States the past few years has been misnamed. It is not a wave. It is a harvest—the natural result of the sowing . . . 'Sow tobacco, and reap crime' [i.e., tobacco causes crime]. The Criminal, published for detectives and police officers, says 93 per cent. of all criminals use tobacco before committing the crimes leading to their arrests. . . . Hon. George Torrance says: 'Of 4,117 boys received into the Illinois State Reformatory, since its organization on Jan. 8, 1893, 95 per cent. had the tobacco habit, and nearly all were cigarette smokers.'"—Will H. Brown, Tobacco Under the Searchlight (Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Co, 1925), pp 62-64.

    "The cigarette is often responsible for the worst sort of insanity—moral insanity; more than half the shocking crimes we hear of being committed by young lads are directly traceable to the cigarette habit. This is tobacco in the worst form. It deadens the sensibilities [including empathy for victims], wrecks the nervous system, weakens the brain, and all the evils of over-stimulation are the natural result. . . . It is like a pathologic moral version of Hogarth's 'Rake's Progress.'"—Dr. Bremen, cited by Meta Lander in The Tobacco Problem (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1882), p 166.

    Note that when people, smokers, are unable to control their thoughts, are unable “to appreciate the wrongfulness of his [their] conduct,” and “to conform his [their] conduct to the requirements of the law,” display "moral insanity," they are deemed insane within the meaning of law. See, e.g., People v Matulonis, 115 Mich App 263; 320 NW2d 238 (1982).

    Concerning the crime harvest, a "map . . . organizes each shooting by the city, state, number of casualties and number injured, as well as whether or not the incidents were gang related or not and whether or not they occurred in a public place. Users can also enter in an address and find out the nearest mass shooting that has occurred near their homes, schools or place of work," says Emily Anne Epstein, "A mass shooting happens every FIVE days in America: Interactive map shows how [smoker] violence is an epidemic sweeping the nation" (Friday, 27 July 2012).

    Due to cigarettes' 90% role in crime, Judge Leroy B. Crane recommended, "Congress should stop the manufacture, sale, and importation of cigarettes."—Quoted by Prof. Bruce Fink, Tobacco (Cincinnati: Abingdon Press, 1915), p 19.
    As in 1892, Congress refused.

    Smoker deviance, propensity to lie including making false accusations, commit crime including domestic assault, is notorious, including in movies. For example, recall the smoker (a) assaulting his daughter, (b) arranging false accusation of rape, (c) menacing a widow, (d) attempted breaking and entering into a judge’s house, and (e) assaulting the neighbor's children in the movie, To Kill a Mockingbird, Scene 32, (1962) with Gregory Peck, based on the book (1960) by Harper Lee.
    Note also the movie, The Star Chamber (1983), with Michael Douglas, Hal Holbrook, Yaphet Kotto, etc., which emotionalized but carefully avoided citing causation, and had the star smoking throughout!! Avoiding causation/prevention information, is typical of "crime" movies and TV.
    And note also the crime-related movie A Clockwork Orange (1971) by smoker director Stanley Kubrick. He fascinated a nonsense aversion approach to crime, carefully avoiding the 90% tobacco factor! Typical! of the censorship of this type data.

    In 1925, the French word "éclatement" (referring to a tire blow-out) is used graphically to describe the effect of nicotine (significant cellular level destruction) on the brain. That same year saw publication of data linking smoking and cancer.

    In 1884, Dr. Claude E. Bourdin, Le Tabac et les Prisonniers (Reims, France: P. Lajoye, 1884), p 8, summarized the tobacco role in criminal-making: "le tabac [is] l'herbe de la servitude (the herb of servitude)."

    Analysts also had already long noted that all three Presidential assassins
  • (John Wilkes Booth [FC # 9,899; FC # 16,423; 6 DC 306] accessory to tobacco farmer activity),

  • Charles Guiteau [10 F 161; 14 Am St Trials 1-158],

  • Leon Czolgosz [14 Am St Trials 159-231)
  • up to that time were smokers.

    That fact, unknown nowadays as education has deteriorated from the high 19th century level, is from the 19th century; three presidential assassinations in forty years did get people's attention!—and the common factor, smoking.

    The assassins had widely different political ideas, so it was evident that tobacco's bad effects impact people regardless of beliefs, and smokers kill up to the limits of their means, which vary by their societal role. Note the variations in political views among these tobacco-induced killers:
  • Adolf Hitler (Nazi)

  • Catherine de Medici (royalty)

  • P. S. Ferré (anti-royalist)

  • Joseph Stalin (Bolshevik)

  • Mao-Tse Tung (Communist).
  • Despite their varying beliefs, each killed in a method that would be called "serial killer murders" if committed by private citizens. Their killings were in larger numbers than common (smoker) criminals can, as per their governmental roles. Modern pro-tobacco politicians kill too, as per their aiding and abetting the tobacco pusher holocaust.

    See other smoker examples when "the only way" of prevention is rejected:
    *Herman Mudgett (1861-1896) (built a private gas chamber and crematorium in his 1880's hotel in downtown Chicago for the killing of 20-100 people) (Case at Com v Mudgett, 4 Pa. Dist. 739; 1895 WL 3712 (30 Nov 1895) aff'd 174 Pa 211; 34 A 588 [4 March 1896] )
    *Jack the Ripper (London killer, 1880's)
    *Leopold and Loeb (1924)
    *Bonnie and Clyde Barrow (1930's robbers and killers)
    *The Lisenba Case, the smoker who murdered his wives, 1932-1935, using hammer blows, snake bite, drowning, to collect accidental death insurance policies, deaths seeming so accidental the police were convinced, but fortunately not the insurance company. (Case at Lisenba v People of State of California, 314 US 219; 62 S Ct 280; 86 L Ed 166 (8 Dec 1941) (Context))
    *Al Capone, Chicago smoker and crime boss (Tax conviction case at Capone v U.S., 56 F2d 927; 30 STC 885 (CA 7, 27 Feb 1932) cert den 286 US 553; 52 S Ct 503; 76 L Ed 1288 (2 May 1932))
    * Harry Strauss ("Pittsburgh Phil," killed about 500 people, 1930's)
    *William Heirens (killed four, 1946)
    *The Sadistic Burning-by-Cigarette Case (Case at Commonwealth v Farrell, 322 Mass 606; 78 NE2d 697 (12 April 1948) )
    *Howard Unruh (killed 13, Camden, New Jersey, 1949)
    *William Cook (an habitual criminal, Missouri, killed ten people 1950-1951)
    *Edward Gein (killed three women, Wisconsin, 1950's (details in book Deviant, by Prof Harold Schechter; and movie Ed Gein)
    *Charles Starkweather (killed eight, Nebraska, 1957-1958)
    *Law student Crooker murdered his paramour when she said she'd leave him. (Case at Crooker v California, 47 Cal 2d 348; 303 P2d 753 (1957) aff'd 357 US 433; 78 S Ct 1287; 2 L Ed 2d 1448 (30 June 1958) (Context))
    *In this brain-damaged smoker murder case, Robinson, a smoker with suicidal tendencies, shot himself in the head, killed his infant son and common-law wife, and was convicted and jailed. (Case at Pate v Robinson, 22 Ill 2d 162; 174 NE2d 820 (1961) cert den 368 US 995 (1962) rev 345 F2d 691 (CA 7) aff'd 383 US 375; 86 S Ct 836; 15 L Ed 2d 815 (7 March 1966) (Context))
    *Mr. Giles: In this rape case, the three defendants had accosted a girl on a date parked by woods, "demanded money and cigarettes," then raped the girl.

    GILES CASE AND APPEALS LIST
    Giles v Maryland, 229 Md 370, 183 A2d 359 (18 July 1962) app dism 372 US 767; 83 S Ct 1102; 10 L Ed 2d 137 (22 April 1963) (initial case)
    Giles v Maryland, 231 Md 387, 190 A2d 627 (6 May 1963) (denial of motion for new trial)
    Giles v Maryland, 239 Md 458, 212 A2d 101 (13 July 1965) vacated and remanded 386 US 66; 87 S Ct 793; 17 L Ed 2d 737 (20 Feb 1967) (post-conviction proceedings)

    *Robert Charles Browne (Colorado killer of 20 - 48, from 1970 - 1995, "A Life of Killing"; "Affidavit details Colo. killer's claims")

    *Mr. Innis: In this crime case, the smoker was involved in kidnapping, robbery, and murder. (Case at Rhode Island v Innis, 120 RI; 391 A2d 1158 rev'd 446 US 291; 100 S Ct 1682; 64 L Ed 2d 297 [12 May 1980])

    *John Wayne Gacy (Illinois killer, exploited contractor job to entice victims, killed 33)

    GACY CASE AND APPEALS LIST
    People v John Wayne Gacy, 103 Ill 2d 1; 82 Ill Dec 391; 468 NE2d 1171 (6 June 1984) cert den 470 US 1037; 105 S Ct 1410; 84 L Ed 2d 799 (4 March 1985) (initial case)
    People v John Wayne Gacy, 125 Ill 2d 117; 125 Ill Dec 770; 530 NE2d 1340 (5 Dec 1988) cert den 490 US 1085; 109 S Ct 2111; 104 L Ed 671 (22 May 1989) (post-conviction issues)
    Gacy v Welborn, 1992 WL 211018 aff'd 994 F2d 305 (CA 7, Ill, 12 April 1993) cert den 510 US 899; 114 S Ct 269; 126 L Ed 2d 220 (3 Oct 1993) (habeas corpus issues)

    *Jeffrey Dahmer (the Wisconsin cannibal, 1991—demanded and got a court order to be allowed to smoke in the smoke-free jail, or he'd refuse to tell where the bodies were!)
    *Adolf Hitler, Catherine de Medici, P. S. Ferré, Joseph Stalin, Mao-Tse Tung (who killed in their governmental roles)
    *Charles Manson, a life of crime ending in four murders (Cases at State v Manson, 61 Cal App 3d 102; 132 Cal Rptr 265 (1976) (Tate murders) and 71 Cal App 3d 1; 139 Cal Rptr 275 (1977) (Spahn murders))
    *The Giles Cigarette Assault Case. It involved bodily injury to a child caused by a lighted cigarette. (Case at State v Giles, 183 Neb 296; 159 NW2d 826 (21 June 1968))
    *Ferrandin (killed family, 1842)
    *Troppmann (killed family, 1800's)

    *Albert Fisher (killed women)

    *Lee Harvey Oswald (1963; "had a history of repeated episodes of uncontrolled impulsive assaultive behavior . . . in a number of street fights and tried to commit suicide"—classic smoker symptoms)

    *Ted Bundy (killed women) (Incidently, telling a putative authority, Dr. James Dobson, what he evidently wanted to hear, Bundy blamed pornography!! not his tobacco-induced brain damage!)

    BUNDY CASE AND APPEALS LIST
    Bundy v State of Florida, 471 So 2d 9 (9 May 1985) cert den 479 US 894; 107 S Ct 295; 93 L Ed 2d 269 (14 Oct 1986) (initial case)
    Bundy v Dugger, 816 F2d 564 (CA 11, 2 April 1987) cert den 484 US 870; 108 S Ct 198; 98 L Ed 2d 149 (5 Oct 1987) (habeas corpus case)
    488 US 1036; 109 S Ct 887; 102 L Ed 2d 1009 (23 Jan 1989) (issue of a stay)

    *Charles Whitman (Texas tower shooter, shot 41, killed 17, had brain cancer)
    *Lawrence Brewer (Texas dragging death case, 1998)
    *Richard Speck (had "symptoms of serious brain disease," killed 8 nurses, Chicago, July 1966). At People v Richard Speck, 41 Ill 2d 177; 242 NE2d 208 (22 Nov 1968) rev 403 US 946; 91 S Ct 2279; 29 L Ed 2d 855 (28 June 1971)

    *E. W. Hensley (age 17, killed 28 people, Texas, 1973)

    * Richard Allen Davis (lifelong criminal, who while on parole kidnapped and brutally murdered 11 year old Polly Klauss in 1993. While interrogated, Davis was smoking one cigarette after another. [Shown on TV program American Justice which mentioned that Davis has no conscience nor empathy for his victims--classic smoker symptoms.]

    *Larry Ashbrook (At Wedgwood Baptist Church, Texas, killed seven, then himself, September 1999)

    * Gary Ridgway, Seattle's Green River Killer (note profile item 24, the probable tobacco connection, known in law enforcement since the 1830's! Background by the lead detective, Sheriff David Reichart, Chasing the Devil: My Twenty-Year Quest to Capture the Green River Killer (New York: Little, Brown & Co, 2004.)

    *John Muhammad (Maryland sniper, killed several, has smoker symptom pattern, October 2002)
    *Charles A. McCoy Jr. (smoker Ohio sniper late 2003-early 2004, a gambler, "history of mental illness" known to occur disproportionately among smokers)

    *Dennis Rader, the Kansas "BTK" killer of ten (has smoker symptom pattern including conscienceless and aphasia)

    *Steve Green, killer in the Haditha massacre, embarrassing US Army (photo, smoking, p 35, in Sarah Childress and Michael Hirsh, "An Itchy Trigger Finger," Newsweek pp 34-35 (7 August 2006)

    *Ronald Jayne, Jr., after causing a crash while rushing out to buy cigarettes, by his ignoring a stop sign, hitting oncoming traffic, killing five people and injuring others: “after Jayne caused the incident he got out, sat on the side of the road and said 'this is going to mean a world of hurt for me.' He lit up a cigarette and waited for the police.”   “Yes [says commentary], poor Jayne is in a world of hurt. Sounds like he didn’t even care that he killed 5 people and injured 3 more. 4 of the dead were children” (Details; Subsequent Sentencing. (June 2007)

    *Steven Phillip Kazmierczak, tatooed Northern Illinois University shooter of five persons (February 2008)

    *Nicholas T. Shele, killed eight people in the Midwest after years of committing other crimes, captured while smoking (2 July 2008)

    *Jim David Adkisson, Knoxville, Tennessee, church shooter July 2008, with typical smoker symptoms, e.g., wife abuser, drunk driver, suicidal, misperception of reality, and undeterred

    *Vince Weiguang Li, took a smoke break, then strikingly brutally, revoltingly attacked, stabbed and beheaded fellow bus rider 31 July 2008

    *Adam Lanza, shot mother and 26 other people at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Connecticut (December 2012) (played with cigarette lighters, was developmentally disordered; product of divorced parents; committed suicide)

    * Aaron Alexis, shot 12 people at Navy Ship Yard, Washington, D.C. (Monday, 16 September 2013) ("had exhibited signs of mental illness dating back more than a decade, including a recent episode . . . hallucinations . . . exhibiting symptoms of mental illness since at least his early 20s . . . described by people who knew him as paranoid and delusional" and as overreacting to small matters) (This incident was especially preventable, the "red flags" were missed according to the Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, as, for example, the Navy knew to have not enlisted him in the first place, pursuant to anti-negligent hiring principles (1905-present), Army precedent (1898), hiring criteria precluding hiring applicants with "medical findings which . . . would make him a hazard to himself or others," says the federal applicant analysis form, Standard Form 78, "Certificate of Medical Examination" ("Conclusions" section, 1969 ed), and pertinent advisory provided to the Navy by the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) Report No. 86-13, “Smoking and Soldier Performance,” by Frederick N. Dyer, Ph.D. (Fort Rucker, AL) (June 1986), p 149. And subsequent post-employment information was likewise not acted upon.)

    All smoker crime incidents are now, and always were, preventable via enforcing the pertinent laws against tobacco sales to children, on pure air constitutional rights and/or anti-poisoning laws, etc. Enforcing any one or all of this combination of laws would have prevented turning nonsmoker children into smokers, thereby preventing the 90% factor herein cited from ever having come into existence.

    See also Mark Follman, Gavin Aronsen, and Deanna Pan, "A Guide to Mass Shootings in America" (Mother Jones, Wednesday, 8 August 2012) ("There have been at least 60 in the last 30 years.")

    "Most of the domestic mass murders, assassinations, homicides, and assaults have individual psychopathological aspects which overshadow the general social themes. Seventy percent of homicides in America are not even crime-related, and extremely few are truly political," say Neil Burch and H. L. Altshuler, Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity (NY: Plenum Press, 1975), p 535.

    Murder "often results from quarrels combined with a lowering of inner reality and ethical restraints; for example, intoxicants [underlie] the motivational picture in about half of all homicide cases. . . . homicide may be involved with such [disproportionately smoker] mental disorders as schizophrenia and paranoia," says James C. Coleman, Ph.D., Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, 5th ed (Scott, Foresman & Co, 1976), p 400.

    As stated above, "[m]aternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring." See Brennan, et al., 56 Arch Gen Psychiatry 215-219 (March 1999).

    As this site shows, data linking smoking and crime is not new. However, politicians typically refuse to act on the data.

    Instead of prevention, what do politicians prefer? "The usual method employed to prevent crime is punishment," says Ronald A. Anderson and Walter A. Kempf, Business Law - Principles and Cases (Cincinnati: Smith-Western Pub Co, 1967), p 53. The fact that that approach does not work, indeed, is NOT prevention, but after-the fact, is brazenly disregarded. Examples of such politician approach is evident in the article, "GOP lawmakers paying price for tough-on-crime laws" (1 Feb 2011), "When Harry Coates campaigned for the Oklahoma state Senate in 2002, he had one approach to crime: "Lock 'em up and throw away the key.'" Note his typical symptoms, e.g., delusions of grandeur of expertise on a subject of which he neither professionally studied nor researched, his fragmentation, his impoverished ideation, his blunted and concrete ideation, etc. Of course, voters, with their lower-than-fifth grade educations, share some responsibility for electing psychopaths in the first place, and the media, for its long-term censorship policy.

    (Inherently, punishment is after-the-fact, so inherently cannot be deemed "prevention." When politicians and media label "punishment" as "prevention," be assured, their mislabeling in that way is malicious, intentional, sadistic, intending to harm you. How so? In law and fact, the "natural and probable consequence" of not doing genuine prevention is more crime, thus is intended.)

    Note the contrast between modern law and the example of the ancient world, "the Germanic tribes of the north" and "the two . . . Germanic tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, [who] settled in England." "By and large, imprisonment was not used as a punishment," say Phyllis Elperin Clark, M.A., and Robert Lehrman, M.F.A., Doing Time: A Look at Crime and Prisons (New York: Hastings House, 1980), p 24. Instead, restitution was made "to their victims," p 25.

    So, "we should ask how the idea of prison took root in our culture. . . . for most of Western history, the prison sentence was practically unknown," p 18.

    What changed? "When the Normans conquered England in 1066, two different forms of [so-called] justice met. The [power-mad] Norman kings were not 25used to the Anglo-Saxon idea of leaving justice in private hands, but they were quick to see the advantage of fines as a form of punishment. They made one change . . . instead of paying the fines [restitution] to their victims, offenders were now ordered to pay the money to the king," pp 24-25. "We do know that crime simply does not decrease as penalties get tougher," p 119.


    One “important factor [in the British monarchy having decided to begin defining crimes] was . . . to build up a strong central government. Acts [previously legal] became crimes.

    “As the king [government] became more powerful, legislation against private crime increased and after the Norman conquest [of England by William the Conqueror, 1066] a distinct body of criminal law evolved for the first time. . . ."

    “As part of his policy of strengthening the central government, Henry II (1154-89) established the system [leading to modern] judges.

    “[In the] reign of Henry VII [1485-1509] . . . a strong central government [did] emerge . . . reflected by a great increase in the types of crimes against which legislation was passed. . . .

    “Under the Stuarts [1603-1689; King James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II], the need to raise money for the crown led to [yet more] new crimes being defined.”—“Crime,” Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol 6, pp 754-758 (this quote, pp 756-757) (1963).


    One “device of Edward [IV] [1461-1483] for filling his exchequer was a very stringent [law] enforcement [policy]; small infractions of the laws being made the excuse for exorbitant fines. This was a trick which Henry VII. [1485-1509] was to turn to still greater effect.”—“English History,” Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol 9, pp 466-587 (this quote, p 520) (1910).
    “Queen Elizabeth I preferred to use convicts as [forced labor]. By 1602 . . . Elizabeth appointed a commission to enlarge the list of crimes for which offenders could be sent [into forced labor for the government]”—Doing Time, supra, p 30.
    The bottom line is, many politicians and their accessories do NOT want to prevent crime. They have motives to assure that more and more crimes are committed.

    On all other subjects, everyone knows that after-the-fact action is not before-the-fact action. Shutting the barn door after the horse is stolen is not prevention of the horse being stolen!! "After-the-fact" is NOT "before-the-fact." Is this a hard one to understand? No, not for anyone, except a malicious politician or media-pundit, on the crime subject.

    Prevention, as our better educated turn-of-the century ancestors knew, means before-the-fact. Prevention means preventing the 90% factor from even beginning, from even being manufactured. We need to resume the wisdom of our ancestors, resume genuine prevention.


    The brain, including "the cingulum, the hippocampus, the thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, and the more complex masses of the basal ganglia, midbrain, and amygdala . . . has . . . functions including the modulation and control of . . . behavior . . . especially violent behavior . . . brain disease can disrupt [the brain's] ability to control behavior." And, "alterations in the structure . . . invariably produce changes in . . . behavior, with results ranging [up to] terrifying rage." See Vernon H. Mark, M.D., and Frank R. Ervin, M.D., Violence and the Brain (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), p 24.

    "The injury or destruction of critical parts of the brain . . . affects behavior in a most dramatic fashion. A tiny damage to the midbrain, for example, will put an end to all meaningful behavior by producing profound and permanent coma," p 140.

    Even a single "lesion in the brain is able to destroy even [otherwise permanent ability to obey] "rules governing behavior, " p 142. Wherefore "we physicians have almost all encountered as a symptom of disease, violent behavior. . . ," p viii. (This is another way of saying the 1924 observation that "[J]udges of juvenile courts everywhere recognize the close relationship that exists between cigarettes and crime," supra.)

    "The brain is unique among body organs in that it does not function exclusively within the confines of the body. . . . the brain operates outside the skull, confirming and interacting with . . . outside events . . . it has the capacity, after perceiving these events, to store them for future reference in its own tissue. This process, of course, is what we call memory, and it is an essential part of learning," p 140. Memory "is imbedded in our brain and its use is dependent on the function or malfunction of the cerebral tissue. Major parts of the memory circuit are in the same anatomical location as the limbic brain," p 141.

    An "aspect of 'memory' in the social sense is the ability to retain and follow cultural rules governing behavior. . . . A lesion in the brain is able to destroy [this process, thus degrade] behavior," p 142. "Basically, then, violent behavior is governed most closely by the structures of the limbic brain," p 16.

    "[S]tudies of patients with injuries known to involve chiefly the temporal lobe indicate that these patients tend to be inappropriately combative—that is, they show the effects of limbic dysfunction," p 57.

    Many criminals they analyzed "were not only impulsively violent, they had difficulty in restraining their impulses in all other areas of their lives too. [They were not] deterred by the knowledge or threat of punishment, because the [brain] mechanisms that keep most of us from immediately acting on our impulses were deficient or absent in them . . . unable to control their behavior, no matter what the circumstances. . . . It is impossible . . . to re-educate [counsel, rehabilitate] or to threaten such people into behaving rationally. They are too easily provoked . . . too unable to control their inappropriate reactions," p 147.

    "As doctors, we view individual violence as a medical as well as a social problem . . . many of the individuals who act violently have brain diseases . . . . [M]ore often than not . . . violence . . . is related to brain dysfunction," p 5.

    "Most people consider brain disease to be a rare phenomenon. It is likely, however, that more than ten million Americans [1970] suffer from an obvious brain disease. . . . We do not mean to say that all of these brain-diseased people are violent. What we are saying is that an appreciable percentage of the relatively few individuals guilty of repeated personal violence are to be found in this . . . population whose brains do not function in a perfectly normal way," p 5.

    "The classical example of a [damage] of the brain that produces changes in behavior is the virus encephatlitis that causes rabies—a disease whose very name, rage in French, rabia in Italian, and Wut in German—means madness or rage. The early symptoms of rabies may include mental aberrations . . . assault, alcoholism, and periods of violent rage. . . . In animals . . . a prominent symptom is the occurrence of an extremely vicious, and uncontrolled attack of rage, which is why the cry of 'mad dog' has always provoked such fear . . . the rabies virus . . . characteristically infects the limbic system of the brain," p 58.

    Violence results as brain damage affects "how the brain perceives, fails to perceive, or misperceives incoming stimuli. For instance, [such] a person . . . generally does not attack others without what he considers to be provocation. What happens is that the brain misperceives some incoming stimulus—a harmless gesture, or a joking remark, let us say—as extremely threatening or enraging, when it is in fact not so. If another driver cuts his car off at a stoplight, his brain interprets it as a deadly insult, and he reacts accordingly," pp 6-7. (Such inappropriate reaction to what is not in fact "provocation" constitutes "universal malice.")

    The misperception becomes so severe as to render smokers "dépossédés du sens humain . . . par une impulsion qu'on ne peut qualifier que de folie . . . désordre . . . comme les bêtes fauves . . . . dégradation narcotique les abaisse . . . rage . . . déchirent, ils mutilent sans nécessité, par instinct féroce."—Dr. Hippolyte A. Dépierris, Physiologie Sociale, supra, p 342.

    This effect of tobacco smoking was noted as long ago as 1845: "Tobacco prepares its victims for acts of barbarity . . . . We do not insinuate that all who use tobacco are cruel . . . . But tobacco frets and irritates the nerves, and after the system begins seriously to suffer from its use, it excites the passions, and things are seen with a false shape and coloring:

    "As in the night, imagining some fear,
    How easy is a bush supposed a bear."
    —Benjamin I. Lane, The Mysteries of Tobacco
    (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845), p 85.

    Smoker failure to correctly perceive reality is a foreseeable and natural and probable consequences result of the reality-impairing hallucinogenic effect of tobacco.

    ". . . . a long literature exists on use of tobacco and its derivatives in [Indian] ceremonial trance induction, witchcraft, divination . . . . Native use of tobacco parallels that of other hallucinogenic substances . . . .
    "The amounts of harman and norharman in cigarette smoke are about 10-20 mcg. per cigarette. This is about 40 to 100 times greater than that found in the tobacco leaf, indicating that pyrosynthesis occurs in the leaves during the burning . . . .
    "harmine in relatively small doses crosses the blood-brain barrier and causes changes in the neural transmission in the visual system."—Oscar Janiger, M.D., and Marlene Dobkin De Rios, M.D., "Nicotiana an Hallucinogen?," 30 Econ Bot 149-151 (April-June 1976).

    Pre-Columbian Indians used tobacco for its hallucinogenic effect, says Jan G. R. Elferink, "The Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Use of Tobacco in Pre-Columbian Central America," 7 Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111-122 (1983). Conquistadores took note.

    Wherefore, "one of the known effects of tobacco is to cause forgetfulness , especially of higher things . . . . It is obvious that forgetfulness is a common result of smoking."—Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., The Tobacco Habit: Its History and Pathology (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912), p 37.

    Notwithstanding these facts, lawmakers and others corruptly and maliciously—so as to keep crime continuing—refuse to acknowledge this fact. They maliciously prefer "largely discredited" notions and write them "in our laws," Violence and the Brain, p 144. They maliciously disregard the fact that "violence is one of our major public health problems," p 4.

    As Violence and the Brain, p 142 shows, even one brain lesion can seriously deteriorate behavior.

    The book, The Criminal Personality, Vol. 1, A Profile for Change [New York: J. Aronson], 1976, by Samuel Yochelson, PhD., M.D., and Stanton E. Samenow, Ph.D., provides insight. At 316, “Each criminal’s belief in his personal uniqueness is manifested early. . . . The criminal’s sense of uniqueness is expressed everywhere. . . . For a criminal to accept advice is for him to lose his uniqueness, his identity. . . . He does not need it; he knows it all. When it comes to issues of right and wrong, legal and illegal, he makes his own rules.”

    At 315, “The criminal . . . emphasizes his total difference from other people.” At 316, the criminal “operates on the basis of being one of a kind, different from everyone else. . . . The criminal believes that no one can have the thoughts that he has. His belief in his uniqueness is an outgrowth of the way the criminal shuts others out or his life. He is very secretive . . . closing the channels for communication . . . The criminal's sense of uniqueness is expressed everywhere.”

    At 315, “If one compares human beings on the basis of the important issues that they must race in their lifetimes, one finds that most of the issues are faced in common, rather than being peculiar to individuals. All humans have generally similar physical needs and are generally alike in their bodily functions. . . . The criminal, however, emphasizes his total difference from other people. Although he pays lip service to what he has in common with others, a pervasive sense of uniqueness constitutes the cornerstone of his self-image.”

    At 365, “The criminal does not think about ‘I can’t’ when he says it. Verbalizing it is habitual, to the extent that it sometimes rolls off his tongue before he even gives the matter at hand any thought.” At 364, “the criminal does say ‘I can't’ to express his refusal to act responsibly. Occasionally, the noncriminal does this to avoid something unpleasant. The criminal does it constantly.” At 365, “‘can't’ is equivalent to ‘don't want to’ or ‘won’t.’ ‘I won’t’ indicates his refusal to perform on someone else's terms. . . . When approached by a therapist or another agent of change about living responsibly, the criminal makes statements couched as ‘I can't,’ . . . If he continues with ‘I can't,’ this amounts to an affirmation that he wants something else and is not willing to give up . . . .” At 366, “The self-deception occurs when the criminal repeats ‘I can't’ so often that he half-persuades himself that he cannot be different. . . . His failure in turn gives him license for more crime, insomuch as he always has recourse to the argument that he tried but ‘could not' make it. He has shown himself and the world that he ‘can't’ change.”

    At 365, “‘I can't’ is extremely useful when the criminal is held accountable and pressure is applied. If others say that he can do something, he debates the point, offering a variety of excuses to reinforce his position.” Indeed, “What reinforces his saying ‘I can't’ is its effectiveness. People tend to excuse the criminal, because they think he lacks the capability to do some things.” Trained professionals, of course, recognize that, p. 364, “the criminal does say ‘I can't’ to express his refusal to act responsibly.”

    At 368, “When the criminal actually does encounter circumstances that by almost any standards are adverse, he creates a vicious circle by responding in a nonconstructive manner. Rather than adopt an approach of enduring the situation or trying to improve it, he responds with irresponsibility, which makes things worsen.”

    At 372-373, “This . . . is understandable: it allows the criminal to preserve his self-image. His mind is closed . . . To examine an alternative position could damp his plans. That is, if he is really sensitive to others and listens to them, he runs the risk that he will hear ideas opposed to his position. It can be truly said that, for this very reason, the criminal rarely holds a discussion with anyone. He wants to be the one who prevails. Thus, he does not ‘discuss’ a topic . . . he imposes his view. An interchange of ideas would become a power contest; so, rather than seriously consider the merits of another's position, he demands that his ideas be accepted. The criminal has little, if any, basis for understanding a noncriminal's perspective on most things. . . . In this and a multitude of other instances, the criminal is deaf and blind to responsible viewpoints.”

    At 372, “From early in childhood, youngsters are taught to put themselves in the shoes of others. Most people learn to do this in a responsible way, but not the criminal. He demands every consideration and every break for himself, but rarely stops to think about what other people think, feel, and expect. . . . Along with his lack of consideration of others, he has little regard for rules, customs, and laws. ‘My thinking would never extend as far as a consideration of what might be the reason for a rule and how it might be helpful to others. Not only that, but the circuit of my thinking is far shorter. All I think is, “There's a rule. How do I get around it?” In my equation, rule equals how to avoid. . . . I never look at the reason for a rule because it would usually involve some consideration for others, some interaction, and when I want something, that's foreign to my nature.’”

    At 377, “When the criminal is held accountable for failing to honor obligations, he responds with a variety of excuses.”

    At 401, “All his life, people have begged and pleaded with the criminal to make the effort to change. However, he has put the burden on others to give him reasons why he should.”

    At 403, “We are describing a general pattern of the criminal: failure to ascertain the facts. The criminal is not a fact-finder . . . He gets an idea, forms an opinion based on it, and then believes it as an established fact. Facts are not sought, because the criminal thinks that he already has the information he needs. As one scholarly criminal put it, his style of thinking is ‘Cogito, ergo est’––‘I think, therefore, it is.’”

    At 408, “Sometimes a criminal is evaluated in light of the details of a single crime that are brought out by an investigation. But one crime for which a criminal is apprehended does not tell the whole story. He has usually committed many undetected crimes.” At 419, “the criminal progressively gets himself into more trouble.” At 405, such is foreseeable since “The criminal's tubular vision leads him to make decisions in line with how things look to him at the time. . . . there is no conceptual thinking . . . Thus, he habitually forms erroneous conclusions and makes faulty decisions.”

    At 413, “The most important factor in the criminal’s response to deterrents is that he has to decide whether or not to heed them. It is a matter of his choice. . . . Eventually either the idea is eliminated by choice in favor of something else or the deterrents are removed by the process of corrosion and cutoff. ‘Corrosion’ is our designation for a mental process in which . . . deterrents are slowly eliminated until the desire to commit an act outweighs the fears to the point where the desire is implemented. . . . he considers himself immune from apprehension, and thus a successful crime seems ensured.”

    At 413, “The gradual process of corrosion occurs up to a point, and then a mental process that we call ‘cutoff’ comes into play. Cutoff allows the criminal instantly to dispose of deterrents . . . freeing him to act. . . . It could be said that corrosion is a gradual cutoff, giving way to an abrupt final cutoff before violation.”

    At 413, “The gradual process of corrosion occurs up to a point, and then a mental process that we call ‘cutoff’ comes into play. Cutoff allows the criminal instantly to dispose of deterrents . . . freeing him to act. . . . It could be said that corrosion is a gradual cutoff, giving way to an abrupt final cutoff before violation.”

    At 414, “The criminal makes the cutoff . . . a cornerstone of his life. It allows him to do as he wants. In search of triumph and conquest, he cuts off deterrents, including experience.”

    At 416, “The criminal . . . can cut off the cutoff,” “The criminal always has control over his own thinking.”

    At 436, “The criminal's idea of 'justice' is not being caught; 'injustice' is interference with his plans. There may be other, relatively minor, injustices such as being informed on or being handled roughly by the authorities. Any environmental factor that contributes to his being apprehended is considered unfair. But the inherent injustice is getting caught, never what responsible people would consider the injustice of the crime. In fact, he has no shame about what he has done, no thought about people whom he has harmed, and little concern about his own family.” At 437, “He does not believe that he should have to be accountable to anybody. This belief may be obscured by a barrage of other issues that the criminal raises” to “camouflage what to him is the basic injustice––being apprehended and confined.” Relative to criminals assisting each other when one is caught, p. 436 states, “in his thinking, they are obligated to do this.”

    Pages 439-440 cover “the psychology of escape thinking.” To a criminal, “As far as he is concerned, it is his ‘right’ to leave. If he is caught, lt is a blatant injustice for anyone to punish him for the attempt . . . .”

    At 440-441, “Probation or parole is regarded as merely another obstacle to surmount, and not a particularly formidable one . . . The criminal does with the authorities what he has done all along . . . He sizes up the person with whom he is dealing and anticipates what it will take to satisfy him. . . . This is part of the pattern of feeding others what the criminal thinks they want to hear.” Appeals are “not . . . particularly formidable” when criminals are willing to commit additional crimes, such as falsification, “to surmount” the “obstacle.” At 441, a criminal “will satisfy his interrogator on whatever score is necessary, and that usually puts an end to the questioning.

    At 444-445, “From the criminal’s point of view, it certainly makes sense for him to tell any story that will reduce personal jeopardy. When held accountable, he tries to avoid incrimination. Misrepresentation, vagueness, distortion, and calculated lying are among the means to accomplish this end.”

    At 449, “Throughout his life, the criminal has considered it a putdown not to be in total command of himself, as well as in control of others.”

    At 450, “The criminal is mentally ready to commit crimes of one or more types. He may not have chosen a particular time and place, but he is ready for any occasion. . . . A variety of circumstances determine the commission.” At 453, “Any of them can do almost anything at any time, owing to the violating patterns that have been present in their thinking. When a ‘Madison Avenue’ executive cracks someone's skull, it is no surprise to us, because we know that, even if he has never been violent before, violence has been present in his thoughts as a way in which he would like to deal with the world.” At 450, “The crime itself appears to be impulsive, because of its suddenness, but the fantasy pattern has occurred repeatedly. . . . To the observer, the crime may be totally out of character for a person who has not been a ‘criminal.’ But in every case that we have studied, we have established that the crime at issue was preceded by long-standing violating patterns in thought and action.”

    At 452, ''The criminal resorts to whatever he deems necessary to deal with a threat to his control of a situation. Many follow the basic pattern shorn in the following specific instance. C held up a public official and his wife as they were getting into their car. When the man came around the side or the car, C saw him as 'going to play the superman hero' and shot him in the stomach.”

    At 453, “all his life, the criminal has been calculating, scheming, and controlling. His behavior may appear to be impulsive or compulsive, because it is sudden to the observer.” Such

    At 453, “Incipient criminal thinking has preceded the crime in question.” “No crimes have occurred when they were thought of for the first time. No criminal is foolish enough to act so rashly. Incipient criminal thinking has preceded the crime in question. The idea has been considered. but rejected, many times before. . . . What has been so striking and consistent is that, to a man, our criminals have eventually revealed to us that what they did was an exercise of choice, and that all crimes were products of prior thinking.” At 516, “the criminal is using the tactic of trying to make someone other than himself the target of discussion.” At 516-7, “Another tactic is threatening to ruin the reputation of the” victim “or to embarrass him . . . .”

    By 1907, there was "a full . . . knowledge of the effects of tobacco on the nervous system. . . . A variety of substances have been found in tobacco aside from nicotine. Some of these are pyridin, picolin, tulidin, parvolin, collodin, rubidin, varidin; also carbolic acid and marsh gas." The result is that tobacco "registers a permanent and definite impression in nervous structures when it is used for months or years." "Tobacco is a powerful depressant to the motor or efferent nerves, acting primarily upon their peripheral filaments. . . . The sympathetic ganglia are first stimulated and then depressed by nicotine. . . . In chronic poisoning there is more or less gastroenteritis of a hemorrhagic nature. Ecchymosis occurs in the pleura and peritioneum. Hyperemia of the lungs, brain and cord is found. . . . Coarse lesions have been found in the brain and spinal cord."—L. Pierce Clark, M.D., 71 Medical Record (#26) 1072-1073 (29 June 1907).

    Thomas A. Edison made a smilar point seven years later, 1914, about the role of acrolein in smokers' brain damage.

    In addition, smoking deprives the brain of sufficient oxygen. Maternal smoking doubles a child's risk of developing attention deficit disorder, as shown in the study by Sharon Milberger, Sc.D., Joseph Biederman, M.D., Stephen V. Faraone, Ph.D., et al., "Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention hyperactivity disorder in children?" 153 American Journal of Psychiatry (#9) 1138-1142 (September 1996), details at our birth defects prevention website. Naturally, a person who can't pay attention, can't remember the laws, so can't obey them, thus again reaffirming the cigarette role in crime.

    Smokers' typical brain-damage symptoms include "distorted time perception," they "spoke about time moving slowly," thus displayed "marked denial of concern . . . about any dangers associated with tobacco."—Peter H. Knapp, M.D., et al, 119 Am J Psychiatry (#10) 966-972 (April 1963). Dangers, consequences, are future matters, time matters. Likewise in crime, smoker criminals typically do not visualize and comprehend time-related matters, e.g., future consequences: most basically, getting caught.

    By 1836, it was already well-established "that thousands and tens of thousands die of diseases of the lungs generally brought on by tobacco smoking. . . . How is it possible to be otherwise? Tobacco is a poison. A man will die of an infusion of tobacco as of a shot through the head."—Samuel Green, New England Almanack and Farmer's Friend (1836). A person who has been "shot through the head" . . . likely he'll have some brain damage impairing his actions, huh?! Yes, I think so? Wonder if any doctors noticed!? and wrote about this effect on smokers? and the role in crime?

    Examples of Harm From Mind-Altering Drugs
    "Drugs . . . increase aggression. . . . Radioactive labeling . . . reveals that it [a brain-impacting drug] exerts its influence within the limbic system, effectively shutting off the emotional parts of the brain from the influence of the overarching cortex. Insight, judgment, and reasoning are impaired. Reponsibility and intention melt away, leaving the individual at the mercy of his now unleashed aggressive impulses. Episodes of sudden unprovoked violence . . . have become common."—Richard M. Restak, M.D., The Mind (New York, Bantam Books, 1988), p 283.

    In fact "as a rule [people] are not going to commit murder unless . . . head injury [brain damage] significant neurological impairments are . . . present. . . . brain damage, the major cause of such impairments, is very common in persons who have been examined by a neurologist because of their violent behavior or acts. The damage is confirmed by abnmormal EEG readings and PET scans." Restak, supra, p 282.

    There is "clear evidence that control, responsibility, and intention can be altered by abnormal electrical discharges within the brain. . . ." Restak, supra, p 282.

    "Violence [due to] mental illness may involve hallucinations, delusions . . . violence can also be cold, casual, callous . . . . 'They have little or no conscience or sense of guilt, tend to project blame when they get into trouble. They are unreliable, untruthful . . . but they are often convincing because they believe their own lies. There is a vast gult between what they say and what they do. They are impulsive, the whim of the moment being paramount. They are given to periodic and often senseless antisocial behavior which may be either aggressive or passive and parasitic.'" "'They lie and steal, seemingly with total disregard for the consequences.'" Restak, supra, p 310, quoting neuropsychiatrist Frank Elliott.

    Centuries of evidence shows "that our [human] rationality is dependent on the normal functioning of tissue within our skulls. . . . in the presence of a barely measurable electrical impulse within the nlimbic system, our much vaunted rationality can be replaced by savage attacks and seemingly inexplicable violence. What's more, the violent mind is violent only sporadically and explosively." "Moments later [the person is] contrite and puzzled. 'What happened?' . . . 'Why did I do that?'" Restak, supra, pp 280-282.

    “In a study of 300 [criminals], MacDonald (1959) found not only a high incidence of psychopathic personalities and chronic alcoholics, but also a . . . number of schizophrenics, manics, seniles, and mentally retarded individuals. In general, the most common forms of psychopathy associated with serious crimes appear to be antisocial personality, alcoholism, and drug dependence; however, there is also a disproportionately high number of borderline and actual psychotics (Guze, Goodwin, & Crane, 1969; Sutker & Moan, 1973).”—James C. Coleman, Ph.D., Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, 5th ed (Scott, Foresman & Co, 1976), p 399.

    There certainly has been plenty of analysis of the role of drugs and crime. See for example, the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, website entitled “Statistics on Drugs and Crime.” See also its
  • 30 June 2006 Report showing "2,245,189 prisoners were held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails"

  • Wednesday, 29 November 2006, report showing that a record seven million people — or one in every 32 American adults — were behind bars, on probation, or on parole at the end of last year. Of those, an astounding 2.2 million people were actually in prison or jail, an increase of 2.7% over 2005. From 1995 to 2003, inmates in federal prison for drug offenses have accounted for 49% of the growth in the total federal prison population.
  • So naturally, in view of the long known tobacco-drrug connection, there has been much analysis, and far longer, of the role of the gateway drug and crime.

    Example of Crime Rates Per 100,000
    With Smokers Committing 90% of 100 Crimes
    POPULATIONCRIMESRATIO
    Nonsmokers
    71,000
    10 
    1:7100
    Smokers
    29,000
    90
    1:322
    Total
    100,000
    100
    1:1000

    Everyone A Nonsmoker: 86% Crime Reduction
    POPULATIONCRIMESRATIO
    Nonsmokers
    71,000
    10 
    1:7100
    New Nonsmokers
    29,000
    4
    1:7250
    Total
    100,000
    14
    1:7143

    Results of Having A Mere 14
    Crimes When There Had Been 100
  • Massive layoffs of prosecutors, police officers, prison guards, prison administrators, judges, court staff, prison builders, "treatment-," "empathy-enhancement-," and "rehabilitation-" counselors, defense attorneys, etc., etc.
  • And: tax reductions for taxpayers, local, state and federal-wide.
  • And: prevention of DWB incidents.
    Suggestion:
  • Ask your jurisdiction officials to tell you the police-population ratio.
    (That of the U.S. in 2004 is 870,000 officers for
    294,000,000 people: 87:29400, a 1:338 ratio.)
  • Calculate the ratio with an 80% reduction.
  • Write the new, lower, police-population ratio into the jurisdiction's constitution or charter. The purpose is to prevent easy 'new hiring.'
  • Include a proviso specifying that crime prevention via tobacco control is mandatory. Forbid the 'crime fighting' focus.
    Easy hiring (along with disregarding 'crime prevention' in order to, instead, do so-called 'crime fighting') was a factor leading to the current excess of officers.
    All in the system know this. However, in agencies, it is management policy that "every action or decision . . . must be intended to keep the institutional machinery working," says David W. Ewing, "Canning Directions: How the Government Rids Itself of Troublemakers," Harpers 16, 18, 22 (August 1979).
    For example, in the FBI, a supervisor who found an employee working too diligently, fired her, to keep budgets and staffing high! Too bad about Americans who might be endangered, or killed!
    Re officers who want to "blow the whistle," want to actually proactively prevent crime via the long-established data of which you seeing an overview here, they can easily foresee being fired, because whistle blower protection laws are worthless to actually protect employees.
    The subject of worthlessness of employee-protection laws has been cited by many analysts including but not limited to Thomas M. Devine and Donald G. Aplin, "Whistleblower Protection—Gap Between Law and Reality," 31 Howard Law J (#2) 223 (1988).
  • As the subject of crime (including brain damage, with symptoms of abulia aka psychopathy or anomie, leading to crime) is a "major public health problem" (a euphemism for smoking), many studies have been done on the subject. Many studies.

    There have been many studies, progressing in accuracy from the initial hesitancies to the now quite confidently reported findings. You already have read (above) the medical research technique developed over a long period, let's say, to keep it short, since 1537, and re-confirmed successfully through 1795. Let's continue now, this time focusing on crime-related studies, in the last 250 years. Here is a partial list of pertinent analyses, references, observations, studies, and commentaries 1751 to present:

    Bibliography of Crime Studies and Books
    by Physicians and Others (1751-2008)
    Henry Fielding, An Enquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers, &c. (London: A. Millar, 1751) Albrecht von Haller, , Elementa Physiologiae: Elements of Physiology (Lausannae, 1757) (cited brain importance in pyschic functions; advocated post-mortem brain examinations)
    Cesare Beccaria, Crime and Punishments (1764) (established the science of criminology, advocated deterrence) John Howard, LL.D., F.R.S. (1726-1790), The State of the Prisons in England and Wales,With Preliminary Observations and an Account of Some Foreign Prisons and Hospitals (Warrington, W. Eyres, 1777; repr. Abingdon, Oxon.: Professional Books, 1977)
    Benjamin Rush, M.D. (1746-1813), Two Essays on The Mind: An Enquiry into the Influence of Physical Causes upon the Moral Faculty, and On the Influence of Physical Causes in Promoting an Increase of the Strength and Activity of the Intellectual Faculties of Man (New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1786 reprinted 1972) Benjamin Rush, M.D., A Plan for the Punishment of Crime: Two Essays (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Prison Society, 1787 reprinted 1991)
    Philippe Pinel, M.D., Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aleniation mentale; ou la manie (transl. Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation or Mania) (1801) (described psychopathy as “mania without delirium”) William A. Alcott, M.D., The Use of Tobacco (New York: Fowler and Wells, 1836), p 19
    Isaac Ray, A Treatise on the Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity (London: G. Henderson Pub, 1839) Wilhelm Griesinger, , Die Pathologie und Therapie der Psychischen Krankheiten: Pathology and Therapy of Psychic Disorders (Stuttgart: Krabbe, 1845) (explained all mental disorders in brain pathology terms)
    Adolphe Jacques Quetelet, Sur la Statistique Morale et Les Principes Qui Doivent en Former la Base [On Moral Statistics and the Principles Which Must Form The Basis] (Belgium, 1848) J. M. Harlow, "Passage of an Iron Rod Through The Head," 39 Boston Med and Surg J (#20) 389-393 (13 Dec 1848) [like the above-cited "shot through the head" cited by Green, supra]
    H. J. Bigelow, "Dr. Harlow's Case of Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Rod Through The Head," 19 Am J Med Sci 13-22 (1850) [He didn't.] Robert Reid Howison, Reports of Criminal Trials (Richmond: Geo. M. West & Bro, 1851) (published "in hope of learning the origin and cure of crime")
    Auburn, NY, State Prison Observations (1854) P. Broca, "Sur la faculté du langage acticulé," 6 Bull Soc Anthropol, Paris 337-393 (1865)
    J. M. Harlow, "Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Rod Through The Head," 2 Pub Mass Med Soc 327-347 (1868) [Confirming no recovery.] C. Wernicke, Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex (Breslau: Cohn und Weigert, 1874)
    H. A. Depierris, M.D., "Le Tabac Pousse Au Crime," pp 326-344 of Physiologie Sociale: Le Tabac (Paris: Dentu, 1876) David Ferrier, MD, FRS, FRCP, "The Goulstonian Lectures on the Localisation of Cerebral Disease," 1 Brit Med J 399-447 (23 March 1878)
    N. Sizer, Forty Years in Phrenology: Embracing Recollections of History, Anecdote and Experience (New York: Fowler and Wells, 1882) Emil Kraepelin, Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie (1883) (cited brain pathology in mental disorders, citing symptom patterns, developing systematic classification)
    Claude E. Bourdin, Le Tabac et les Prisonniers (Reims, France: P. Lajoye, 1884) Maurice de Fleury, L'âme du Criminel (Paris: F. Alcan, 1898)
    Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), The Criminal, 3rd ed (London: Walter Scott Pub, 1901) [Quoted] Enrico Ferri, Lecture (Univ of Naples, 24 April 1901)
    Charles Goring, MD, The English Convict: A Statistical Study (Darling and Son, Ltd, for H.M. Stationery Office, 1913) (details) William Healy, The Individual Delinquent: A Text-book of Diagnosis and Prognosis for All Concerned in Understanding Offenders (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co, 1920)
    William Healy, Mental Conflicts and Misconduct (Boston: Little, Brown, 1920) William Healy and Augusta F. Bronner, Delinquents and Criminals: Their Making and Unmaking: Studies in Two American Cities (New York, Macmillan Co, 1926)
    William Healy and Augusta F. Bronner, The Structure and Meaning of Psychoanalysis as Related to Personality and Behavior (New York: A.A. Knopf, 1930) William McDougall, "Of the Words Character and Personality," 1 Character and Personality 3-16 (1932)
    L. L. Thurstone, "The Vectors of Mind," 41 Psychol Rev (#1) 1-32 (Jan 1934) B. J. Alpers, "Relation of the Hypothalamus to Disorders of Personality: Report of A Case," 38 Arch Neur Psych 291 (1937)
    Hervey Cleckley, The Mask of Sanity (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1941) (“Beauty and ugliness, except in a very superficial sense, goodness, evil, love, horror, and humor have no actual meaning, no power to move him [the psychopath]”) N. Q. Brill, H. Seidemann, H. Montague, B. Balser, "Electroencephalographic Studies in Delinquent Behavior Problem Children," 98 Am J Psychiatry (#4) 494-498 (Jan 1942)
    W. T. Brown, C. I. Solomon, "Delinquency and the Electroencephalograph," 98 Am J Psychiatry (#4) 499-503 (Jan 1942) D. Hill, D. Watterson, "Electroencephalograph Studies of Psychopathic Personalities," 5 J Neurol Psych 47 (1942)
    J. M. Gehman, "Tobacco and Juvenile Delinquency," pp 217-241 of Smoke over America (NY: Roycrofters, 1943) D. Curran and P. Mallinson, "Psychopathic Personality," 90 J Mental Science 266-286 (1944)
    D. Hill, "Cerebral Dysrhythmia: Its Significance in Aggressive Behavior," 37 Proc R Soc Med 317 (1944) Foster Kennedy, Harry R. Hoffman, and William H. Haines, "Psychiatric Study of William Heirens," 38 J Crim Law and Criminology (#3) 311-341 (1947-8)

    D. Stafford-Clark, F. H. Taylor, "Clinical and Electroencephalograph Studies of Prisoners Charged With Murder," 12 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 325 (1949)

    Norval Morris, LL.M., Ph.D., The Habitual Criminal (New York: Longmans, Green & Co, 1951)
    D. Hill, D. A. Pond, "Reflections on One Hundred Capital Cases Submitted to Electroencephalo-graphy," 98 J Ment Sci 23-43 (Jan 1952) Franz G. Alexander and Hugo Staub, The Criminal, the Judge, and the Public: A Psychological Analysis, 2d ed (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1956)
    J. M. MacDonald, "A Psychiatric Study of Check Offenders," 116 Amer J. Psychiat. 438-442 (November 1959) Ben Karpman, M.D., "The Structure of Neurosis," 4 Arch Criminal Psychodynamics 599-647 (Fall 1961)
    Tony Parker and Robert Allerton, The Courage of His Convictions (New York: Norton, 1962) S. B. Guze, V. B. Tuason, and P. D. Gatfield, et al., "Psychiatric Illness and Crime With Particular Reference to Alcoholism," 134 J Nerv Ment Dis 512-521 (1962)
    W. McCord and J. McCord, The Psychopath: An Essay on the Criminal Mind (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1964) N. Malamud, "Psychiatric Disorder with Intracranial Tumors of Limbic System," 17 Arch Neurol 113 (1967)
    B. Brown, "Some Characteristic EEG Differences Between Heavy Smoker and Non-Smoker Subjects," 6 Neuropsychologia (#4) 381-388 (Dec 1968) S. B. Guze, D. W. Goodwin, and J. B. Crane, "Criminality and Psychiatric Disorders," 20 Arch Gen Psychiat 583-591 (May 1969)
    Denis Williams, "Neural Factors Related to Habitual Aggression," 92 Brain 503-520 (1969) A. G. Reeves and F. Plum, "Hyperphagia, Rage and Dementia Accompanying A Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neoplasm," 20 Arch Neurol 616 (1969)
    C. Ounstead, "Aggression and Epilepsy: Rage in Children With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy," 13 J Psychosom Res 237 (1969) Z. A. Sayed, S. A. Lewis and R. P. Britain, "An Electroencephalograph and Psychiatric Study of 32 Insane Murderers," 27 Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 335 (1969)
    Tony Parker, The Frying-Pan: A Prison and its Prisoners (New York: Basic Books, 1970) Fred A. Killefer and W. Eugene Stern, M.D., "Chronic Effects of Hypothalamic Injury: Report of a Case of Near Total Hypothalamic Destruction Resulting from Removal of a Craniopharyngioma," 22 Arch Neurol 419-429 (May 1970)
    S. Currie, K. W. G. Heathfield, R. A. Henson, and D. F. Scott, "Clinical Course and Prognosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy," 95 Brain 173 (1971) M. A. Falconer, "Reversibility by Temporal Lobe Resection of the Behavior Abnormalities of Temoral Lobe Epilepsy," 289 N Engl J Med 451 (1973)
    Ernst A. Rodin, "Psychomotor Epilepsy and Aggressive Behavior," 28 Arch Gen Psych 210-213 (Feb 1973) Zimring, Franklin E., Gordon J. Hawkins, Deterrence: The Legal Threat in Crime Control (Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press, 1973)
    P. B. Sutker & C. E. Moan, "A Psychosocial Description of Penitentiary Inmates," 29 Arch. Gen. Psychiat. (#5) 663-667 (Nov 1973) Herbert Fingarette, "Addiction and Criminal Responsibility," 84 Yale Law J 413 (1975)
    Herbert Fingarette and Anne F. Hasse, Mental Disabilities and Criminal Responsibil-ity (Berkeley: U of Cal Press, 1979) (Example) Robert Lehrman and Phyllis E. Clark, Doing Time: A Look at Crime and Prisons (Hastings House, Jan 1980) (Excerpt)
    P. J. Esling and A. R. Damasio, "Severe Disturbance of Higher Cognation After Bilateral Frontal Lobe Ablation: Patient EVR," 35 Neurology 1731-1741 (Dec 1985) Joseph R. DiFranza and M. P. Guerrera, "Alcoholism and Smoking," 51 J Studies Alcohol (#2) 130-135 (1990), p 134
    Robert Hare, Ph.D., Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us (1993) Donald R. Lynam, T. E. Moffitt, and M.A. Stouthamer-Loeber, "Explaining the Relation Between IQ and Delinquency: Class, Race, Test Motivation, School Achievement, or Self-Control? 102 J Abnormal Psy (#2) 187-196 (May 1993)
    Terrie E. Moffit, Donald R. Lynam; and Phil A. Silva, "Neuropsychological Tests Predicting Persistent Male Delinquency," 32 Criminology (#2) 277-300 (May 1994) Tony Parker, The Violence of our Lives: Interviews with American Murderers (New York: H. Holt, 1995)
    D. A. Martell, "Causal Relation Between Brain Damage and Homicide: The Prosecution," 1 Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry (#3) 184-194 (July 1996) A. Raine, P. Brennan, B. Mednick, and S. A. Mednick, "High Rates of Violence, Crime, Academic Problems, and Behavioral Problems in Males With Both Early Neuromotor Deficits and Unstable Family Environments," 53 Arch Gen Psych 544-549 (1 June 1996)
    M. Eronen, P. Hakola, and J. Tiihonen, "Mental Disorders and Homicidal Behavior in Finland," 53 Arch Gen Psych 497-501 (1 June 1996) L. A. Teplin, K. M. Abram, and G. M. McClelland, "Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Incarcerated Women: I. Pretrial Jail Detainees," 53 Arch Gen Psych 505-512 (1 June 1996)
    B. K. Jordan, W. E. Schlenger, J. A. Fairbank, and J. M. Caddell, "Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Incarcerated Women : II. Convicted Felons Entering Prison," 53 Arch Gen Psych 513-519 (1 June 1996) M. Virkkunen, M. Eggert, R. Rawlings, and M. Linnoila, "Prospective follow-up study of alcoholic violent offenders and fire setters," 53 Arch Gen Psych 523-529 (1 June 1996)
    S. Hodgins, S. A. Mednick, P. A. Brennan, F. Schulsinger, and M. Engberg, "Mental Disorder and Crime: Evidence From a Danish Birth Cohort," 53 Arch Gen Psych 489-496 (1 June 1996) D. M. Fergusson, M. T. Lynskey, and L. J. Horwood, "Comorbidity Between Depressive Disorders and Nicotine Dependence in a Cohort of 16-Year-Olds," 53 Arch Gen Psych 1043-1047 (1 Nov 1996)
    Donald R. Lynam, "The Early Identification of Chronic Offenders: Who Is The Fledgling Psychopath?" 120 Psychol Bull (#2) 209-234 (1996) Lynam DR, "Pursuing the Psychopath: Capturing the Fledgling Psychopath in a Nomological Net," 106 J Abnormal Psy (#3) 425-438 (1997)
    M. Sarazin, B. Pillon, P. Giannakopoulos, G.Rancurel, Y. Samson, and B. Dubois, "Clinicometabolic Dissociation of Cognitive Functions and Social Behavior in Frontal Lobe Lesions," 51 Neurology 142-148 (July 1998) D. R. Lynam, "Early Identification of The Fledgling Psychopath: Locating the Psychopathic Child in The Current Nomenclature," 107 J Abnormal Psy (#4) 566-575 (Nov 1998)
    T. A. Widiger and D. R. Lynam, "Psychopathy and the Five-Factor Model of Personality." In T Millon (Ed), Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent Behaviors (pp 171-187) (New York: Guilford, 1998) L. Cohen, L. Angladette, N. Benoit, and C. Pierrot-Deseilligny, "A Man Who Borrowed Cars," 353 Lancet (#9146) 34 (2 Jan 1999). (For access, register at www.thelancet.com)
    P. A. Brennan, , et al, "Relationship of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy With Criminal Arrest and Hospitalization for Substance Abuse in Male and Female Adult Offspring," 159 Am J Psychiatry (#1) 48-54 (Jan 2002)
    K. Williams, "The Demand for Order and the Birth of Modern Policing" 55 Monthly Review (#7) (December 2003)
    Michael Gossop, Katia Trakada, Duncan Stewart and John Witton, "Reductions in criminal convictions after addiction treatment: 5-year follow-up" (79 Drug and Alcohol Dependence (# 3) 295-302 (1 Sep 2005) Kent A. Kiehl, Ph.D., Psychiatry Research (2006) ("psychopathy is caused by a defect in what he calls 'the paralimbic system,' a network of brain regions, stretching from the orbital frontal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex, that are involved in processing emotion, inhibition, and attentional control.")
    Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., "Criminals With Badges" (2 January 2008)
    John Seabrook, "Suffering Souls: The search for the roots of psychopathy" (The New Yorker, 10 November 2008)
    National Library of Medicine
     

    Here are some quotes from the above analyses:
    "The observed reductions in crime among drug misusers after treatment represent substantial changes in behaviour and have considerable personal, social and clinical significance. Reduced criminality also provides substantial economic benefits to society," say Michael Gossop, et al, supra.

    Fergusson, et al., said, "Comorbidities between depression and nicotine dependence seem to be well established by the age of 16 years. Much of this comorbidity can be explained by common or correlated risk factors associated with depression or nicotine dependence," in Comorbidity between depressive disorders and nicotine dependence in a cohort of 16-year-olds," supra.

    The link between smoking, depression, and crime was noted over two centuries ago. The Surgeon General under George Washington was Dr. Benjamin Rush. Rush, who had signed the Declaration of Independence, opposed "the habitual use of tobacco, which he thought led to a desire for strong drink and was injurious both to health and morals."—Dr. Carl Binger, Revolutionary Doctor: Benjamin Rush (1746-1813) (1966), p 201. "Rush read the work of Sir Alexander Crichton . . . an expert in mental illness . . .Crichton's works . . . today they seem remarkable in view of the fact that they were published in 1798. For example, he said that murder was not uncommonly committed from despair and hid the wish for suicide," p 258.

    Teplin, et al., found "substantial psychiatric morbidity among female jail detainees." "Over 80% of the sample met criteria for one or more lifetime psychiatric disorders; 70% were symptomatic within 6 months of the interview. The most common disorders were [linked to smoking, the gateway drug, as they involved post-gateway] "drug abuse or dependence, alcohol abuse or dependence, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Major depressive episode was the most prevalent major mental disorder. Rates were generally highest among non-Hispanic whites and among older detainees. Rates for all disorders were significantly higher than general population rates, except for schizophrenia. Most detainees with psychiatric disorders were arrested for nonviolent crimes" in "Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated women: I. pretrial jail detainees," supra.

    Eronen, et al., say, "Owing to the fact that Finnish police have been able to solve about 95% of all homicides during recent decades and because most homicide offenders are subjected to an intensive psychiatric evaluation, it was possible to examine data on 693 of 994 homicide offenders during an 8-year period. . . . The prevalences of mental disorders of the homicide offenders were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the statistical increase in risk associated with specific mental disorders. . . . The results indicate that schizophrenia [linked to smoking since at least 1922] increases the OR of homicidal violence by about 8-fold in men and 6.5-fold in women. Antisocial personality disorder increases the OR over 10-fold in men and over 50-fold in women. Affective disorders, anxiety disorders, dysthymia, and mental retardation did not elevate the OR to any significant extent (OR<5.0). . . . Homicidal behavior in a country with a relatively low crime rate appears to have a statistical association with some specific mental disorders classified according to DSM-III-R classifications," in "Mental Disorders and Homicidal Behavior in Finland," supra.

    Jordan et al., found that "Inmates were found to have high rates of substance abuse and dependence [due to the starter/gateway drug tobacco] and antisocial and borderline personality disorders compared with women in community epidemiologic studies. Rates among inmates were also somewhat elevated for mood disorders but not for anxiety disorders. The rate of reports of lifetime exposure to traumatic events was also high. Rates of disorder tended to be higher among white than among African American women. . . . High rates of substance abuse, psychiatric disorder, and psychological distress associated with exposure to traumatic events suggest that women in prison have a need for treatment for substance abuse and other mental health problems," in "Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated women: II. convicted felons entering prison," supra.

    Hodgins, et al., said, "Evidence has accumulated since the mid 1960s from a number of different countries indicating an association between mental disorder and crime and particularly between the major mental disorders and violence. . . . Persons who had been admitted to a psychiatric ward were assigned to a diagnostic category according to a hierarchy of principal discharge diagnoses. They were compared with persons never admitted to a psychiatric ward as to the prevalence, type, and frequency of criminal convictions. . . . Women and men who had been hospitalized in psychiatric wards were more likely to have been convicted of a criminal offense than persons with no history of psychiatric hospitalization. The offenders who were hospitalized committed all types and, on average, as many offenses as did the never-hospitalized group of the same sex. . . . These findings confirm those from 2 other [analyses] that have found an association between psychiatric hospitalization and criminal convictions. They also concur with findings that patients discharged from psychiatric wards are more likely than other persons living in the same community to commit crimes and with results from North America showing elevated rates of major mental disorders among incarcerated offenders. Generalization of these findings is limited to nations with similar criminal justice, mental health, and social welfare systems," in "Mental disorder and crime evidence from a Danish birth cohort," supra.

    EEG studies, of which the above are just a sample, repeatedly find EEG abnormalities in criminals; and the same is found in smokers. For example, Brown, et al., "Delinquency and the Electroencephalograph," 98 Am J Psychiatry 499 (1942), found that 85% of the studied criminals "yielded abnormal records." Brown, EEG Differences Between Smokers and Nonsmokers, 6 Neuropsychologia 381 (1968) found "distinctive differences in brain wave patterns between heavy smokers and non-smokers . . . . related to fundamental differences." Brown admits that "nicotine rapidly accumulates in brain tissue." Significantly, her study was funded in part by "The Council for Tobacco Research, U.S.A."

    Brennan, et al., supra, said, "Results indicate a dose-response relationship between the amount of maternal prenatal smoking and both criminal arrest and psychiatric hospitalization for substance abuse in male and female offspring. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled. Hospitalization of offspring for substance abuse mediated the relationship between maternal prenatal smoking and criminal arrest for female but not for male offspring. . . . Maternal prenatal smoking is related to criminal and substance abuse outcomes in male and female offspring. Higher rates of index arrests for female offspring may be related to their substance abuse problems."

    "Many addicts . . . much of the overt behavior patttern of the psychopath . . . when studied more carefully, are found to possess psychoneurotic characteristics as well. Kolb originally described such persons as suffering from a vague, poorly crystallized personality defect which he termed a psychopathic diathesis. [Ed. Note: See Kolb's later view]. They are now classified under the terms of behaviour or character disorders. . . . they lose part of their normal adaptive patterns of adjustment and become parasites on society. This regression of personality and loss of social adaptation represents the greatest danger in drug addiction."—Harry J. Anslinger (Commissioner of Narcotics) and William F. Tompkins (U.S. Attorney), The Traffic in Narcotics (NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 1953), p 251.

    Even lay literature records knowledge of the smoking-crime link. For example, see the book by Prof. Robert Sobel (History, Hofstra University), They Satisfy: The Cigarette in American Life (New York: Anchor Press, 1978). Page 65 says, "At the turn of the [20th] century, the cigarette remained the smoke of . . . especially criminals." At 53, "Those who suffered from the malady [smoking] eventually took to drink, became diseased, turned to crime, and in the end died horribly." Page 54 says, "Charles Burton, aged 17, is to be hanged for murder. He was a cigarette fiend." At 112, the book says that in the 1930's, "several companies . . . released films in which the criminal or member of the lower class . . . smoked cigarettes, even while gunning down opponents."

    "The use of liquor or tobacco destroys the sensitive nerves of the brain, and benumbs the sensibilities. Under their influence crimes are committed that would have been left undone had the mind been clear and free from the influence of stimulants or narcotics," said Ellen G. White (1905), Temperance, p 59.

    The link between smoking and alcoholism is well-established. Wherefore, criminals are also often in an alcoholic state when committing crimes. See the pamphlet, "Prisoners and Alcohol," by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (1982). "Rapists and assaulters were most apt to be drinking prior to the offense . . . ." "Almost half the inmates said they had been drinking just prior to their offenses." "These findings show an excessive pre-prison involvement with alcohol on the part" of "a great many inmates . . . It is clear that alcohol has played a major role in the lives of many prison inmates." And smoking is the underlying factor leading to alcoholism.

    Smokers notoriously attack nonsmokers, sometimes even with media support. See this article, "I'd have shoved Linda Buchanan off the platform myself" (10 August 2008). A woman had approached smokers smoking in a nonsmoking area at a train station, creating plumes of tobacco smoke, thereby violating the right to pure air. They (the smokers) threw her off, down onto the train track. The article denounces the victim, the nonsmoker, for having dared to seek compliance with the law! "You lean across to revel in your power, demonstrate your superior self-denial, and tell us how disgusting we are. The powerful sneering at the losers." This type smoker commentary evidences smokers' typical brain damage including being in denial of the hazard they cause.

    Anytime society (meaning, the voting public) decides to begin to become serious about crime prevention, they will begin to act against tobacco, the underlying factor in so much of crime, as our ancestors since the 1830's had already observed, and as is being repeatedly confirmed anew. Tobacco leads to abulia. A useful description of tobacco-induced delirium, and abulia generally, is to this effect:
    "Clinically the clouded states suggests a delirium [Dr. Jean P. Falret's 1839 concept] with liberation of aggressive and occasionally, self-destructive impulses. Acts of violence may be committed in these automatisms and may be of a strikingly brutal nature, the patient pursuing his crime to a most revolting extreme."—Lawrence C. Kolb, Noyes' Modern Clinical Psychiatry, 7th ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1968), p 267.

    Count Lev. N. Tolstoy said: "The brain becomes numbed by the nicotine." What he called conscience thus expires, as impulse control is impaired (abulia, anomie, psychopathy, empathy-loss). He gave an example, a smoker who began assaulting an aged woman with a knife, wounding the woman badly. He then shrank from killing the woman, but after smoking two cigars, dazing his brain, he then completed the knife-murder.—Count Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), Vicious Pleasures (London: Mathieson, 1896), pp 36-91 ("Alcohol and tobacco") [Excerpt].

    Rev. George Trask had cited this abulia, empathy-loss, concept decades earlier, in Letters on Tobacco (Fitchburg, Mass: Trask Pub, 1860), p 75.

    And see Dr. Hippolyte Depierris' discussion, supra.

    Who Has Guns? Answer: Smokers Do
    Cigarettes are the gateway drug delivery agent. Smoking leads to drug abuse. Drug abusers disproportionately carry guns.

    "Both males and females who had taken drugs were more likely to carry weapons (63.5% of male drug users versus 20.5% of non-users and 22.8% of female drug users versus 3.7% of non-users; both P<0.0001)."—Neil McKeganey and John Norrie, "Association between illegal drugs and weapon carrying in young people in Scotland: schools' survey," 320 British Med Journal (#7240) 982-984 (8 April 2000).

    So to the question, 'who carries guns?,' answer: Smokers do.


    "U.S. most armed country with 90 guns per 100 people" (28 August 2007). "U.S. citizens own 270 million of the world's 875 million known firearms, according to the Small Arms Survey 2007 by the Geneva-based Graduate Institute of International Studies." "About 4.5 million of the 8 million new guns manufactured worldwide each year are purchased in the United States, it said. 'There is roughly one firearm for every seven people worldwide. Without the United States, though, this drops to about one firearm per 10 people,' it said."

    "Violence in all its forms—from murder to child and wife beating—now is the nation's number one public health problem, the surgeon general [then C. Everett Koop, M.D.] said Tuesday. . . . . Violent children, for example, frequently have histories of suicide attempts." UPI, "Surgeon general says, Violence is number one public health problem," The Macomb Daily p 5-A (27 Oct 1982). As the Surgeon General writes on smoking, the number one health problem, saying smoking is No. 1, is referring to the same subject.

    Smoking harming children is child abuse. It is just another form of violence, as the Surgeon General alludes to.

    In the turn-of-the-century cigarette ban era, incidents were known even up to Supreme Court level. For example, note the white slave case of Athanasaw v U.S., 227 US 326; 33 S Ct 285; 57 L Ed 528 (24 Feb 1913). That case offers an insight into smokers' abulic symptoms of impaired ethical controls. In that case, a girl was recruited to be a "chorus girl," but in reality, for debauchery by smokers, whose behavior and cursing offended her, thus the case was solved.

    Note that “criminal actions resulting from mental disease are often purposeful, intentional, and ingeniously planned,” says the reviewer of Herbert Fingarette and Anne Fingarette Hasse's book, Mental Disabilities and Criminal Responsibility (Berkeley: Univ of Calif Press, 1979), summarizing pp 52-53, in the review in the Michigan Law Review, Vol. 79, Issue 4, pp 754-756 at 754 (March 1981).

    Smokers' abulic symptoms are not new. Cigarettes' adverse brain effects have long been known objectively. For example, in 1885, Meta Lander, The Tobacco Problem, 6th ed. (Boston: Lee and Shepard Pub, 1885), pp 141-161, published an overview of smoking's adverse effects including on the brain. The bottom line is, in the words of Dr. L. E. Keeley, Keeley Institute, Dwight, Illinois: "Tobacco . . . lays the foundation of nearly every nervous [mental] disorder now common to the people of America," p 150. Lander at p 161 quotes one analyst saying that "the worst of [tobacco's effects] is the destruction of the reasoning power in man." P 164 cites smokers' "congestion of the brain from cigarette poisoning."

    "It impairs the functions of the brain, clouds the understanding, and enfeebles the memory," quoting Dr. Stephenson, p 144. "The collossal increase of nerve and mind disease in our day is undoubtedly the result, to a great extent, of . . . tobacco," p 147, quoting Dr. Bilroth. Another analyst correlated tobacco use and insanity rates as increasing in tandem, p 149.

    Lander quoted from the Phrenological Journal: "Half the old tobacco users are in a state of semi-imbecility. Their memory is leaky, moral sense blunted, general disposition impaired, and tone of both body and mind let down," p 150.

    The "biological approaches [herein cited] hold that a person's current biological condition [has significance, as] the chemical messengers that control bodily processes [foreseeably produce] violent criminal behavior. [This type data] links violent criminal behavior to brain damage."—Virginia Adams, Crime (New York: Time-Life Books, 1976), p 48.

    One writer "compares crime to cancer, in which the same set of factors produces [foreseeable results]," pp 41-42.

    The politician/media pundit ranting about deterrence is thus a scam. Consider the issue of whether "punishment actually abates criminal behavior . . . . Many authorities think it does not. They point out that in the 18th Century, when pickpocketing was a capital crime, practitioners . . . were invariably present at public executions, not looking on in chastened horror, but diligently [robbing] men and women [watching] the spectacle of [execution]," p 168.

    Can we say that all smokers are criminals all the time? What do you say of people who regularly spew vast numbers of bullets into the air, disregarding whether they hit others? Yes. Well, how is regularly spewing poison into the air any different?

    "Crime, Violence, and Tobacco Use Go Hand-In-Hand" (The Health reformer, 2001).

    "When something 'new' in medical literature is published, it is a wise precaution to read previous literature [e.g., the footnotes] on the subject—that 'something new' may not really be new."—Alison B. Froese and Prof. A. Charles Bryan, "High Frequency Ventilation," 123 Am Rev Resp Dis (#3) 249-250 (March 1981).

    This is especially so in view of the politicians' and media mass censorship and/or disinformation intended—maliciously—to conceal the tobacco-crime link, and indeed the holocaust level of tobacco deaths. Media writers and publishers can be held to both civil and criminal liability for their misconduct.

    Tobacco pushers' ability to kill the average smoker, and in turn to kill nonsmokers, meets the definition of, e.g., the law terms "universal malice" and "transferred intent" as the deaths are "natural and probable consequences" of cigarettes' toxic chemicals. Such deaths, first and second-hand smoking-caused, include one or more of the following methods, i.e., by fire, lung cancer (co-workers and family); heart disease (family and co-workers); SIDS (babies); drunk driving (anybody); murder (crime victims as shown herein); and by arranging voting for officials and judges who obstruct enforcing the protective laws; etc.

    Tobacco smoking adversely impacts breathing (remember, smoking adversely impacts the lungs, and leads, e.g., to emphysema and lung cancer), and provides vast quantities of brain-damaging toxic chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide, to the brain. This process in turn deteriorates reasoning and ethical controls (the terms include "abulia" and "anomie"), so crime results—is that process hard to understand? (If so, please write to this web writer and say what it is about you that renders this fact hard for you to understand.)

    Of course it is not hard to understand, the tobacco-crime link has been known and repeatedly cited since 1836. Especially after the three-in-a-row assassinations of Presidents by smokers, and the Mudgett case (1896), numerous states at the turn-of-the-century, reacted by banning cigarettes, e.g., in Iowa (1807), Tennessee (1897), and in Michigan (1909), etc.

    Those laws while on the books, kept the crime rate low. But then, massive corruption came about. And there is racism. The subsequent repeal of most such anti-cigarette (i.e., crime-prevention) laws and the widespread subsequent refusal to continue respecting the medical data showing the cigarette factor in 90% of crime and "the only way" to solve it, is due to wide-spread bribery and corruption in government, including but not limited to bribes of legislators and judges, as the therein bibliography shows.

    "Jerry Bernstein argues that the close links between police and politicians in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries meant that law enforcement agencies were often enmeshed in local politicial corruption. The big-city politicial machies and local party hacks often protected local criminals--for a price. Police personnel often shared in the spoils. At the turn of the century, a police scandal in Minneapolis, Minnesota, showed how entrenched corruption could ebecome. When he was elected [mayor] in 1901, Mayor Alred Elisha Ames fired honest police officers [the unbribeables]. Crooks around the country were granted 'concessions' to ply their [illegal] trades in the city. Prostitution, gambling, and other criminal activities thrived under police protection. The problem was not unique to Minneapolis; it was national in scope," say Profs. Harlan D. Hahn, Ph.D. and Judson L. Jeffries, Ph.D.,   Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era Through the Turbulent 1960s (University Press of Colorado, 2003), p 6 (Review). For details on the cited firing of honest police officers (107 in the 225 person department), see Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (McClure, 1903), "The Shame of Minneapolis" section (January 1903).

    One way to determine whether bribery is rampant in your area, is to note whether the law says "insanity defense" or "insanity cause" in referring to crime.

    Insanity, smoking, abulia, impaired reasoning, i.e., ethical and impulse controls, is the normal cause, the 90% factor. A law that is worded in derogation of that fact was adopted based on corruption, not medical science and fact. It is "junk science," hence unconstitutional, Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 509 US 579; 113 S Ct 2786; 125 L Ed 2d 469 (28 June 1993).

    There is also media responsibility. The media's wide-spread censorship of tobacco-facts, to the extreme of printing of gross disinformation on crime, has been cited since at least the year 1836, by


    • Rev. Beriah Green, What Northen Men Can Do (1836), p 11 (in slavery context);

    • Rev. J. B. Wight, Tobacco: Its Use and Abuse (1889), p 218;

    • Cora F. Stoddard, "The Publishers and Tobacco," 22 Sci Temp Journal 93-94 (1913);

    • Charles M. Fillmore, Tobacco Taboo (Indianapolis: Meigs Pub Co, 1930), pp 88-89

    • Lennox Johnston, "Cure of Tobacco-Smoking," 263 The Lancet 480, 482 (6 Sep 1952)

    • George Seldes, Never Tire of Protesting, (New York: Lyle Stuart Inc, 1968), Chapters 7-10, pp 61-99. (Seldes founded www.infact.org).

    When rarely (as normally "the press has suppressed or withheld the facts concerning tobacco toxicity from the American people"), something is published, the material often goes unread as the tobacco taboo goes to the extreme of widespread refusal "even to read any book or article which refers to the harmfulness of tobacco . . . or in any other way exposes the evils of the drug."—Frank L. Wood, M.D., What You Should Know About Tobacco (Wichita, KS: The Wichita Publishing Co, 1944), pp 33 and 63. Our tobacco taboo website opposing pro-tobacco censorship has more details.

    Periodically, admittedly, you do see media stories purporting a concern for some particularly tragic crime victim, a prominent person, a person the writer happened to know, etc. But be assured, the show of concern is feigned, is a scam, a sham, crocodile tears and crocodile tears only, obvious as the media writer includes no information such as that herein, no preventive information, and especially, no mention of the notion of banning cigarettes. Always remember, the media exist to sell papers—ONLY; the more crime, the more sensational, the more sad and whiny-voiced the lamentations, the better for sales!!! Your being raped, beaten, robbed, murdered, is YOUR tragedy, but THEIR job security, a quite different perspective. (Notice how some sad news items end, 'how would you rate this story?' Truth is not the concern, rather, saleability.)

    Be assured, the police and media care about smoking. They care VERY MUCH. They may pretend not to care, say it's a minor problem. But that's the cover story. The reality is they care very much. They know, many of their jobs would not exist but for tobacco!

    If you deem this finding from experience cynical, please verify; do as this webwriter has done. Contact the allegedly concerned media personality with the information herein, or even a mention that crime preventive data and law exists. You will be rebuffed. No media writer opposes, resists, fights, and exposes the tobacco taboo. (If a media writer condescends to respond, and says your method was wrong, remember this, in 150 years, no media writer has ever found any meaningful approach on this subject acceptable. To media-types, all approaches contrary to the tobacco taboo are wrong!!)

    Don't say, the media prints occasional references to cigarette-crime studies. The key is, the media omit such data in the routine, day-by-day news. Something rarely mentioned has no meaningful impact on the public.
    "A man [or child] who hears a hundred 'yeses' [from pushers saying smoking is ok] for each 'no,' [the rare words 'encouraging' the child to not smoke] when the actual odds lie heavily the other way, cannot be realistically deemed adequately informed."—Robinson v American Broadcasting Companies, 441 F2d 1396, 1399 (CA 6, Ky, 30 April 1971).

    This is so especially in view of the massive media and politician disinformation intentionally distracting attention onto other factors (methods, guns, alcohol, treatment drugs including those for tobacco-caused conditions!, even trench coats!!) It cannot be over-emphasized; the data on the crime-causation process has existed for a century; the media disregard—to instead focus on irrelevancies—is intentional and culpable.

    Media culpability is verifiable two ways: (a) when the media disseminates disinformation, providing false causes of crime, and (b) when the media disseminates false allegations that the causation process is unknown. Notice periodic false claims that "the killer's motive is unknown," and that therefore it is being looked into. The malicious purpose is to evade saying that the 90% factor IS known. Remember, the disinformation—whether citing a false cause or no cause—is intentional and culpable. Both fraud styles are well-rehearsed, of long standing, for the purpose of evading stating the actual 90% factor, the long multi-century documented role of tobacco in crime.

    And the scam of distracting attention off onto "killer motive" is deliberately rehearsed and designed to distract attention off causation, off onto speculative matters, off objective facts and statistics. The purpose is to distract off that, distract off, for example smoker mis-perceptions. Re-read the above mis-perception section.

    Worse: "The American police have never prevented crimes. In olden days, the police solved crimes by finding the guilty party. No more. In our time, the police create crimes. And that is why the US prison population is twice the size of China’s, an authoritarian country with a population four to five times larger than America’s. . . . There you have it. The American Police – "support your local Gestapo" – spend their time engineering false crimes and not investigating real crimes. Americans are more at risk from the police than they are from criminals. . . .," says Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., "Criminals With Badges" (2 January 2008). A primary method of "creating crimes" is by never dealing with the 90% tobacco factor, indeed, of protecting tobacco pushers by carefully never filing charges against them for the holocaust-level of deaths that they cause.

    All police officers know this. For example, in the runup to Michigan's smoke-free law, in the article by Mitch Hotts, "Bars bid adieu to cigarettes, cigars, with one last smoking bash," Macomb Daily (28 April 2010), pp 1 and 6, retired police officer Carl Timm is quoted on p 6. "A bar is a bar is a bar is a bar." "I feel the individual bar owners should have control over their places of business. To many people, a cigarette or cigar goes hand in hand with a beer." His attitude was summarized as "feel the state is infringing on smokers' rights." One would not expect, with such an attitude, that any anti-tobacco enforcement was ever taken! with respect to the law, MCL §750.27, MSA § 28.216!

    Modern Examples of The Tobacco Taboo In Action
    Pursuant to the "tobacco taboo," two area police officers, Larry Nevers and Walter Budzyn, never enforced the cigarette control law (ban on the gateway drug delivery agent—cigarettes), only laws against post-gateway drugs, e.g., cocaine. This misplaced approach turned fatal. They went to jail for years. For details, click here. The preference is for dramatic adrenalin-raising door-busting action!, not for prevention. For background, see, e.g., "What Cop T-Shirts Tell Us About Police Culture" (Friday, 21 June 2013), and Stephan Salisbury, "Life in the American Slaughterhouse: Beyond Aurora, Guns Are Going Off Everywhere: Police shootings echo nationwide" (Monday, 30 July 2012).
    "It's a problem that's faced by police departments in every major city in our country, that criminals infilitrate and sign up to join the police force," says Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, CXLVI Newsweek, p 23 (10 October 2005). See, e.g., Guy Lawson and William Oldham, The Brotherhoods: The True Story of Two Cops Who Murdered for the Mafia (New York: Scribner, 2006), "I loved being a cop. I loved everything about it. . . . I wanted to put people in jail. The attraction for me was the crime." Meaning, NOT prevention.
    After the Budzyn-Nevers cases occurred, area law professor Ralph Slovenko wrote Psychiatry and Criminal Culpability (New York, John Wiley, 1995). Nathaniel S. Lehrman, M.D., reviewed it, "Book Review," 333 N Eng J Med (18) 1226-1227 (2 Nov 1995). Both author and reviewer discuss crime without regard to the 90% factor. A "natural and probable consequence" of the continued "tobacco taboo" is continued crime, continued jobs for the "criminal justice" crowd whose "attraction [is] the crime."
    See also Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., and Howard R. Spivak, M.D., Murder Is No Accident: Understanding and Preventing Youth Violence in America (San Francisco: Wiley - Josey Bass, 2004), likewise avoiding citing the so-long documented 90 % tobacco factor in crime. It's "no accident," it's censorship!

    On the other hand, former Governor John Engler and staff were paper supportive of cigarette control, for example, see

    Exec Order 1992-3 Pro-Law Letter # 1 Cigarette Smuggling Memo Pro-Law Letter # 2 Governor's Overview

    In 1971, the Royal College of Physicians of London, in its book Smoking and Health Now (London: Pitman Medical and Scientific Publishing Co, 1971), p 9, had already observed and so declared the smoking-caused death toll a "holocaust" due to the then "annual death toll of some 27,500." If 27,500 deaths is a "holocaust"—and it is—37 million is (in contrast to the Nazi 6 million holocaust), a six fold+ holocaust. That is above the World War II "crimes against humanity" level for which prosecutions occurred in The Nurnberg Trial, 6 FRD 69 (1946). "37,000,000?," you ask.

    "Over 37 million people (one of every six Americans alive today) will die from cigarette smoking years before they otherwise would."—DHEW National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Research on Smoking Behavior, Research Monograph 17, Publication ADM 78-581, p v (Dec 1977).

    When it is acceptable to society to let 37,000,000 people be killed, that sets a bad example. When killing 37,000,000 is acceptable, society cannot be deemed other than hypocritical if it "objects" to a mere one more killing, one more crime. Solving the crime problem requires first ending the hypocrisy, ending the 37,000,000 killings. That is "the only way" to reduce crime 90%. Most criminals are already getting capital punishment from smoking; so capital punishment is neither a deterrent nor a meaningful response.

    As you have seen here, most crime is by smokers, persons suffering severe brain impairment including memory loss. So punishment is obviously no deterrent at all. Thus with unlimited cigarettes, the U.S. has the highest imprisonment rate in the world.

    As I am writing this, I am looking at a headline quoting a judge, "How am I going to deter others if I give you [named person] a light sentence . . . .? so imposing "3-15 years." The judge is consciously, maliciously, knowingly lying, with intent to cause "natural and probable consequences" harm to the public (additional future crime incidents).

    The judge full well knows (they all do "everywhere") that for a century plus, prison is no deterrent. Only prevention, e.g., a cigarette ban, is a deterrent. To get rid of an effect, you have to get rid of the cause! Is this hard to understand?! Judges know this. But this headline is typical—another judge scamming the public, pretending prison is a deterrent.

    Note references to smoking (started young), poor memory (can't remember dollar amounts, nor being jailed), punishment-not-deterring (in advance, is given no more consideration than any other dangerous job, e.g., coal miner getting killed—not to worry about the potential; and if inflicted, causes revenge motive), and economic disparities' issue (system inequities), four decades ago, by Tony Parker and Robert Allerton, The Courage of His Convictions (New York: Norton, 1962), pp 46, 61; 53, 86-87; 69 and 101-102; and 21, 30, 42-43, and 89-90, respectively.

    It is "now well-established [in research], that there is an especially criminal age, a period when the moral fibre is weaker and more yielding to temptation to crime." "If the doctrines [data on organic brain deterioration impairing behavior] be fully accepted, the whole theory of free-will breaks down, and we are faced with the paradox that we have no right [especially pursuant to the 'original grant' doctrine] to punish an irresponsible [abulic] being who is impelled to crime by congenital [organic, abulic] causes, entirely beyond his control."—"Criminology," Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed, Vol 7, pp 464-465 (1910).

    A way to comprehend the rebuttal of the "free-will" / "choice" drivel so oft spouted [including by clergymen making the same error as flat-earth clergy did, defying scientific evidence disputing their 'holy' drivel], is by thinking of "cerebral palsy." That is a brain condition the symptoms of which in some victims go to the extreme of inability to control motor impulses. Such people cannot walk.
    The "free-will" / "choice" "know-it-alls" in the media, the clergy, etc., do not spout their venom against people with cerebral palsy, accusing them of making wrong "choices" and not using their "free-will" with their impaired motor controls. These "know-it-alls" realize they'd be recognized as themselves sickos! haters of the handicapped, disregarding ultra-obvious and ancient medical fact of the lack of "free-will" / "choice" in such brain-impairment cases!
    Tobacco-induced abulia likewise impairs the brain, e.g., its ethical controls mechanism. Such brain damage goes to the extent of motor impulses being affected. It includes routinely ingesting poison, and the commission of drunk driving and other crimes.
    Non-brain-damaged people don't typically voluntarily ingest fatal levels of poison. Indeed, the undamaged-brain's reaction is to seek criminal prosecution for mere attempts to poison! But smokers typically are so brain-damaged by tobacco, the original "rape drug," so abulic from tobacco, that they don't perceive the hazard, thus both (a) continue taking poison and (b) failing to seek criminal charges of pushers: "Most smokers do not view themselves at increased risk of heart disease or cancer," Ayanian, et al., supra. This smoker inability to comprehend also connotes acalculia, inability to do simple mathematical calculations. [Of course, if there were honest people in "criminal justice," they'd file criminal charges (as they do re other drugs) against pushers without awaiting victim request!]
    Be assured that the "know-it-alls" in the media, the clergy, etc., who spout off about "free-will" and "choice" in reality want / intend the criminal-manufacturing process to continue, so as to have tragic souls to look down their noses at, and deem themselves better. Such types would not dare to spout their venom against people with cerebral palsy, with impaired motor controls (they'd be recognized as sickos! hating the handicapped), but feel free to vent their spleen on "criminals" with impaired motor impulses! likewise a brain handicap.
    By avoiding mentioning the tobacco link to crime, they obstruct its elimination, thus aid and abet continuation of the criminal manufacturing process they profess to abhor!

    As in the medieval era of public rejection of round-earth data, smallpox-vaccination data, etc., the public (and clergymen, self-proclaimed "know-it-alls" like media airheads) typically reject scientific research in favor of myths, their "theory of free-will." When the public rejects medical guidance on how to do prevention, large numbers of diseases, crimes, etc., are the "natural and probable consequence."

    "In the final analysis . . . the public gets the kind of crime control it demands and is willing to support. If laws are regarded as outmoded, if citizens desire that laws be enforced only at certain times and places, if they demand preferential treatment, and if they place supreme value on wealth and power regardless of the way in which acquired, then, of course, they cannot expect [proactive crime-prevention or genuine enforcement] with any degree of efficiency, uniformity or impartiality. This is the major crime problem."—"Crime," Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol 6, pp 754-758 (U.S. §, p 755-756, this quote, p 756) (1963).

    "In America, a man murders someone every half hour. We ought to hate it, but strangely we don't. . . . murder, especially creative, bizarre murder—fascinates us like a cobra charms a bird. Murder mysteries sell well in bookstores, at the box office, and on TV. . . . most producers know that real murder is better than fiction. They trample each other to purchase the production rights to bizarre real-life homicides because these stories are guaranteed to rivet reviewers to their sets. By one count, each evening sixty-two victims are murdered as entertainment on prime-time TV, and an increasing number of these murders are real-life reenactments. Details of the 1994 murders of football and media star O. J. Simpson's ex-wife Nichol and her friend Ronald Goldman were televised daily for years. They received more airtime than all coverage of the Vietnam War over the past thirty years!," Prof. Michael P. Ghiglieri, Ph.D., The Dark Side of Man (Reading, MA.: Perseus Books, 1999), p 112.
    "People like killers. And if one feels sympathy for the victims it's by way of thanking them for letting themselves be killed. —Eugene Ionesco" (Quoted by Jack Olsen, Give A Boy A Gun (New York: Delacorte Press, 1985), p 7. See also his Predator: Rape, Madness, and Injustice in Seattle (New York: Delacorte Press, 1991) (with "the true story of a sociopath, his victims, and the innocent man who was blamed for his crimes").
    His book Give A Boy A Gun reports on a sensational crime case. The book had a lot of name-calling against the perpetrator, but cited not one, NOT ONE, reference to the 90% factor in crime. Olsen was a "journalist." He made the point, followed his own analysis (journalists "like killers"). They write for their likes, for their job security. PERIOD. Your safety, your being informed of the 90% factor, is a ZERO concern. Politicians who mouth off, flap their gums, spout off about criminals and crime, or gun rights issues—they too "like killers"—for their own job security and re-election, hence they too routinely omit to cite the 90% factor.
    And see the similar worthless book by the sneering journalist, William Hart, Evil: A Primer: A History of a Bad Idea from Beelzebub to Bin Laden (New York, MJF Books, 2004). In the midst of the ramblings, is nothing on the 90% factor. No job-killers need be mentioned!
    Crime prevention is anti-job-security, a real killer to the media and politicians. Crime prevention is the most dreaded killer that they hate—a job killer.
    This issue, “the 'money reason'” for opposing reform, is cited as long ago as 1925 in the book by Judge Benjamin B. Lindsey, The Dangerous Life (New York: Horace Livwright, Inc, 1931), p 199. Cost savings by reform “was shown at a grand jury investigation of Judge Lindsey when an effort was made by a former sheriff to stop this [reform] work because this sheriff was losing thousands of dollars in fees.” “The loss of income to a small group of officials from   200this particular line of my 'experimentation' is thus plain.” To obstruct his reformist actions, officials “even bribed” people! and arranged media denunciation of the reformism, p 200.
    Lindsey described reaction to another cost-saving reform: “more or less obvious disgust at the turn of events. No doubt they saw their fees of $100 to $250 a day suddenly vanishing,” p 312. Lindsey cites one lament: “there goes a five-day case and a $500 fee. If this thing spreads, it's going to raise hell with the bar!” p 328. Lindsey says: “Search history and find me a class or group that willingly restricts its functions and its accompanying 'profits' or 'emoluments,'” p 314.
    Judge Lindsey's "idea was to abolish the conditions which made . . . boys and girls do bad things," says Lincoln Steffens, Autobiography (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1931), p 518. Lindsey "proposed to wipe out the [causes] and improve the slums," p 518. To do this, "he had to fight the police," p 517, and their allies, "the keepers and owners of brothels, brewery and liquor interests [that] rose and united to stop him," p 519. Also, "the party machines and bosses felt threatened," p 519. "Lindsey's reform of the [causes] where children were made bad was a menace to the power of the [political] machines . . . political bosses [lobbied] the business bosses [who in turn lobbied] their wives and their ministers . . . all the good people of the better classes, [saying] that Lindsay's work for children might be very good in itself, but it was hurting business," p 519. [The message was that the reformer] "could deal with the children after they had done evil, but he must not interfere with the conditions [causes] which led them into evil," p 519. "Those conditions [causes] . . . made business good and paid dividends," p 519. Thus, "Lindsey was soon at war with the whole system . . . his State and . . . its colleges, churches . . . lawyers . . . clergymen and teachers," p 520. Defeat followed: most everyone "minded their own business . . . did not try to remove the social and economic causes of the evil-doing of children," p 520.
    For more on money-motivation, see the book by Charles B. Towns, Ph.D., Habits That Handicap (New York: The Century Co, 1915), pp 174-175.
    Yes, there is a “money reason” for the inaction on the tobacco role in crime.
    Consider the number of jobs involved in "fighting' crime! In 2004, says the FBI, an estimated 1,367,009 violent crimes occurred. Of these, aggravated assaults comprised 62.5 percent; robbery, 29.4 percent; forcible rape, 6.9 percent; and murder, 1.2 percent. (See Table 1). Lots of jobs! to "fight" this!
    "We live in a country that is addicted to incarceration as a tool for social control. As it stands now, justice systems [1] are extremely expensive, [2] do not rehabilitate but in fact [3] make the people that experience them worse and [4] have no evidence-based correlatives to reducing crime. Yet with that track record they continue to thrive, prosper and are seen as an appropriate response to children in trouble with the law. Only an addict would see that as an okay result."—James Bell.

    The tobacco lobby demands and gets preferential treatment, despite the 90% factor of smokers and crime.

    As long as U.S. society refuses to do "the only way" to end crime, we will continue to have foreseeable sad incidents such as those identified at various websites on crime, e.g., http://www.stopitnow.com (a child abuse-related site), and the prisons will continue to be filled with the mentally ill (smokers) as a Department of Justice report "Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers," NCJ 174463 (July 1999), shows.
    Note the phony "solution" of curfews. At least one person, Kenny Moore, in "Crime Report: It's Gotten So Bad That You Can't Walk the Streets at Night Any More---Literally!!! Curfew Laws: The Latest in Line of Government Intrusions to "Protect" Us," has the sense to object to this phony "solution" even though not to cite the real 90% factor in crime.
    And see similarly in "‘Gun Control Fails,’ Say Statistics from … Gun-Control Advocates" (29 December 2012).
    Worse, police interrogation techniques themselves promote convicting the innocent. See Douglass Starr, "The Interview: Do police interrogation techniques produce false confessions"? (Dept. of Criminal Justice, The New Yorker, 9 December 2013), pp 42-49: The answer is "yes." The "Reid Technique" of interrogation used by police is promoted in the Reid Technique Manual. That book "reads like a bad psychology textbook. It is filled with assertions with no empirical proof," says Prof. Saul Kassin, Ph.D. It is "junk science" in short. And that's what police use, instead of genuine valid methodology.

    A syndicated medical columnist was asked about smoking, non-smoking, and crime. He said, "I never thought of nonsmokers as criminals."—Lawrence Lamb, M.D., "Health," The Macomb Daily (Mt. Clemens, Michigan), p 9A (22 Nov 1982). Of course, it is smokers that are so much so the criminals, that identifying a nonsmoker as a criminal is almost unthinkable.

    What this site is asking is your help in "the only way" of solution,

  • (a) getting the crime prevention act MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216 enforced, and

  • (b) getting all other governments to pass the same law in their areas.

    Please help us save lives, prevent crime, by preventing a significant percentage of the cigarette-caused abulia that leads to 90% of crime.

    MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216

    "the only way"
    to prevent crime
    1836-2003

    To fight the 90% factor in crime, here are four sample letters. Sample "A" is to Governor Rick Snyder, M.B.A., J.D., asking him to have the State Police enforce the law. Sample "B" is to Attorney General William Schuette asking him to enforce the law. Each has the authority to help. As both the Governor and Attorney General are lawyers, the letters are written in "legalese." Sample letter "C" is to the Michigan State Police Director asking for enforcement. Sample letter "D" is different, and is for you to send where the government still ignores the cigarettes-crime link. It is to be sent to the President, Congress, other Governors, and state legislators.

    * * * Sample Letter A * * *

    Honorable Rick Snyder
    Governor, State of Michigan
    P. O. Box 30013
    Lansing MI 48909-7513

    Dear Governor Snyder:

  • This is a request that you assign the Michigan State Police to enforce the crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216.
    "Nowhere is the practice of smoking more imbedded than in the nation's prisons and jails, where the proportion of smokers to non-smokers is many times higher than that of society in general." Doughty v Board, 731 F Supp 423, 424; 1989 WL 182545 (D Col, 1989).

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    The cigarette-crime link occurs because cigarettes' toxic chemicals impair impulse and ethical controls, i.e., cause abulia (addiction). Cigarettes are the delivery agent for nicotine, the gateway (starter) drug for children (average age 12). Alcohol follows, average age 12.6; then marijuana, average age 14. Drug dependence develops in stages, requiring intervention at the earliest stage—cigarettes. See Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 17, Research on Smoking Behavior, DHEW Publication ADM 78-581 p vi (Dec 1977); R. DuPont, Teen Drug Use, 102 J Pediatrics 1003-1007 (June 1983); Fleming, et al., Cigarettes' Role in The Initiation And Progression Of Early Substance Use, 14 Addictive Behaviors 261-272 (1989); and Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Surgeon General Report (1994). Page 10 supports law enforcement, saying, "Illegal sales of tobacco products are common."

     Smokers suffer, then many self-medicate with alcohol. Drunk drivers are typically smokers, as police oft see. "Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."—J. T. Hayes, et al., Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment, 15 J Addictive Diseases 135 (1996). The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, prevents the cigarette-caused abulia factor leading to 90% of crime.

    The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, forbids "any person within the state" from action that "manufactures, sells or gives to anyone, any cigarette containing any ingredient deleterious to health or foreign to tobacco . . . ." Please assign the Michigan State Police to enforce it, and aid county sheriffs and local police departments to do likewise.

    All cigarettes are deleterious, their label admits they are, and most if not all are adulterated with additives. MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, puts personal responsibility on those with most knowledge of the contraband substance (manufacturers and sellers), not on unwary consumers, often children.

    State Police enforcement action is a normal action that they do in other state-wide law violation situations. There are precedents as well. Austin v State, 101 Tenn 563; 48 SW 305; 70 Am St Rep 703 (1898) aff'd 179 US 343 (1900); Shimp v N J Bell Tele Co, 145 N J Super 516; 368 A2d 408 (1976); Commonwealth v Hughes, 468 Pa 502; 364 A2d 306 (1976); and Smith v Western Elec Co, 643 SW2d 10, 13 (Mo App, 1982).

    As a matter of law and compassion, all persons suffering from this deleterious and adulterated product need enforcement to occur. Please assign the State Police to protect abulic smokers, children, and nonsmokers, by enforcing the crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216. Please have them halt the rampant violations, and interdict deleterious and adulterated cigarettes.

    Respectfully,

    * * * Sample Letter B * * *

    Honorable William Schuette
    Attorney General, State of Michigan
    P. O. Box 30213
    Lansing MI 48909

    Dear Attorney General Schuette:

    This is a request that you take "cease and desist" action to stop violations of the crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216.
    "Nowhere is the practice of smoking more imbedded than in the nation's prisons and jails, where the proportion of smokers to non-smokers is many times higher than that of society in general." Doughty v Board, 731 F Supp 423, 424; 1989 WL 182545 (D Col, 1989).

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    The cigarette-crime link occurs because cigarettes' toxic chemicals impair impulse and ethical controls, i.e., cause abulia (addiction). Cigarettes are the delivery agent for nicotine, the gateway (starter) drug for children (average age 12). Alcohol follows, average age 12.6; then marijuana, average age 14. Drug dependence develops in stages, requiring intervention at the earliest stage—cigarettes. See Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 17, Research on Smoking Behavior, DHEW Publication ADM 78-581 p vi (Dec 1977); R. DuPont, Teen Drug Use, 102 J Pediatrics 1003-1007 (June 1983); Fleming, et al., Cigarettes' Role in The Initiation And Progression Of Early Substance Use, 14 Addictive Behaviors 261-272 (1989); and Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Surgeon General Report (1994). Page 10 supports law enforcement, saying, "Illegal sales of tobacco products are common."

     Smokers suffer, then many self-medicate with alcohol. Drunk drivers are typically smokers, as police oft see. "Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."—J. T. Hayes, et al., Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment, 15 J Addictive Diseases 135 (1996). The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, prevents the cigarette-caused abulia factor leading to 90% of crime.

    The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, forbids "any person within the state" from action that "manufactures, sells or gives to anyone, any cigarette containing any ingredient deleterious to health or foreign to tobacco . . . ." "Cease and desist" action is an action you take in other state-wide law violation cases.

    All cigarettes are deleterious, their label admits they are, and most if not all are adulterated with additives. MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, puts personal responsibility on those with most knowledge of the contraband substance (manufacturers and sellers), not on unwary consumers, often children.

    "Cease and desist" action is a normal action that you do in other state-wide law violation situations. There are precedents, for example, Austin v State, 101 Tenn 563; 48 SW 305; 70 Am St Rep 703 (1898) aff'd 179 US 343 (1900); Shimp v N J Bell Tele Co, 145 N J Super 516; 368 A2d 408 (1976); Commonwealth v Hughes, 468 Pa 502; 364 A2d 306 (1976); and Smith v Western Elec Co, 643 SW2d 10, 13 (Mo App, 1982).

    As a matter of law and compassion, all persons suffering from this deleterious and adulterated product need enforcement to occur. Please take "cease and desist" action to protect abulic smokers, children, and nonsmokers, by enforcing the crime prevention act, aka the cigarette control law, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216. Please take "cease and desist" action to halt the rampant violations.

    Respectfully,

    * * * Sample Letter C * * *

    Col. Kristi Etue, Director
    Department of State Police
    333 S. Grand Ave.
    P. O. Box 30634
    Lansing, MI 48909-0634

    Dear Col. Etue:

    This is a request that you assign officers to enforce the crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216.
    "Nowhere is the practice of smoking more imbedded than in the nation's prisons and jails, where the proportion of smokers to non-smokers is many times higher than that of society in general." Doughty v Board, 731 F Supp 423, 424; 1989 WL 182545 (D Col, 1989).

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    The cigarette-crime link occurs because cigarettes' toxic chemicals impair impulse and ethical controls, i.e., cause abulia (addiction). Cigarettes are the delivery agent for nicotine, the gateway (starter) drug for children (average age 12). Alcohol follows, average age 12.6; then marijuana, average age 14. Drug dependence develops in stages, requiring intervention at the earliest stage—cigarettes. See Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 17, Research on Smoking Behavior, DHEW Publication ADM 78-581 p vi (Dec 1977); R. DuPont, Teen Drug Use, 102 J Pediatrics 1003-1007 (June 1983); Fleming, et al., Cigarettes' Role in The Initiation And Progression Of Early Substance Use, 14 Addictive Behaviors 261-272 (1989); and Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Surgeon General Report (1994). Page 10 supports law enforcement, saying, "Illegal sales of tobacco products are common."

     Smokers suffer, then many self-medicate with alcohol. Drunk drivers are typically smokers, as police oft see. "Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."—J. T. Hayes, et al., Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment, 15 J Addictive Diseases 135 (1996). The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, prevents the cigarette-caused abulia factor leading to 90% of crime.

    The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, forbids "any person within the state" from action that "manufactures, sells or gives to anyone, any cigarette containing any ingredient deleterious to health or foreign to tobacco . . . ." Please work with prosecutors, assign officers to enforce the law, and aid county sheriffs and local police departments to do likewise.

    All cigarettes are deleterious, their label admits they are, and most if not all are adulterated with additives. MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, puts personal responsibility on those with most knowledge of the contraband substance (manufacturers and sellers), not on unwary consumers, often children.

    State Police enforcement action is a normal action that officers do in other state-wide law violation situations. There are precedents as well. Austin v State, 101 Tenn 563; 48 SW 305; 70 Am St Rep 703 (1898) aff'd 179 US 343 (1900); Shimp v N J Bell Tele Co, 145 N J Super 516; 368 A2d 408 (1976); Commonwealth v Hughes, 468 Pa 502; 364 A2d 306 (1976); and Smith v Western Elec Co, 643 SW2d 10, 13 (Mo App, 1982).

    As a matter of law and compassion, all persons suffering from this deleterious and adulterated product need enforcement to occur. Please assign officers to protect abulic smokers, children, and nonsmokers, by enforcing the crime prevention act, aka the cigarette control law, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216. Please have them halt the rampant violations, and interdict deleterious and adulterated cigarettes.

    Respectfully,

    * * * Sample Letter D * * *

    President Barack ObamaU.S. Senator _______U.S. Representative __Governor ___State Senator __State Representative __
    1600 Pennsylvania AvenueSenate Office BuildingHouse Office BuildingState CapitolState CapitolState Capitol
    Washington DC 20500Washington DC 20510Washington DC 20515City State ZipCity State ZipCity State Zip

    This is a request that you take action to get a law passed that will serve as a crime prevention law. Michigan already has such a law. It is law number MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216. It deals with the cigarette link to crime.
    "Nowhere is the practice of smoking more imbedded than in the nation's prisons and jails, where the proportion of smokers to non-smokers is many times higher than that of society in general." Doughty v Board, 731 F Supp 423, 424; 1989 WL 182545 (D Col, 1989).

    "Nationwide, the [ratio] of smokers [to non-smokers] in prisons is 90 percent." McKinney v Anderson, 924 F2d 1500, 1507 n 21 (CA 9, 1991), affirmed and remanded, 509 US 25; 113 S Ct 2475; 125 L Ed 2d 22 (1993).

    The cigarette-crime link occurs because cigarettes' toxic chemicals impair impulse and ethical controls, i.e., cause abulia (addiction). Cigarettes are the delivery agent for nicotine, the gateway (starter) drug for children (average age 12). Alcohol follows, average age 12.6; then marijuana, average age 14. Drug dependence develops in stages, requiring intervention at the earliest stage—cigarettes. See Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 17, Research on Smoking Behavior, DHEW Publication ADM 78-581 p vi (Dec 1977); R. DuPont, Teen Drug Use, 102 J Pediatrics 1003-1007 (June 1983); Fleming, et al., Cigarettes' Role in The Initiation And Progression Of Early Substance Use, 14 Addictive Behaviors 261-272 (1989); and Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Surgeon General Report (1994). Page 10 supports law enforcement, saying, "Illegal sales of tobacco products are common."

     Smokers suffer, then many self-medicate with alcohol. Drunk drivers are typically smokers, as police oft see. "Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."—J. T. Hayes, et al., Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment, 15 J Addictive Diseases 135 (1996). The crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, prevents the cigarette-caused abulia factor leading to 90% of crime.

    The Michigan crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, prevents the 90% factor in crime. Please get a copy of that law, which in essence forbids "any person within the state" from action that "manufactures, sells or gives to anyone, any cigarette containing any ingredient deleterious to health or foreign to tobacco . . . ."

    All cigarettes are deleterious, their label admits they are, and most if not all are adulterated with additives. Michigan's well-written crime prevention act deals with the 90% factor in crime, cigarette-caused abulia. Michigan's crime prevention act puts personal responsibility on those with most knowledge of the contraband substance (manufacturers and sellers who know it leads to crime), not on unwary consumers, often children.

    As a matter of compassion, all persons suffering from this deleterious and adulterated product need you to take action to get a crime prevention act adopted. Please take action to copy the Michigan crime prevention act, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, so all of us can benefit from its wise prevention-oriented approach.

    Respectfully,

    * * * * *

    Please re-type, add recipient addresses where unlisted,
    add your name and return address, sign, and mail the above letters.
    The person you save may be yourself or your friend.
    If you wish, you can use different wording.

    * * * * *

    Analysis of the Michigan Cigarette Control Law


    "the only way"
    to prevent crime
    1836-2003


    In "What's Wrong with our Prisons?" in Parade Magazine, 29 March 2009, Senator James Webb says he wants future input from "the best minds" on what is needed for "reform." In reality, such input already exists, and has for centuries as noted herein! The REAL problem is, politicians REFUSE to accept such input! They merely PRETEND they want input!


    IS IT A CRIME TO INJURE PEOPLE SO SEVERELY THAT
    "NATURAL AND PROBABLE CONSEQUENCES"
    SUCH AS THE ONES BELOW, HAPPEN?
    Abortion AIDS Alcoholism Alzheimer's
    Birth Defects Drugs Fires Hearing Loss
    Heart Disease Lung Cancer Macular Degeneration Mental Disorders
    Murder Seat Belt Disuse SIDS Suicide

    Smokers' 53% Higher Divorce Level

     

    The Driving While Black (DWB) Issue
    Long Documented Criminal Profile

    "Caught on Camera: Ten Shockingly Violent Police Assaults on Occupy Protesters"
    (Friday, 18 November 2011) gives examples of police violence.

    Discussion Group: More Participants Welcome

    The Crime Times Site:
    Background Information

    Detroit Cop Tales

    Why Smoker Criminals Rarely
    Ask for Help: Anosognosia

    Anti-Spam
    H S C A
    I P E

    Medline Search Engine

    Join our mailing list!
    Enter your email address below,
    then click the 'Join List' button:
    Powered by ListBot

    This site is sponsored as a public service by
    The Crime Prevention Group.  Please visit our homepage.

    Copyright © 1999, 2003 TCPG