Sanders' Fifth Union Reader:
Principles of Rhetorical Reading

Charles M. Sanders, A.M. (1805-1889)
New York and Chicago: Ivison,
Blakeman, Taylor & Co, 1867)

This site reprints excerpts from this 1867 fifth grade school text book. [Full text is online.] It should be read in conjunction with that era's high school graduation requirements at our dumbed-down education background site.
Test yourself / others. Read the Table of Contents. Identify each subject, author. Was your own / their education at 1867 5th grade level?


THE demand for a greater variety of reading exercises suitable for the more advanced classes in our public schools and academies, has led to the preparation of the present volume, THE UNION FIFTH READER; and the title of the previously so-called Union Fifth Reader has been changed, and that book will hereafter be styled THE UNION SIXTH, OR RHETORICAL READER.

In the preparation of the present volume, a wide range of selections has been made in order to present every variety of style, and the best examples for the exercise of Rhetorical reading, and such as are peculiarly adapted to the expression of every tone and modulation of the human voice, whether grave or gay, humorous or pathetic, simple or declamatory.

Of these exercises, both of prose and poetry, a large portion has been selected from speeches and writings of recent date, and which, of course, have never been used in any other reading-book. These lessons breathe forth the sentiments of loyalty, and tend to inspire the spirit of patriotism, aod a deeper devotion to the cause of our republican institutions, and to the welfare of our wbole country.

The principles of Elocution, which have been cxplained and illustrated by examples in the fore part of the Union Fourth and Sixth Readers, and which have been tested by actual experiment in the schoolroom by thousands of experienced teachers, have been adopted in the present work. These principles should be thoroughly studied and understood by the pupil in


order to express the various sentiments [beliefs, viewpoints], presented in the Reading Lessons, in the most elegant and appropriate manner.

That the pupil may clearly understand the subjects, all the classical terms, and such words and phrases as seem to require it, have been explained. Wherever allusion is made to proper names, such biographical or historical account has been given of them, in brief notes, as a thorough knowledge of the subject seemed to demand; and, wherever there is a liability to mistake, the pronunciation of the words has also been given, and, in some cases, their analysis and definitions.

In the preparation of reading-books for the youth of our country, it is of the utmost importance to place before their minds lessons not only of literary accuracy, but also those of a high moral character. In these respects, the present work, it is believed, will be found to contain nothing at least objectionable, even to the most fastidious.

Nearly thirty years ago [about 1838], the author published his first series of reading-books. Since that time, he has contributed to this department of literature TWENTY-TWO YOLUMES of lessons for reading and speaking. These books have been more extensively used in the schools of this country than any other; and several of the lower numbers have been translated into the dialects of other nations, and are now in use in the schools of foreign countrios; an evidence of the appreciation in which they are held by educators abroad, and of their adaptedness to the purposes of juvenile instruction.

That the UNION FIFTH READER may serve to promote the great cause of education, create a lively interest in the reading class, improve the moral and intellectual powers of the youth of our country, and merit that favor which has been shown to the other numbers [volumes] of the Union Series, has been the aim of the author in its preparation.

NEW YORK, July, 1867.


Section I.—Articulation13
Elementary Sounds of the Letters
Substitutes for the Vowel Eelements
Substitutes for the Consonant Elements.
Errors in Articulation
Combinations of Consonants
Examples to Illustrate Indistinct Articulation
Miscellaneous Examples
Section II. — Accent and Emphasis-
Examples of Primary and Secondary Accent
Examples of Intensive Emphasis
Examples of Absolute Emphasis
Examples of Antithetic Emphasis
Section III. — Inflection-
Rising and Falling Inflections
Rules for the Use of Inflections
The Circumflex
Section IV. — Modulation-
Pitch of Voice
Rules for Quantityu
Rules for Quality
Notation in Modulation-
Examples for Exercise in Modulation
Section V. — The Rhetorical Pause-


1. Achievements and Dignity of Labor—Rev. Newman Hall
2. Powers of the Hand—Dr. George Wilson
3. There's Work Enough To Do—Anon.
4. Fields for Labor—Mrs. Ellen H. Gates
5. Where There's A Will, There's A Way—J. G. Saxe
6. The Offices of Memory—Islay Burns
7. The Memory of Joy— Greenwood
8. The House by the Rolling River—Linnna Schenk
9. The Light at Home
10. The Soldier Bird—H. H. Brownell
11. The Battle-Field
12. Song of the Cannon-Ball—Anon.
13. The Children of the Battle-Field—James G. Clark
14. The Brave at Home—Anon.
15. The Soldier's Reprieve—N. Y. Observer
16. The Last Ride—Miss Mulock
17. Passing to the Supernal—Sat. Eve. Post
18. Sunshine and Showers
19. Education, Our Own Work—John Todd
20. Self-Culture—Channing
21. The Skater and the Wolves—Whitehead
22. Purity of Character—Henry Ward Beecker
23. The Three Sisters, An Allegory
24. Deserve It—Anon.
25. The Bridal Wine-Cup
26. Desolating Effects of Intemperance—W. Irving
27. Eulogy on Cold Water—Paul Denton
28. Profaneness
29. Voices of God—Lon. Brit. Magazine
30. Better Than Gold—Anon.
31. The Angel of the Leaves: An Allegory—Hannah F. Gould
32. The World of Chance—John Todd
33. The World of Chance (continued)—John Todd
34. No God—N. K. Richardson
35. The Presence of God—Amelia B. Welby
36. Integrity—D. S. Dickinson
37. The Visible and The Invisible—Ephraim Peabody
38. When I Am Old—Caroline A. Briggs
39. A Retrosepctive Review—Thomas Hood


40. Taking A Whale—R. Starbuck
41. Leviathan, or The Great Whale—From the French of Michelet
42. The Game of Life—J. G. Saxe
43. Keep in Step—Anon.
44. Encouragements in the Pursuit of Knowledge—E. Everett
45. The Capacity of An Hour—John Foster
46. Evening Prayer—Channing
47. The Time for Prayer—Anon.
48. One by One—Adelaide A. Procter
49. Inventive Genius and Labor—Elihu Burrett
50. The Results of Work—Dr. J. G. Holland
51. Our Deeds Imperishable—L. H. Grindon
52. The Uses of Life—Harper's Magazine
53. Lofty Aspirations—Dem. Review
54. General Washington's Escape—Anon.
55. Exciting Adventure With An Indian—Blackwood's Magazine
56. Choice Extracts:—
I. Decay of the American Indians—Charles Sprague
II. Lament of An Indian Chief
III. Effects of Our Deeds
IV. Man's Mortality—S. Wastell
V. Saving for Old Age
VI. Be Firm—Mrs. S. C. Mayo
VII. The Young Voyager—Rev. Albert Barnes
VIII. Voyage of Life—Henry Ware, Jun.
IX. The Beauties of Nature— Moodie
X. Cheer Up
57. Earnestness—Anon.
58. Incentives to Culture—R. F. Trowbridge
59. "And Then?"
60. What is Life?—Charles D. Drake
61. Pleasures of Knowledge—Sydney Smith
62. Man and the Industrial Arts—Dr. George Wilson
63. The Beautiful—E. H. Burrington
64. The Bright Flowers—Anon.
65. The Summer Rain—Helen Mitchell
66. A Noble Revenge—Thomas De Quincy
67. Story of the Seige of Calais—Henry Brooke
68. The True Legion of Honor—Anon.
69. Conscience—James Linen
70. Moral and Religious Culture—Sat. Eve. Post
71. Desire and Means of Happiness—Horace Mann


72. The Invention of Printing: A Dialogue—Osborne
73. The Three Voices—Anon.
74. Action of Climate Upon Man—Prof. Arnold Guyot
75. The Wonders of Civilization—Arnott
76. The Love of Truth
77. Aspirations of Youth—George William Curtis
78. The Grave of the Year—G. A. Gamage
79. Another Year
80. The Telescope and the Microscope—Chalmers
81. Immensity of the Universe—O. M. Mitchel
82. The First Predicter of An Eclipse—O. M. Mitchel
83. The Song of Light—W. P. Palmer
84. Chant and Chorus of the Planets—Anna Blackwell
85. Insignificance of the Earth—Chalmers
86. Honor to the Projector of the Atlantic Cable—A. A. Low
87. Recovery of the Lost Atlantic Cable—Cyrus W. Field
88. How Cyrus Laid the Cable—J. G. Saxe
89. The Atlantic Telegraph—Rev. George Lansing Taylor
90. The Electric Telegraph—Anon.
91. Beatitudes—Bible
92. The Pride of Ignorance—S. W. Taylor
93. Science and Art—D. Brewster
94. Advance—D. F. M. M'Carthy
95. The Polar Star—
96. Mountains—E. M. Morse
97. The Alps—Willis Gaylord Clark
98. Desire to be Remembered
99. The Desire of Reputation—Rev. Albert Barnes
100. Vanity of Earthly Fame—Henry Kirke White
101. "This, Too, Must Pass Away"— Mrs. E. C. Howarth
102. God, The True Object of Confidence—Greenwod
103. Inspiration of Living Genius—Mrs. E. Oakes Smith
104. Genius and Originality—Rev. Dr. G. W. Eaton
105. Hurrying On
106. The People's Advent—Gerald Massey
107. Discovery of Manhattan—Mary L. Booth
108. Choice Extracts:—
I. Personal Religion—Webster
II. The Beam of Devotion—George P. Morris
III. Progress
IV. Love Due to the Creator—G. Griffin
V. Influence of Gold—Addison


108. Choice Extracts (continued):—
VI. Ingratitude—Shakespeare
VII. The Bugle—Wayland
VIII. The Moments—J. L. Eggleston
IX. The War-Horse—Book of Job
X. Seclusion—Beattie
XI. The Power of Little Things—Smiles
XII. Influence—Mrs. S. T. Bolton
109. The Sea—From the French of Michelet
110. A Wild Night At Sea—Charles Dickens
111. The Sailor's Early Home—Rev. S. D. Phelps
112. The Fireman—R. T. Conrad
113. Benefits of Agriculture—D. S. Dickinson
114. The Work of Eloquence—Orville Dewey
115. The Voice and The Pen—D. F. M'Carthy
116. The Burial of Moses—Anon.
117. Mount Tabor—J. T. Headley
118. Mount Tabor (continued)—J. T. Headley
119. Nathan Hale—Francis M. Finch
120. Loss Of The Union Irreparable—Webster
121. Stars in My Country's Sky—Mrs. L. H. Sigourney
122. God Bless Our Stars—B. F. Taylor
123. Washington's Journey To His Inauguration—W. Irving
124. Lincoln's Journey To His Inauguration—L. H. Whitney
125. Day-Star of Liberty—M. A. Moses
126. "On to Freedom"—A. J. H. Duganne
127. Address to The Returned Soldiers—Rev. J. M. Manning
128. The Honored Dead—Henry Ward Beecher
129. The Soldier's Dirge—Col. O'Hara
130. The Widowed Sword—Anon.
131. "Good-by, Old Arm, Good-by!"—George Cooper
132. The Teacher The Hope of America—Samuel Eells
133. True Glory of A Nation—Bishop Whipple
134. The Battle of Life—Anne C. Lynch
135. The Historian's Reflections—Blake
136. True Reformers—Horace Greeley
137. Unjust National Acquisitions—Thomas Corwin
138. Vanity of Earthly Treasures—Anon.
139. Choice Extracts:—
I. The Widow's Two Mites—Webster
II. The Honey-Bee
III. Virtue—Colton


139. CHOICE EXTRACTS (continued):-
IV. Happiness-Pope
V. Advance of Science
VI. The Struggle of Life-Beattie
VII. Antiquity-Colton
VIII. Beauty-Shakespeare
IX. Cunning and Discretion-Addison
X. Procrastination-Persius
140. All Nature Speaks of A Spirit-World-Anon.
141. "How Manifold Are Thy Works!"-Miss A. Arnold
142. Times and Seasons-L. H. Grindon
143. Earth, Air, and Sea-Maury
144. The Cloud-Shelley
145. Eulogy of Daniel Webster-Lewis Gaylord Clark
146. Scenery of Palestine-Rev. J. P. Newman
147. Birth-Day Reflections-George D. Prentice
148. Paul at Athens-John Angell James
149. Paul at Athens (continued)- John Angell James
150. Truth and Freedom-William D. Gallagher
151. Not Dead, But Sleeping-H. A. Gere
152. The Sphinx and The Great Pyramid-Rev. S. I. Prime
153. Antiquity of Egypt-Mrs. E. Oaken Smith
154. Choice Extracts:-
I. Bugle Song-Tennyson
II. The Age of Progress-Charles Sumner
III. Clear the Way
IV. Our Sages and Heroes-Charles Sprague
V. The American Union-Webster
VI. Expulsion from Paradise-Milton
VII. Washington's Monument-R. C. Winthrop
VIII. The Lord Our Provider-Wordsworth
IX. Moral and Republican Principles--Edward Everett


Alphabetical List of Authors
Addison348, 433
Arnold, Miss A.436
Barnes, Albert204, 321
Beattie351, 432
Beecher, Henry Ward104, 403
Blackwell, Anna283
Bolton, Miss S. T.453
Booth, Mary L.341
Brewster, D.308
Briggs, Caroline A.143
Brooke, Henry239
Brownell, H. H.69
Burns, Islay58
Burrington, E. H.232
Burritt, Elihu172
Chalmers273, 285
Channing97, 167
Chapin, E. H.227
Clark, James G.78
Clark, Louis Gaylord446
Clark, Willis Gaylord318
Colton430, 432
Conrad, R. T.361
Cooper, George408
Corwin, Thomas422
Curtis, George William267
Denton, Paul115
De Quincey, Thomas236
Dewey, Orville366
Dickens, Charles357
Dickenson, D. S.135, 363
Drake, Charles D.217
Duganne, A. J. H.398
Eaton, Rev. Dr. G. W.336
Eells, Samuel410
Eggleston, J. L.350
Everett, Edward160, 479
Field, Cyrus W.291
Finch, Francis379
Foster, John165
Gallager, William D.464
Gamage, G. A.269
Gere, H. A.465
Gibson, Westby313
Gould, Hannah F.122
Greeley, Horace420
Greenwood62, 329
Guindon, L. H.178, 437
Guydon, Prof. Arnold262
Hall, Rev. Newman47
Headley, J. T.372, 377
Holland, Dr. J. G.175
Hood, Thomas145


Howarth, Mrs. E. C.328
Irving, W. 114, 388
James, John Angell459
Linen, James246
Low, A. A.288
Lynch, Anne C.414
Magazine, Blackwood's199
Magazine, Harper's180
Magazine, London British118
Mann, Horace254
Manning, Rev. J. M.401
Massey, Gerald339
Mayo, Mrs. S. C.203
M'Carthy, D. F.311, 368
Michelet, French of153, 353
Mitchel, O. M.275, 277
Mitchell, Helen235
Morris, George P.347
Morse, E. M.315
Moses, M. A.296
Mulock, Miss86
Newman, Rev. J. P.452
Observer, N. Y.81
O'Hara, Col.405
Palmer, William Pitt281
Peabody, Ephraim138
Phelps, Rev. S. D.359
Post, Saturday Evening90, 249
Prentice, George D.456
Prime, Rev. S. I.467
Procter, Adelaide A.171
Review, Democratic183
Richardson, N. K.131
Saxe, J. G.56, 156, 295
Schenk, Linna66
Shakspeare349, 433
Sigourney, Mrs. L. H.384
Smith, Mrs. E. Oakes333, 471
Smith, Sydney220
Sprague, Charles200, 476
Starbuck, R.147
Sumner, Charles475
Taylor, B. F.386
Taylor, Rev. Geo. Lansing297
Taylor, S. W.304
Todd, John94, 125, 128
Trowbridge, R. F.213
Ware, Henry, Jun.205
Wastell, S.201
Webster345, 381, 428, 477
Welby, Amelia B.133
Whipple, Bishop412
White, Henry Kirke326
Whitney, L. H.394
Wilson, Dr. George50, 225
Winthrop, R. C.478






ELOCUTION is the art of delivering written or extemporaneous composition with force, propriety, and ease.

It deals, tberefore, with words, not only as individuals, but as members of a sentence, and parts of a connected discourse: including every thing necessary to the just expression of the sense. Accordingly, it demands, in a special manner, attention to the following particulars; viz., ARTICULATION, ACCENT, EMPHASIS, INFLECTION, MODULATION and PAUSES.


ARTICULATION is the art of uttering distinctly and justly the letters and syllables constituting a word.

It deals, therefore, with the elements of words, just as elocution deals with the elements of sentences: the one securing the true enunciation of each letter, or combination of letters, the other giving to each word, or combination of words, such a delivery as best expresses the meaning of the author. It is the basis of all good reading and should be carefully practiced by the learner.


(pp 14-19)

V. Avoid blending the termination of one word with the beginning of another, or suppressing the final letter or letters of one word, when the next word commences with a similar sound.


His small eyesinstead ofHis small lies.
She keeps pies
She keeps spies.
His hour is up
His sour is sup.
Dry the widow's tears
Dry the widow steers.
Your eyes and ears
Your rise sand dears.
He had two small eggs
He had two small legs.
Bring some ice cream
Bring some mice scream.
Let all men praise Him
Let tall men pray sim.
He was killed in war
He was skilled in war.
Water, air, and earth
Water rare rand dearth.
Come and see me once more
Come mand see me one smore.

NOTE.—By an indistinct Articulation the sense of a passage is often liable to be perverted.


1. Will he attempt to conceal his acts?
Will he attempt to conceal his sacks?

2. The man had oars to row her over.
The man had doors to row her rover.

3. Can there be an aim more lofty?
Can there be a name more lofty?

4. The judges ought to arrest the culprits.
The judges sought to arrest the culprits.

5. His ire burned when she told him her age.
His sire burned when she told him her rage.

6. He was awed at the works of labor and art.
He was sawed at the works of labor an dart.

7. He was trained in the religion of his fathera.
He was strained in the religion of his fathers.


(pp 20-45)

No definite rule can be given with reference to the length of the rhetorical, or grammatical pause. The correct taste of the reader or speaker must determine it. For the voice should sometimes he suspended much longer at the same pause in one situation than in another; as in the two following



Pause a momnt. I heard a footstep. Listen now. I heard it again; but it is going from us. It sounds fainter,—still fainter. It is gone.


John, be quick. Get some water. Throw the powder overboard. “It can not be reached.” Jump into the boat, then. Shove off. There goes the powder. Thank Heaven. We are safe.


It is of the utmost importance, in order to secure an easy and elegant style in reading, to refer the pupil often to the more important principles involved in a just elocution. To this end, it will be found very advantageous, occasionally to review the rules and directions given in the preceding pages, and thus early accustom him to apply them in the subsequent reading lessons. For a wider range of examples and illustrations, it is only necessary to refer to the numerous and various exercises which form the body of this book. They have been selected, in many cases, with a special view to this object [goal].




1 VI' A DUCT, (VIA, a way; DUCT, lead;) a structure, usually of masonry, for carrying a railway across a valley or river; a bridge.


THE DIGNITY OF LABOR! Consider its achievements! Dismayed by no difficulty, shrinking from no exertion, exhausted by no struggle, ever eager for renewed efforts in its persevering promotion of human happiness, “clamorous Labor knocks with its hundred hands at the golden gate of the morning,” obtaining each day, through succeeding centuries, fresh benefactions for the world!

2. Labor clears the forest, and drains the morass, and makes the wilderness rejoice and blossom as the rose. Labor drives the plow, scatters the seed, reaps the harvest, grinds the corn, and converts it into bread, the staff of life. Labor, tending the pastures, as well as cultivating the soil, provides with daily sustenance the one thousand millions of the family of man.

3. Labor gathers the gossamer web of the caterpillar, the cotton from the field, and the fleece from the flock, and weaves them into raiment, soft, and warm, and beautiful,—the purple robe of the prince, and the gray gown


(pp 48-93)


1 BA' CON, FRANCIS, usually known as Lord Bacon, was born in London, England, Jan. 22, 1560, and died 1626. He was famous as a scholar, a wit, a lawyer, a judge, a statesman, a politician, but chiefly as a philosopher.

2 NEW' TON, SIR ISAAC, the greatest of English philosophers [scientists], was born in Lincolnshire, Dec. 25, 1642, and died March 20, 1727. His three great discoveries, of fluxions, the nature of light and colors, and the law of gravitation, were conceived before he was twenty-five years of age. On witnessing the fall of an apple, he was led into a train of reflection, which resulted in his theory of gravitation. He was a profound mathematician, and a sincere Christian. Certain prophecies in the Bible led him to infer that men would, one day, be able to travel at the rate of fifty miles an hour. How marvelously has his belief been verified!


THE human mind is the brightest display of the power and skill of the Infinite Mind with which we are acquainted. It is created and placed in this world to be educated for a higher state of existence. Here its faculties begin to unfold, and those mighty energies, which are to bear it forward to unending ages, begin to discover themselves. The object of training such a mind should be, to enable the soul to fulfill her duties well here, and to stand on high vantage-ground, when she leaves this cradle of her being, for an eternal existence beyond the grave.

2. Most students need encouragement to sustain, instruction to aid, and direction to guide them. Few, probably, ever accomplish any thing like as much as they expected or ought; and perhaps one reason is, that they waste a vast amount of time in acquiring that experience which they need. Doubtless, multitudes are now in the process of education, who will never reach any tolerable


standard of excellence. Probably some never could, but, in most cases, they might. The exceptions are few. In most cases young men do feel a desire, more or less strong, of fitting themselves for respectability and usefulness.

3. You may converse with any man, however distinguished for attainments, or habits of application, or power of using what he knows, and he will sigh over the remembrance of the past, and tell you that there have been many fragments of time which he has wasted, and many opportunities which he has lost forever. If he had only seized upon the fleeting advantages, and gathered up the fragments of time, he might have pushed his researches out into new fields, and, like the immortal Bacon,1 have amassed vast stores of knowledge. The mighty minds which have gone before us have left treasures for our inheritance; and the choicest gold is to be had for the digging.

4. The object of hard study is not to draw out genius, but to take minds such as are formed of common mold, and fit them for active and decisive usefulness. Nothing is so much coveted by a young man as the reputation of being a genius; and many seem to feel that the want of patience for laborious application and deep research is such a mark of genius as can not be mistaken: while a real genius, like Sir Isaac Newton,2 with great modesty says, that the great and only difference between his mind and the minds of others consisted solely in his having more patience.

5. You may have a good mind, a sound judgment, a vivid imagination, or a wide reach of thought and views; but you can never become distinguished without severe application. Hence, all that you ever have must be the result of labor,—hard, untiring labor. You have friends


(pp 96-113)


1 EN THU' SI ASM, (from two Greek words, EN, in, or within; and THEOS, a god;) signifies, literally, the state or condition of having a god within us; that is, being under the inspiration, of a god: hence, strong mental excitement; ardent feeling.


THE depopulating pestilence that walketh at noon-day, the carnage of cruel and devastating war, can scarcely exhibit their victims in a more terrible array, than exterminating drunkenness. I have seen a promising family spring from a parent trunk, and stretch abroad its populous limbs, like a flowering tree covered with green and healthy foliage. I have seen the unnatural decay beginning upon the yet tender leaf, and gnawing like a worm in an unopened bud, while they dropped off, one by one, and the scathed and ruined shaft stood desolate and alone, until the winds and rains of many a sorrow laid that, too, in the dust.

2. On one of those holy days when the patriarch, rich in virtue as in years, gathered about him the great and the little ones of the flock—his sons with their sons, and his daughters with their daughters—I, too, sat at the festive board. I, too, pledged them in the social wine-cup, and rejoiced with them round the hospitable hearth, and expatiated with delight upon the eventful future; while the good old man, warmed in the genial glow of youthful enthusiasm,1   wiped the tear of joy from his glistening eye. He was happy!

3. I met with them again when the rolling year brought the festive season round. But they were not all there. The kind old man sighed as his suffused eye dwelt upon


the then unoccupied seat. But joy yet came to his relief, and he was happy. A parent's love knows no diminution,—time, distance, poverty, shame, but give intensity and strength to that passion, before which all others dissolve and melt away.

4. Another elapsed. The board [food] was spread; but the guests came not. The old man cried,—Where are my children?" And Echo answered,—"Where?" His heart broke; for they were not. Could not Heaven have spared his gray hairs this affliction? Alas! the demon of Drunkenness had been there! They had fallen victims to his spell. And one short month sufficed to cast the vail of oblivion over the old man's sorrow, and the young men's shame.—THEY ARE ALL DEAD!

-115- in process

(pp 115-155)

took so perilous a task as that of whale-fishing, must have been, eccentric enthusiasts; and that an undertaking so hazardous could never have originated with the prudent men of the North, but must have been initiated hy the Basques,5   those daring hunters and fishers, who were so well accustomed to their own capricious sea, where they fished the tunny.6   Here they first saw the huge whales at play, and pursued them, frenzied by the hope of such enormous prey; onward, and still onward, no matter whither,—even to the confines of the [north] pole.

10. Here, doubtless, the poor whale fancied it must be safe from its relentless pursuers. But our Basque madcaps followed it even into those frozen regions. Tightening his red belt around his waist, he stealthily and silently approaches the unconscious, sleeping monster, and fearlessly plunges the harpoon into its very vitals. Poor whale! He falls a victun to the selfishness and rapacity of man! Such achievements afford a striking proof of the wonderful powers of the human mind, in holding dominion, not only over the fowls of the air and the beasts of the field, but also over the MIGHTY MONSTERS OF THE DEEP.


1 GAL I LE' O, GALILEI, a distinguished astronomer, was born at Pisa, in Italy, July 15, 1564; and died Jan. 8, 1642. In 1592, he was appointed professor of mathematics in the University of Padua. Here he became a convert to the Copernican System of the universe; and, by means of a leaden tuhe and two spectacle glasses, he obtained a crude telescope of only threefold magnifying power. Subsequently he made two others, one magnifying eight, and the other thirty times. With these he discovered the mountains and cavities in the Moon, the four satellites of Jupiter, and the rings of Saturn. But prejudice and ignorance were combined against him. He was charged with heresy, imprisoned,


and compelled to recant his opinions; but he stamped his foot, and exclaimed,—"The earth moves, for all that!"

1 KEP' LER, JOHN, a celebrated mathematician and astronomer, was born at Weil, in Wirtemberg, Dec. 21, 1571; and died Nov. 5, 1631. During his life he published thirty-three separate works, among which his "New Astronomy" and the "Harmonies of the World," are the most remarkable. The latter work contains his celebrated law, that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are as the cubes of their distances [T2 = D3]; but, from a blunder in his calculations, he rejected it. Having discovered his error, he recognized with transport the absolute truth of a principle, which, for seventeen years, had been the object of his incessant pursuit. He was almost frantic with joy, and exclaimed,—"The die is cast! The book is written to be read, either now or by posterity, I care not which! It may well wait a century for a reader, as God has waited six thousand years for an observer!"


1. THERE'S a game much in fashion,—I think it's called Eucher,
(Though I never have played it for pleasure or lucre,)
In which, when the cards are in certain conditions,
The players appear to have changed their positions,
And one of them cries, in a confident tone,—
"think I may venture to go it alone!"

2. While watching the game, 'tis a whim of the bard's

A moral to draw from the skirmish of cards,
And to fancy he sees in the trivial strife
Some excellent hints for the battle of Life;
Where, whether the prize be a rihbon or throne,
The winner is he who can "go it alone!"

"When great Galileo1 proclaimed that the world

In a regular orbit was ceaselessly whirled,


(pp 158-303)


1 KEPLER, see note, page 157.

2 BRAHE, TYCHO, a distinguished astronomer, was born Dec. 14, 1546; and died Oct. 24, 1601. The celebrated Observatory of Oranienberg, or the city of the heavens, was founded in 1576, and supplied with instruments. Within its walls, Tycho Brahe carried on those observations with which his name is inseparably connected.

3 NEW' TON, see note, page 94.

4 POPE, ALEXANDER, a celebrated English poet, was born in London, 1688; and died 1744. He was deformed, and small in stature. The principal of his poetical writings are entitled "Essay on Criticism," "Essay on Man," "Moral Essays." He also translated the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer.

5 ARC TU' RUS, a fixed star of the first magnitude in the constellation Boötes.

4 NEPT' UNE, a large planet beyond Uranus, discovered by Galle of Berlin, Sept. 23, 1846. Its mean distance from the sun is 2,850,000,000 miles, and its period of revolution is about 164 years.


TELL me not of the pride of scientific men! We have, it is true, some few cases of the pride of learning, but a multitude of the pride of ignorance. The grossly ignorant man, imagining himself placed at the very center of the earth's fancied plane, and exactly beneath the highest point in heaven's arch, with arms akimbo, struts forth, as the principal occupant of the material universe. This is manifest to common observation. Something like this is also seen among the different classes in the same school, and in communities, among individuals of different grades of civilization.

Ed. Note: Arrogance among the ill-educated, who fancy themselves more knowledgeable than they are, continues. Indeed, the situation is worse now, as education has grossly deteriorated from the high 19th century level, while scamming students into thinking standards are higher.
  • the tobacco subject, on which the ignorant regularly disregard the advisories of the educated. Schools do not teach respect for medical research.
  • legal education, a substantial deterioration, from 16 years down to a mere three, such that now even basic common law on, e.g., the right to pure air is generally unknown.
  • 2. An accurate knowledge of men and things, naturally represses pride and promotes humility. The diligent student of Nature, as he gains a deeper and deeper knowledge


    of the great book of God's wisdom, goodness, and power, necessarily sees all finite glory dwindling and fading; he must see himself, too, depreciating in comparison with the extent and grandeur of the objects which successively occupy his vast and illuminated field of view. It is evident, that the more we learn of what other men have accomplished in pursuits and circumstances like our own, and the more clearly we discover how much we depend on others for what we possess and accomplish, the more effectually will our humility be cultivated.

    3. The philosopher is in circumstances peculiarly favorable to make him feel and acknowledge his heavy indebtedness to his predecessors and contemporaries. He can not fail of being convinced, that, were any generation of men entirely destitute of transmitted knowledge, they could hardly, within the ordinary limits of human life, find time to clothe themselves, and erect permanent dwellings. They must commence life as savages, and, at death, have nothing better than blankets and wigwams to bequeath to their savage successors.

    4. Had not Kepler1 inherited the avails of Tycho Brahe's2 labors in descriptive astronomy, it is certain he could never have been distinguished in physical astronomy, as the legislator of the skies. Without a legacy from his ancestors, even Newton3 must have been comparatively poor; and the scientific wealth amassed and transmitted by Newton and others, has been the making of their heirs, now the illustrious philosophers [scientists] of Europe and America.

    5. But if you chance to meet with a stubborn case of pride in a philosopher, do not hastily dismiss the case as incurable. He can be cured of any extraordinary degree of pride, if he has a breath of the spirit of true philosophy. But do nothing, I beseech you, to lessen his amount of sci-


    ence; rather follow the good old specific [advice] of Pope:4   Give him to drink more deeply. Direct his attention to the treasures of science already amassed.

    6. Show him the schools, the laboratories, and observatories of Europe and the United States of America; show him their libraries, whose shelves are bending beneath pondorous tomes, the faithful records of literary and philosophical research; show him the rich gifts of science to agriculture, commerce, and the whole sisterhood of the arts of peace; show him not only what has been accomplished, but show him every enlightened part of the earth, at this moment busy as a bee-hive in all the departments of philosophy [knowledge].

    7. Then conduct him into those extensive fields of sober enterprise which sound philosophy has projected, and you give him the position which Newton held when under the conviction that all which philosophy has done, in comparison with what it is destined to accomplish in ages to come, amounts to nothing more than the examination of a few pebbles and pearls thrown upon the shore of a broad ocean, from the undiminished treasures of its immense bed.

    8. If our patient is not yet recovered, immerse him in the great deep of space. Show him something of the extent of Jehovah's works. Bid him look at himself, and then at the earth, whose extended radius spreads the earth's surface into an apparent plain. Next, equip him with the quick wings of light, putting him upon a rate of traveling equivalent to twenty-four diameters of the earth in a single second [speed of light, 186,000 mps]. Within eight minutes he finds himself alighting upon the sun, compared with which, instead of the earth as a standard of bulk, he has the mortification to perceive that his body has shrunk from the dimensions of three cubic feet to the one two-hundredth part of a cubic inch,—physically, a contemptible insect!


    9. Here let him stop long enough to ask the question, which millions of years will not answer,—"What wonders, what treasures, are contained in that deep ocean of light?" Thence let him, with undiminished velocity, speed his way to Sirius,*   whose matchless orb, at the end, perhaps, of a three-years' flight, he beholds under his feet, exerting upon a splendid retinue of planets, in the powers of light, heat, and gravitation, the energy of fourteen suns, such as the one in whose light we are rejoicing.

    10. If still there is any thing of our philosopher's pride or of himself remaining, let him range himself within the sublime circumference of the galaxy; let him, with the most powerful telescope in use, spy out some faint nebula most delicately fringing the absurdly imagined borders of infinity, and not unlike the subtle vapor which the keen-eyed little girl can possibly discern issuing from the throat of the singing-sparrow. But send him not thither with only the speed of light; for, with that, thousands of years might not suffice for the journey. Give him, rather, the mysterious power of the imagination, by which he can assume, with equal facility, and in equal time, stations indefinitely near, and infinitely remote.

    11. From the station first assumed, he sees that nebula resolved into brilliant points; from the next, he sees each of those points bright as Arcturus 5   or Capella; and, from the next station, he beholds it a glorious sun! What had boen deemed the center and circumference of the material universe, have reciprocated their positions; and, from one of those foreign suns, he looks back after the locality of his native earth; when, lo! the vast orbit of Neptune 6 has closed in upon the focus occupied by our sun; the sun himself has dwindled to a point,—that point has vanished,
    * Sirius, the large, bright star called the Dog-star.


    and taken with it all earth-born philosophers, with their works, the scene of their labors, and the entire sphere of their observation. How, naturally, must our philosopher now adopt the language of the sublime prophet with reference to the infinite Creator!—"All nations before Him are as nothing, and they are counted to Him less than nothing, and vanity."1


    1 AR CHI ME' DËS, the most celebrated of the ancient geometers, was born at Syracuse about 291 years B.C.; and died 212 B.C. He was related to Hiero, King of Syracuse, who deemed it a great honor to have so distinguished a philosopher [scientist] as his relative. He devoted his time to the cultivation of mathematical and physical sciences. He invented the screw [water pump] for raising water, which bears his name; and we owe to him the process of detecting the adulteration of the precious metal in King Hiero's crown. Such was his joy at this discovery, it is said he rushed through the streets of Syracuse in a state of nudity, exclaiming,—"Eureka, Eureka!"—"I have found, I have found!"

    2 EM PY RE' AN, the highest heaven, where the pure element of fire was supposed by the ancients to subsist.

    3 PHA' E TON, the son of Phœbus and Clymene, or of Cephalus and Aurora, that is, the son of light, or of the sun. He is fabled to have begged of Phœbus that he would permit him to guide the chariot of the sun; in doing which he manifested want of skill; and, being struck with a thunderbolt by Jupiter, he was hurled headlong into the River Po.


    IN the study of natural philosophy, chemistry, and natural history, a wide field of knowledge will be spread out before you, in which every fact you observe, and every truth you learn, will surprise and delight you. Creations of boundless extent, displaying unlimited power, matchless
    * Isaiah, 40th chapter, 17th verse.


    (pp 309-421)

    5. Say not that I thus condemn, and would annihilate, ambition. The love of approbation, of esteem, of true glory, is a noble incentive, and should be cherished to the end. True fame demands no sacrifices of others; it requires us to be reckless of the outward well-being of but one. It exacts no hecatomb of victims for each triumphal pile; for the more who covet and seek it, the easier and more abundant is the success of each and all. With souls of the celestial temper, each human life might be a triumph which angels would lean from the skies, delighted to witness and admire.


    1 FRED' ER ICK II., King of Prussia, commonly called Frederick the Great, was born Jan. 24, 1712, and began to reign 1740. He found himself in possession of a full treasury and a powerful army, which he soon employed in attacking Austria, and conquering from her the province of Silesia. The great struggle of the Seven-Years' War was begun in 1756. Prussia was now attacked by Austria, Russia, France, Saxony, and Sweden; and her destruction and dismemberment seemed inevitable. England was her only ally. Prussia went through the struggle, and came out triumphant. For this glorious result, she was indebted to the moral courage, indomitable energy, and military genius, of her king. In 1772, Frederick disgraced himself, and permanently injured the cause of Freedom throughout the world, by participating in the first dismemberment of Poland. Frederick died Aug. 17, 1786.

    2 MON TE ZU' MA, Emperor of Mexico at the time of the Spanish invasion.

    [by Senator] THOMAS CORWIN [(1794-1865) of Ohio,
    on the Mexican War,
    in the Senate, 11 February 1847.

    MR. PRESIDENT.—The uneasy desire to augment our territory [for slavery] has depraved the moral sense, and blighted the otherwise keen sagacity, of our people. Sad, very sad, are the lessons which Time [lust] has written for us.


    Through and in them all, I see nothing but the inflexible execution of that old [Bible] law, which ordains, as eternal, the cardinal rule, "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods, nor any thing which is his." [Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21].

    Since I have lately heard so much about the dismemberment of Mexico [U.S. stealing half of it], I have looked back to see how, in the course of events which some call "Providence," it has fared with other nations who engaged in this work of dismemberment.

    Ed. Note: See 1870 example on "Providence" role.

    2. I see that, in the latter half of the eighteenth century, three powerful nations—Russia, Austria, and Prussia—united in the dismemberment of Poland. They said, too, as you [slavery expanders] say,—"It is our destiny." They "wanted room." Doubtless each of these thought, with his share of Poland, his power was too strong ever to fear invasion, or even insult. One had [coveted and stolen] his California, another his New Mexico, and the third his Vera Cruz.*

    3. Did they remain untouched, and incapable of [receiving subsequent] harm? Alas! no; far, very far, from it. Retributive justice must fulfill its destiny too.

    Ed. Note: Rev. George Cheever, D.D., God Against Slavery (Cincinnati: American Reform Tract and Book Society, 1857), p 77, elaborated.

    A very few years pass off, and we hear of a new man, a Corsican lieutenant, the self-named, "armed soldier of Democracy," Napoleon [1804-1814].

    He ravages Austria, covers her land with blood, drives the Northern Cæsar from his capital, and sleeps in his palace. Austria may now remember how her power trampled upon Poland. Did she not pay dear, very dear, for her California?

    4. But has Prussia no atonement to make? You see this same Napoleon, the blind instrument of Providence, at work there. The thunders of his cannon at Jena   proclaim the work of retribution for Poland's wrongs; and the successors of the Great Frederick,1   the drill-sergeant of Europe, are seen flying across the sandy plains that sur-
    * Pronounced Vä' rä kroos.

    Gen' a.


    round their capital, right glad if they may escape captivity or death.

    5. But how fares it with the Autocrat of Russia? Is he [Tsar Alexander I] secure [by making a deal with Napoleon] in his [Alexander's] share of the spoils of Poland? No, suddenly we see six hundred thousand armed [French Army] men marching to [attack] Moscow. Does his Vera Cruz [theft of East Poland] protect him now? Far from it. Blood, slaughter, devastation, spread abroad over the [Russian] land; and, finally, the conflagration [burning] of the old commercial metropolis [Moscow] of Russia closes the retribution: she must pay for her share [participation aiding and abetting] in the dismemberment of her impotent neighbor [Poland].

    Ed. Note: Stalin aided Hitler against Poland in 1939, in World War II, to protect Russia; but as suspected, was attacked anyway, in 1941. Hitler followed this prior bad precedent.

    6. A mind more prone to look for the judgments of Heaven in the doings of men than mine, can not fail, in all unjust acquisitions of territory, to see the Providence of God. When Moscow burned, it seemed as if the earth was lighted up, that the nations might behold the scene. As that mighty sea of fire gathered and heaved and rolled upward, and yet higher, till its flames licked the stars, and fired the whole heavens, it did seem as though the God of nations was writing, in characters of flame, on the front of His throne, that doom that shall fall upon the strong nation which tramples in scorn upon the weak.

    7. And what fortune awaits him, the appointed executor [Napoleon I] of this work, when it was all done?

    He, too, conceived the notion that his destiny pointed onward to universal dominion. France was too small: Europe, he thought, should bow down before him. But as soon as this idea takes possession of his soul, he, too, becomes powerless. Right there, while he witnessed the humiliation, and doubtless meditated the subjugation, of Russia, He who holds the winds in His fist, gathered the snows of the [Russian] North [Winter], and blew them upon his [Napoleon's] six hundred thousand men. They fled,—they froze,—they perished.


    8. And now the mighty Napoleon, who had resolved on universal dominion, he, too, is summoned to answer for the violation of that ancient law, "Thou shalt not covet any thing which is thy neighbor's." [Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21].

    "How are the mighty fallen!" [2 Samuel 1:19, 25, 27].

    He, beneath whose proud footstep Europe trembled, is now an exile at Elba, and now, finally, a prisoner on the rock of St. Helena; and there, on a barren island, in an unfrequented sea, in the crater of an extinguished volcano,—there is the death-bed of the mighty conqueror. All his annexations have come to that! His last hour has now come; and he, the man of destiny, he who had rocked the world as with the throes of an earth-quake, is now powerless, still,—even as the beggar, so he died.

    9. On the wings of a tempest that raged with unwonted fury, up to the throne of the only Power that controlled him while he lived, went the fiery soul of that wonderful warrior, another witness to the existence of that eternal decree, that they who do not rule in righteousness shall perish from the earth.

    He has found "room" at last. And France—she, too, has found "room." Her "eagles" now no longer scream along the banks of the [rivers] Danube, the Po, and the Borys'thenës. They have returned home, to their old aerie, between the Alps, the Rhine, and the Pyrenees.

    10. So shall it be with yours. You may carry them to the loftiest peaks of the Cordilleras; they may wave, with insolent triumph, in the halls of the Montezumas,2—the armed men of Mexico may quail before them: but the weakest hand in Mexico, uplifted in prayer to the God of justice, may call down against you a Power, in the presence of which the iron hearts of your warriors shall be turned into ashes.

    Ed. Note: In context, abolitionists were also denouncing the U.S. War of Aggression against Mexico, e.g.,

  • Charles Sumner, The True Grandeur of Nations (1845), pp 8-9, and 16.

  • Rev. Parker Pillsbury, Forlorn Hope (1847), pp 81 and 381

  • Future president Abraham Lincoln, Speech in Congress (12 Jan 1848)

  • Rev. William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (1852), pp 272-305.
    The result of the U.S. aggression against Mexico, was to take 50% of its territory. The U.S. “took half” of Mexico.—Prof. Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1980, reprinted, HarperPerennial, 1990), p 166. (Lincoln had said the same percentage.) For more on the U.S.'s war of aggression, see Prof. Zinn's entire chapter 8, pp 147-166.
    General Ulysses S. Grant had said similarly, Personal Memoirs (New York: C.L. Webster & Co, 1885-1886), Vol. I, Chap. II, pp 53-56, et seq.
  • -425-

    (pp 426-473)





    1. THE splendor falls on castle walls,
    And snowy summits old in story;
    The long light shakes across the lakes,
    And the wild cataract leaps in glory.
    Blow, bugle, blow! set the wild echoes flying;
    Blow, bugle; answer, echoes,—dying, dying, dying!

    2. O hark! O hear! how thin and clear,
    And thinner, clearer, farther going!
    O sweet and far, from cliff and scar,
    The horns of Elf-land faintly blowing!
    Blow! let us hear the purple glens replying:
    Blow, bugle; answer, echoes,—dying, dying, dying!

    3. O love! they die in yon rich sky;
    They faint on hill, or field, or river!
    Our echoes roll from soul to soul,
    And grow forever and forever.
    Blow, bugle, blow! set the wild echoes flying;
    And answer, echoes, answer,—dying, dying, dying!





    1. THE age of chivalry has gone. An age of humanity has come. The horse, whose importance, more than human, gave the name to that early period of gallantry and war, now yields his foremost place to man. In serving him, in promoting his elevation, in contributing to his welfare, in doing him good, there are fields of bloodless triumph, nobler far than any in which the bravest knight ever conquered. Here are spaces of labor, wide as the world, lofty as heaven.

    2. Let me say, then, in the benison once bestowed upon the youthful knight,—Scholars, jurists, artists, philanthropists, heroes of a Christian age, companions of a celestial knighthood, "Go forth. Be brave, loyal, and successful!" And may it be our office to light a fresh beacon-fire sacred to truth! Let the flame spread from hill to hill, from island to island, from continent to continent, till the long lineage of fires shall illumine all the nations of the earth, animating them to the holy contests of KNOWLEDGE, JUSTICE, BEAUTY, LOVE.

    Ed. Note: Senator Charles Sumner wrote against war and slavery.
    The anti-slavery book was used under President Abraham Lincoln as recruiting literature for young men, to courage enlistments in the Civil War.
    Their pre-1861 education was such that they could undestand it, be motivated by such a book. Was your own education so good?



    1. THERE'S a fount about to stream,
    There's a light about to beam,
    There's a warmth about to glow,
    There's a flower about to blow,
    There's a midnight blackness changing

    Into gray;
    Men of thought, and men of action,


    (pp 476-479)

    here a village, and there a city, until every dwelling is a sepulcher; famine may brood over it with a long and weary visitation, until the sky itself is brazen, and the beautiful greenness gives place to a parched desert, a wide waste of unproductive desolation: but these are only physical evils.

    The wild flower will bloom in peace on the field of battle and above the crushed skeleton. The destroying angel of the pestilence will retire when his errand is done, and the nation will again breathe freely; and the barrenness of famine will cease at last,—the cloud will be prodigal of its hoarded rain, and the wilderness will blossom.

    2. But for moral desolation there is no reviving spring. Let the moral and republican principles of our country be abandoned; let impudence, and corruption, and intrigue triumph over honesty and intellect,—and our liberties and strength will depart forever.

    Of these there can be no resuscitation. The "abomination of desolation" will be fixed and perpetual; and, as the mighty fabric of our glory totters into ruins, the nations of the earth will mock us in our overthrow, like the powers of darkness, when the throned one of Babylon became even as themselves, and the "glory of the Chaldees' excellency had gone down forever."



    Ed. Note: For examples of 19th century 5th level educational material on tobacco and health, click here.
    Full reprints are at and at