Black Americans Imprisoned Disproportionately:
Re-"Enslavement" to Obstruct Their Right to Vote:
DWB—What Type Laws Would Prevent It

How the 2000 Election Was Stolen
How They Did It Again:
Stole the 2004 Election
(Includes Discussion of Relationship
of DWB Practices to Disproportionately
Denying Blacks The Right to Vote:
1.4 Million in Year 2000)
Don't Be Distracted by The Minors:
(Getting Every Vote Counted).
Focus on the Majors, The Big Picture:
The Preventing of Voting Eligibility
In The First Place:
(You Can't Count A Vote
Not Allowed to Be Cast!)

Table of Contents
For This Site Dealing With
The Big Picture
Legal History References
Law Manipulations Background

Post-Civil-War Systemic Abuses Begin
The Development of
Post-Civil-War-Law Abuses

Blacks' Pre-1960's Near
Drug-Free Record

What the Neo-Confederates
Knew About Crime Rates Per 100,000
(Profile of Who Does 90% of Crimes)

Corrupting Lawmaking and Courts
And More
Systemic Racism, 1970's Example
Lessons Confederates Learned
From The 1868 Election

The 1876 Presidential Election
Florida The Most Discriminatory
Kansas 1850's
Election 1860
Election 1868
Ouster Plot 1933
Texas Election 1941
Alabama Attitude - 1964
Election 2000
Election 2002
Election 2003
Election 2004
Election 2006
Election 2008
Election 2009
Election 2012
Election 2013
Election 2014
How Election Fraud Is Done
Details on Banning Disenfranchment
DWB Prevention Laws

DWB ("driving while black"), "racial profiling," these terms refer to a certain portion of racism. Those with "white privilege," are not subjected to it. It's more than a matter of discrimination in terms of selective enforcement. (Other forms of racism occur on the job, for example, but this site focuses on a different aspect, "Voting While Black," VWB, or attempted VWB (aka "Voting While Black or Brown").

This site covers a major result of "racial profiling," a result of disproportionate arresting, convicting, jailing blacks: widespread disenfranchisement of would-be black voters so as to be not allowed to vote at all. (Details on how this is done are below.)

In 1883, “Thomas Fortune, a young black editor of the New York Globe testified before a Senate committee in 1883 about the situation of the Negro in the United States. He spoke of 'widespread poverty,' of government betrayal, of desperate Negro efforts to educate themselves. . . . Fortune spoke of 'the penitentiary system of the South, with its infamous chain-gang. . . . the object being to terrorize the blacks and furnish victims for contractors, who purchase the labor of these wretches from the state for a song. . . . the white man who shoots a negro always goes free, while the negro who steals a hog is sent to the chain-gang for ten years.'”—Prof. Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1980, reprinted, HarperPerennial, 1990), p 204.

The South went so far as to regularly fabricate false charges and caricatures. Not only arresting and convicting blacks, but even going outside the law, e.g., by lynching and torturing, were norms in the South. See background by, e.g., Prof. David Pilgrim, "The Brute Caricature" (Ferris State Univ, Nov 2000). Falsification continues. Modern police interrogation techniques themselves promote convicting the innocent. See Douglass Starr, "The Interview: Do police interrogation techniques produce false confessions"? (Dept. of Criminal Justice, The New Yorker, 9 December 2013), pp 42-49: The answer is "yes." The "Reid Technique" of interrogation used by police is promoted in the Reid Technique Manual. That book "reads like a bad psychology textbook. It is filled with assertions with no empirical proof," says Prof. Saul Kassin, Ph.D. It is "junk science" in short. And that's what police use, instead of genuine valid methodology.

“The North, it must be recalled, did not have to undergo a revolution in its thinking to accept the subordination of the Negro. When the Civil War ended [1865], nineteen of the twenty-four northern states did not allow blacks to vote. By 1900, all the southern states, in new constitutions and new statutes, had written into law the disenfranchisement and segregation of Negroes, and a New York Times editorial said: 'Northern men . . . no longer denounce the suppression of the Negro vote. . . .'”—Zinn, History, supra, p 203.

When police disagree with laws, they ignore or defy them. For example, when the University of Mississippi was being desegregated in 1962 with the aid of U.S. marshals and Army troops, bigots, KKKers, etc., came on campus to riot and vandalize, says Univ. of Mississippi Political Science Prof. Russell H. Barrett, Integration at Ole Miss (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965), Chapters 4-5, pp 83-162. The police were to prevent this by blocking the campus entrances to non-students, and by making arrests of rioters. But instead, rioters had "entered the campus with no difficulty through the main entrance," p 143. "One of the [riotous] crowd called out to a patrolman, 'Why don't you . . . take the guns away from the marshals?' The patrolman repled, 'We can't do anything, but you can,'" p 143. One rioter "was sitting on the back of a [police] car shouting the worst kind of profanity at the marshals. Two students attempted to get him to leave, but he would not. Meanwhile the patrolmen were . . . encouraging him to continue his insults." "There are numerous reports that the [police] abandoned its control of the entrances . . . a large number of [police] cars left the campus," p 143. During the riot, rioters attacked people labeled "nigger lover" in their car, "Yelling and cheering, they began to rock the car, smashing the windows with rocks and bottles. Some tore off chrome ornaments with their bare hands, while two Mississippi patrolmen made an obvious point of looking the other way, drawing cheers from the [rioting] crowd," p 145. One victim "was shoved by the crowd and his camera smashed. A faculty member's wife asked a group of five patrolmen to help the injured man. One patrolmen told her, 'I don't see anything, lady,' and again the patrolmen smiled at each other. . . . two of them grabbed the victim's arms [to prevent him defending himself] while the mob continued to attack him," p 145. "No highway patrolmen or 146anyone else [local police] made any attempts to arrest or even identify any of those committing violence," pp 145-146.

During the riot, "members of the mob threw" "gravel, eggs, pennies, and lighted cigarettes" "at the [U.S.] marshals. . . . the [Mississippi police] made no attempt to stop [the assaults] . . . Numerous faculty members and reporters saw members of the mob throw rocks, bricks, and bottles. . . . there was the sound of broken glass as an Army truck windshield shattered.

Let us transition into the current situation, by this simple example: In the 1960's-1970's, there was an unpopular-to-police black group, the Black Panther Party (BPB). The BPB alleged that police disproportionately issued their members traffic tickets. The police denied it. Prof. Frances K. Heussenstamm did an experiment. Twenty university students with excellent driving records, and cars with no defects, were assigned to make one change only: attach "Black Panther Party" stickers to the bumpers! The reaction: 33 traffic tickets in 17 days!! See Frances K. Heussenstamm, "Bumper Stickers and Cops," 8 Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society (#4) pp 32-33 (February 1971).

In other words, contrary to the myth that the arresting official does NOT know who he is about to deal with, the real truth is, the decision is first made as to whom to target, then 'look for something.' Not at all the impartial scenario: first the violation, then the discovery of who did it!

Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., in "Police Are More Dangerous To The Public Than Are Criminals" (Tuesday, 17 September 2013), says "At the state and local level every American faces brutal, armed psychopaths known as the police. . . . The American police perform no positive function. They pose a much larger threat to citizens than do the criminals who operate without a police badge. Americans would be safer if the police forces were abolished."

DWB: A Perversion of
Police Tailgating
When police tailgate a motorist for a short period, then another, and another, what are they doing? Here is one part of the answer:
“The police officer is reading plate numbers into the radio/computer and waiting for a 'history' on the probable operator, the owner. If the report lists a litany of previous violations, DWI convictions, or outstanding warrant, the officer will concoct a reason to pull the vehicle over.”—Editor, 12 National Motorists Association Foundation News (#1) 13 (Jan/Feb 2001).
Another part of the answer is, especially at night, rushing up close behind you tail-gating. This can provoke you (from fear of unknown vehicle suddenly close behind you, in the dark, with potential for car-jacking or other assault) into 'flight' mode. You may then commit an action (e.g., quick-stopping at a 'stop' sign) leading to an excuse (police claim you didn't stop!) to stop you, ticket you.
“Pretextual traffic stops undermine the legitimacy of the entire criminal justice system,” says John Holevoet, “Racial Profiling and Pretextual Traffic Stops,” 15 National Motorists Association Foundation News (#2) 7 (March/April 2004). Holevoet points out that “the Supreme Court ruled in Whren v. U.S. [517 US 806; 116 S Ct 1769; 135 L Ed 2d 89 (1996)] that traffic stops are constitutional regardless of the officer's motivations . . . even when the traffic stop is consciously being used as a means to an unjustifiable end [result].”
The centuries of law and police abuses show that this system cannot be “reformed.” It must be struck down and banned as unconstitutional, with the appointment of honest judges who will so rule.
And see "Police Officers and the Governments War on You Taking Pictures and Filming Cops."

Police can indeed know who they are following—BEFORE the stop.

But even that is the tip of the iceberg of the DWB process. This site covers that underlying aspect. The data here contains information likely new to most readers.

"It's a problem that's faced by police departments in every major city in our country, that criminals infilitrate and sign up to join the police force," says Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, CXLVI Newsweek, p 23 (10 October 2005). See examples, e.g., by Guy Lawson and William Oldham, The Brotherhoods: The True Story of Two Cops Who Murdered for the Mafia (New York: Scribner, 2006); and Louis Eppolito, Mafia Cop (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992). Thus "there were a lot of dirty cops. Half of them seemed to have a price," Chapter 7, "The Amazing Life and Times of 'Gaspipe' Gasso," § 2, "The 19th Hole," p. 152.     "Psychology books are packed with studies of the personality traits of men like [this]. They often possess a superficial charm and above-average intelligence. They rise to the top of large organizations, even nations. They usually aren't obviously irrational, at least at the beginning. They are shameless liars, as long as the lie serves their purpose. Among their characteristics are glibness, lack of empathy, an inability to accept responsibility or recognize the impact of their behavior on others--the things that make a narcissist [and] a short attention span," Brotherhoods, Chapter 7, "The Amazing Life and Times of 'Gaspipe' Gasso," § 1, "The Prospect," p. 146.     Such criminals infilitrated into and hired by police departments of course have no interest in crime prevention. Instead, they have their own criminal purposes in mind. For example, "prisoners took unmerciful beatings in precinct houses all over the city. . . . If a perp had a couple of broken ribs there would be no problem. It was common to see prisoners with their heads wrapped in gauze to staunch the bleeding from blows to the head," Brotherhoods, Chapter 6, "Godfathers of the NYPD, § 5, "Internal Affairs," p. 129.

For related background, see, e.g., "What Cop T-Shirts Tell Us About Police Culture" (Friday, 21 June 2013), and Stephan Salisbury, "Life in the American Slaughterhouse: Beyond Aurora, Guns Are Going Off Everywhere: Police shootings echo nationwide" (Monday, 30 July 2012).

"Americans are in far greater danger from their own police forces than they are from foreign terrorists," says Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., "America's police brutality pandemic" (27 September 2007). "The only terrorist most Americans will ever encounter is a policeman with a badge, nightstick, mace and Taser. . . . Police brutality has crossed the line from using excessive force against a resisting Rodney King to unprovoked gratuitous violence against persons offering no resistance, such as the elderly, women, students, and elected officials. Americans are not safe anywhere from police. Police attack Americans in university libraries, in public meetings, and in their own homes. . . . Another disturbing aspect is that no one tells the police to stop the brutality."

"Caught on Camera: Ten Shockingly Violent Police Assaults on Occupy Protesters" (Friday, 18 November 2011) gives examples of police violence. And note another police preference, dramatic adrenalin-raising door-busting action!, so obsessed with dealing with effects, causation is wholly disregarded. Do a search for "police raid wrong houses," and you'll find numerous examples. See also "Police Brutality: Mother Tasered While Kids Watch for Using a Cellphone" and "The rise in police violence."

The webmaster has been opposing the underlying aspect for two decades. Examples include:

Exposé of the Budzyn-Nevers Situation
Testimony Against Building More Prisons
Testimony Opposing Billboards' Racial Targeting
Testimony Against the Gateway Drug
Genuine Crime Prevention—Known Since the 1830's
Victim Bashing, Blaming the Victims

DWB, the making of and judicial upholding of corrupt arrests, is only one element of many racist aspects in the criminal justice system. See, e.g.,

  • John Campbell, Richard Hildreth, and Passmore Williamson, Defendant, Atrocious Judges: Lives of Judges Infamous as Tools of Tyrants and Instruments of Oppression (New York: Auburn, Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856) (book on legal status of slaves in free states, in habeas corpus context)

  • The infamous Dred Scott v Sandford, 60 US 393, 407; 15 L Ed 691, 701 (1857) case which, contrary to the common law and Constitution, claimed that blacks "at the time of the Declaration of Independence, and . . . Constitution . . . had for more than a century before had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and . . . might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit . . . ."
  • Example Refutations In That Era
    Chase | Cheever | Douglass | Fee | Garrison | Green
    Lay | Lincoln | Mansfield | Mellen | Patton | Sandiford
    Shaw | Stewart | Spooner | Stowe | Tiffany | Weld
    Please read at least ten of these following references:

  • Frederick Douglass, "The Convict Lease System" (1893)

  • Grimké, Archibald Henry, B.A., LL.B., M.A., "Why Disfranchisement Is Bad" (Philadelphia: E.A. Wright, 1904; and in Occasional Papers of the American Negro Academy, reprinted, 1969) (showing harmful effect of disfranchisement on African Americans, the South, and the nation)

  • Grimké, Archibald Henry, B.A., LL.B., M.A., The Negro and the Elective Franchise: A Series of Papers and a Sermon (Washington, D.C.: The American Negro Academy, 1905)

  • Grimké, Archibald Henry, B.A., LL.B., M.A., "The Ballotless Victim of One Party Governments" (1913; and in Occasional Papers of the American Negro Academy, reprinted, 1969) (attacking disfranchisement)

  • Alton F. McIver, Negro Suffrage: A Study of the Constitutionality of Restrictions in the South (M.A. Thesis, Univ of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: 1950)

  • Joseph L. Bernd, Ph.D., Recent Restrictions upon Negro Suffrage: the Case of Georgia (1959, repr. from The Journal of Politics, vol. 21)

  • Edward H. Hobbs, ed., Yesterday's Constitution Today (Mississippi: Bureau of Public Administration, 1960) (including data by Univ. of Mississippi Political Science Prof. Russell H. Barrett, saying "that Mississippi voting laws were designed to discriminate against Negroes and recommended numerous changes ranging from abolition of the poll tax to simplification of the registration forms," cited in Integration at Ole Miss (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965), Chap. 3, p 78. Chapter 1 of Prof. Barrett's Integration cites so-called "Citizens' Councils," white supremacists, and says, "In their early years the Councils worked hard to reduce the number of Negro voters, and within one year in four key counties in Mississippi the total fell by 75 percent. In the most successful [disenfranchisement] effort, in Sunflower County, Negro voters dropped to zero, and the Circuit Court [Voting Registrar] replied when asked, 'No Negro voters. This is the home of the Citizens' Councils.' [citing Memphis Commercial Appeal, 21 August 1955]. In Humphreys County one Negro active in voter registration was killed and another badly wounded, with no convictions for either crime [citing Memphis Commercial Appeal, 22 May 1955]," pp 27-28.

  • Jesse Steiner and Roy M. Brown, The North Carolina Chain Gang: A Study of County Convict Road Work (Negro Universities Press, Westport, Conn, 1927; 1970) (Review)

  • Jeremy Brecher, Strike! (San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books, 1972), pp 67-72 (has quotes from newspaper coverage of disturbances in 1890's Anderson County, Tennessee. The state militia was assigned to escort prisoners to a job site to break a strike. Interestingly, the employee's union showed that they had the militia outnumbered and outarmed. The prisoners were then brought back to prison!)

  • Derrick A. Bell, Jr., "Racism in American Courts: Cause for Black Disruption or Despair?" 61 California Law Rev (#1) 165-203 (Jan 1973)

  • Charles V. Hamilton, The Bench and the Ballot: Southern Federal Judges and Black Voters (New York: Oxford Univ Press, 1973)

  • Steven F. Lawson, Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969 (New York: Columbia Univ Press, 1976)

  • Edward Ayers, Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth-Century South (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)

  • Abigail M. Thernstrom, Whose Votes Count?: Affirmative Action and Minority Voting Rights (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ Press, 1987)

  • "The Disenfranchisement of Ex-Felons: Citizenship, Criminality, and 'the Purity of the Ballot Box,'" 102 Harvard Law Review (#6) pp 1300-1317 (1989)

  • Pete Daniel, The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-1969 (U of Illinois Press, 1990)

  • A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., and Greer C. Bosworth, "'Rather Than the Free': Free Blacks In Colonial and Antebellum Virginia," 26 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review (#1) 17-66 (Winter 1991)

  • Akhil Reed Amar, "The Bill of Rights and The Fourteenth Amendment," 101 Yale Law Journal (#6) 1193-1284 (April 1992)

  • A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., et al., "The Law Only As An Enemy," 70 North Carolina Law Review (#4) 969-1070 (April 1992)

  • Edward Ayers, The Promise of the New South (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)

  • Paul Finkelman, "The Crime of Color," 67 Tulane Law Review (#6) 2063-2112 (June 1993) (for example, at 2068-9, discussing presumption of guilt that allowed white citizens to demand from black persons papers demonstrating their freedom)

  • Andrew L. Shapiro, "Challenging Criminal Disenfranchisement Under the Voting Rights Act: A New Strategy," 103 Yale Law Journal (#2) 537-566 (Nov 1993) (This is a most significant article, giving a glimpse of Confederates' manipulation of law-making after the Civil War so as to arrange disproportionate arresting and jailing of blacks (re-enslavement under a new label—prison), and thus take away their right to vote. It is this type of manipulation that abolitionist Michigan tried to head off in 1909 by the law discussed herein and at our many related websites.)

  • David Oshinsky, Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York: The Free Press, 1996)

  • Alex Lichtenstein, Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South (London: Verso, 1996)

  • Matthew Mancini, One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928 (Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1996).

  • Paul Finkelman, Slavery and The Law (Madison, Wis: Madison House Publishers, 1996) (Overview | Table of Contents | Introduction)

  • Paul Street, "Race, Prison, and Poverty: The Race To Incarcerate In The Age Of Correctional Keynesianism" (c. 1996)

  • Stephen Hartnett, "Prison Labor, Slavery & Capitalism In Historical Perspective" (c. 1997)

  • Randall Kennedy, Race, Crime, and the Law (New York: Pantheon Books, 1997)

  • Karin A. Shapiro, A New South Rebellion: The Battle Against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871-1896 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998)

  • Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920 (Bloomington: Indiana Univ Press, 1998)

  • Virginia Hench, "The Death of Voting Rights: The Legal Disenfranchisement of Minority Voters," 48 Case Western Reserve Law Rev (#4) 727-798 (Summer 1998)

  • Patrica Allard and Marc Mauer, Regaining the Vote: An Assessment of Activity Relating to Felon Disenfranchisement Law (The Sentencing Project, January 2000)

  • National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Youth Law Center, “And Justice for Some”   (Washington, DC, 25 April 2000) (Of youths imprisoned with adults, 75% are minority youth. Black youths are overall 600% more likely to be jailed than comparable white youths with identical records.)

  • "The Awful Truth" (2000) ("According to the Sentencing Project, African-American males are incarcerated at . . . more than four times the rate of Black males in South Africa.")

  • Kim Gilmore, Slavery and Prison - Understanding the Connections" (May 2000)

  • Alexander Keyssars, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2000)

  • Mary Ellen Curtin, Black Prisoners and Their World, Alabama, 1865-1900: Carter G. Woodson Series in Black Studies (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000)

  • Prof. Angela Y. Davis, "Masked Racism: Reflections on the Prison Industrial Complex" (c. 2000)

  • Penny Hess and Omali Yeshitela, Overturning the Culture of Violence (St. Petersburg: BSU Pub, 2000)

  • New Jersey Racial Profiling Archive (27 November 2000)

  • Prof. Anthony M. Platt, "Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965-2000 " (December 2000)

  • Tim Wise, "Shot by Cops? Not If You're White" (22 May 2001) See also his "White Privilege Video"

  • From Alabama's Past, Capitalism Teamed with Racism to Create Cruel Partnership,” Wall Street Journal (16 July 2001)

  • Sasha Abramsky, "Prison Nation: Driven by fear, the US has surrendered to 'Carceral Keynsianism'" (2001)

  • Bernstein, David E., Only One Place of Redress: African Americans, Labor Regulations and the Courts from Reconstruction to the New Deal (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ Press, 2001)

  • Paul Street, "Empire Abroad, Prisons At Home: Dark Connections" (c. 2002)

  • Hayden, Joseph, “Echoes of Juneteenth haunt us today,” San Francisco Chronicle (19 June 2003); reprinted at

  • NCADP, "Racial Bias on Death Row" (2003) (“The system has proved itself to be wildly inaccurate, unjust, unable to separate the innocent men from the guilty and, at times, a very racist system,” says former Illinois Governor George Ryan)

  • Prof. Angela Y. Davis, Ph.D., “Are Prisons Obsolete?” (Toronto: Publishers Group, 2003)

  • Street, Paul, “Starve the Racist Prison Beast” (8 November 2003)

  • Hallett, Prof. Michael, “Commerce with Criminals: The New Colonialism in Criminal Justice,” 21 Rev Policy Research (#1) 49-62 (January 2004)

  • Bruce Dixon, "Ten Worst Places to be Black," Black Commentator (Issue # 146) 14 July 2005

  • Bruce Dixon, "Mass Incarceration is an Abomination," Black Commentator (Issue # 147) 21 July 2005

  • Margaret Colgate Love, Relief from the Collateral Consequences of a Criminal Conviction: A State-by- State Resource Guide (William S. Hein & Co., July 2005) (has "Executive Summary")

  • Glen Ford, “Mass Incarceration and the Black Elite,” Black Commentator (Radio, 5 August 2005)

  • Maya Rockeymoore, Ph.D., “Vote or Die: The Lessons of Katrina,” Black Commentator (22 September 2005)

  • Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen, Locked Out (Oxford Univ Press, 2006)

  • Elizabeth Hull, The Disenfranchisement of Ex-felons (Temple Univ Press, 2006)

  • Sasha Abramsky, Conned: How Millions Went to Prison, Lost the Vote, and Helped Send George W. Bush to the White House (The New Press, 2006).

  • American Blackout (25 Jan 2006) (movie that “chronicles the recurring patterns of disenfranchisement witnessed from 2000 to 2004”). This video documentary directed by Ian Inaba, and including information from, e.g., Rep. Cynthia McKinney, begins "with the detailed argument that black voters in Florida were systematically disenfranchised in the 2000 presidential election." The "film then pulls double duty: It's a fine-tooth examination of both the continued, unconstitutional marginalization of black voters in America and the attempts by various political and media machines to crush McKinney in retaliation for her outspokenness on that subject and on the illegality of the war in Iraq."

  • Deborah Davies, “Torture Inc.: Americas Brutal Prisons” (2 March 2006)

  • Stephen Lendman, “The U.S. Gulag Prison System ” (16 March 2006)

  • Tim Wise, "Coloring Crime: Race, Violence and Media Manipulation" (1 June 2006) ("the news media . . . perpetuates racial stereotypes")

  • Tim Wise, "The Oprah Effect: Black Success, White Denial and the Reality of Racism" (28 July 2006) (cites continuing racism, and incompetent denials of same, whereby bigots deem "anecdote" as "not only proof [but] even better proof than social science research and quantitative data [e.g., "statistical evidence," contrary to] the most basic strictures of research design and accepted scholarly interpretation [analysis]”

  • Sasha Abramsky, “Block the Vote: The 10 Worst Places to Cast a Ballot” (Mother Jones, 13 September 2006).

  • Ariel J. Feldman, J. Alex Halderman, and Edward W. Felten, “How to Steal an Election: Princeton: Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting Machine” (Princeton University, 15 September 2006)

  • Debt to Society" (September 2007) (“There are more people behind bars in the United States today than ever before. Since 1980, the inmate population has more than quadrupled to two million—an unprecedented explosion that is incurring unprecedented costs to all Americans.”)

  • Prof. Brent J. Aucoin, A Rift in the Clouds: Race and the Southern Federal Judiciary (Fayetteville: Univ of Arkansas Press, 2007) (H-Law Review by Prof. Lewie Reece: Excerpt: "By 1900, southern states were completing the racial and class-based disfranchisement of both African Americans and poor whites. That was bad enough, but American society in the early 1900s was also deeply committed to the guiding principles of white supremacy. This was in no stretch of the imagination limited to the South. Americans as a society firmly approved of disfranchisement as well as lynching and the segregated racial order. Not only was the Reconstruction effort to craft constitutional racial equality considered a critical error, but in many ways efforts at emancipation itself were deemed erroneous too. The justification of white supremacy was propounded for an enthusiastic audience in a vast array of social scientific literature, law review articles, magazines, and newspapers.")

  • Rebecca McLennan, The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics and the Making of the American Penal State, 1776-1941 (Cambridge, 2008).

  • Paul Craig Roberts, Ph.D., "Criminals With Badges" (2 January 2008) ("The American police have never prevented crimes. In olden days, the police solved crimes by finding the guilty party. No more. In our time, the police create crimes. And that is why the US prison population is twice the size of China’s, an authoritarian country with a population four to five times larger than America’s. . . . There you have it. The American Police – "support your local Gestapo" – spend their time engineering false crimes and not investigating real crimes. Americans are more at risk from the police than they are from criminals. . . . Never make the mistake of calling the police, and never get stopped by a traffic cop. You run the risk that he will drop a bag of drugs into your car and arrest you on a drug offense. If you encounter a police officer, be sure you have thousands of dollars with which to buy him off from making false charges. Most police charges are false charges. Americans need to wake up to this fact or the American prison population will outstrip the rest of the world combined."

  • William Poundstone, Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (and What Can Be Done About It) (Hill & Wang, February 2008) (Interview: "ours may be the worst of all the voting systems in common use"; Review, overemphasizes "spoilers" but does note certain voting system flaws)

  • Douglas A. Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II (Doubleday, 25 March 2008) (Review 1,   2)

  • Charles Lane, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction (Henry Holt & Company, 2008) (Review 1,   2,   3) (The Supreme Court upheld massacre of blacks in United States v Cruikshank (1876).)

  • Adam Liptak, "Inmate Count in US Dwarfs Other Nations’" (The New York Times, 23 April 2008) ("The United States has less than 5 percent of the world’s population. But it has almost a quarter of the world’s prisoners. . . . The United States . . . has 751 people in prison or jail for every 100,000 in population. . . . The only other major industrialized nation that even comes close is Russia, with 627 prisoners for every 100,000 people. The others have much lower rates. England’s rate is 151; Germany’s is 88; and Japan’s is 63. The median among all nations is about 125, roughly a sixth of the American rate.")

  • Pamela Clark, "An In-Depth Look at the U.S. Prison Industry" (2011) ("The U.S. prison system is the largest in the world, not only in terms of overall number of inmates, but as a percentage of the total population as well. With over 2.3 million people behind bars, U.S. prisoners represent almost 25% of the world's total prison population (the U.S. population is 5% of the world)."

  • "Police Kill Black Person Every 40 Hours" (26 July 2012)

  • Jeffrey Tucker, "The Prison System is a Violation of Human Rights" (8 August 2014) ("If the jailed lived in one place, the 2.3 million would be the fourth largest American city, between Chicago and Houston. . . . Some two-thirds of people mired in the justice system (prison, probation, parole) are in for nonviolent offenses. Among federal prisoners, 91% are in for nonviolent crimes. No dictator in the world gets away with this.")
  • Some people mention “reconciliation.” Step one is of course, ending the attack in process.
    Reconciliation does NOT mean, for example, bankers' reconciliation with robbers while the robbery is in process!
    Genuine reconciliation means, first and foremost, stopping the in-process attack(s). Agreed?!! That's step one?
    Be assured, if someone professes to advocate "reconciliation," "friendship," WITHOUT mentioning ending the attack(s) in process, he is himself an attacker—aiding and abetting, accessory to same.

    DWB, Driving While Black or Brown. This site examines the situation in a way different than you likely have seen. This site is based on medical and historical legal research data, an area of knowledge generally overlooked, except among specialists.

    This more-detailed explanation is contrary to the lay myths you have heard all your life, so bear with us, keep reading, though every sentence may offend some long-cherished myth.

    "Partem aliquam recte intelligere nemo potest, antequam totum, iterum atque iterum, periegerit."
    No one can rightly understand any part until he has read the whole again and again.
    Meaning: Re-read this site, and the references, "again and again" until you understand them in full.

    Voting While Black (or Brown)

    Ulterior-Motives-Based Law
    Manipulations Background

    First, we start with background on law manipulation for ulterior purposes. Such manipulation of law is not new. For example, the U.S. colonies in the pre-1776 American Revolution era, had been part of the British colonial system.

    There was data on law manipulations occurring in that system. What were those manipulations?

    Answer: The creation, defining of, "new crimes."

    How far back can this 'crime-defining' process be traced?

    Answer: Back to at least 1066 and King William I of England.

    This was the "William the Conqueror" you've heard of!

    Who was he?

    Answer: King William I was the illegitimate (i.e., bastard) son of Robert the Devil.

    Who was "Robert the Devil"?

    Robert was the 'conqueror' of William's mother.

    Who was Robert's father?

    Robert was son of a Viking, Rollo the Pirate.

    How did Robert get his wife?

    His father Rollo had been raiding, invading France. Little Robert took his share of the loot, he seized a French peasant girl. She became the mother of William. William was illegitimate, hence, a 'bastard.'

    Robert the Devil was son of Rollo the Pirate.

    Who was Rollo the Pirate?

    Answer: He was a Viking, a Norseman, from Norway.

    How did he end up in Normandy, France?

    Rollo had a gang of toughs, pirates. By pillaging, looting, killing, and 'conquering' throughout Western France, Rollo extorted by conquest, the exalted title of "Duke of Normandy!"

    Now this pirate Rollo is in the French nobility, the French government!

    This pirate's son was Robert. When Rollo died, Robert became "Duke of Normandy."

    His grandson was William, living in Normandy. On the death of Robert, little William became the "Duke" of Normandy.

    Normandy was next door to England!—just across the channel. The Norse Viking pirate Rollo did not pass on to his son Robert, respect for rights. Hence Robert the Devil 'conquered' the French girl (Herleva of Falasia) who became William's mother.

    Little William the Bastard followed daddy Robert's bad example.

    He got his wife about the same way as daddy Robert the devil had done!

    William also 'conquered' his wife. She was a neighboring French noble's daughter (Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin of Flanders).

    Little William eyed her, wanted her. Mathilda wanted nothing to do with 'that bastard.'

    William had a reputation of cutting off the hands of people who teased him about his being a bastard, leaving them to bleed to death!

    Criticism, or the word "No," those were definitely NOT words to use on William.

    So the girl means 'No.' So he came to her parent's castle anyway! For her. Like a rough first date! Seized her on the 'first date.'

    Actually, she saw him, ran to her room, slammed the door.

    He ran after her, chased her, broke down the door, broke into her room, lifted her up by the hair, and proceeded to kick her, and kick her, until she agreed to marry him!

    Now William the Bastard, now married to Mathilda, is in the legitimate French nobility.

    Is that enough for William?


    Next thing he wants, he wants to conquer the neighboring country. He wants to conquer England, just across the channel. He wants to kick out the English king, Harold II. William succeeds, becomes known as "William the Conqueror."

    See also our site with data on the Norman Conquest of England.

    So we see that a Viking pirate by violence set up the process by which his grandson William attacked England! killed the incumbent Harold II! and himself becomes King of England!

    For background, see references including
  • (1) Hendrik Van Loon, The Story of Mankind (New York: Garden City Pub Co, Inc, 1921), p 154;
  • Kenneth M. Setton, "900 Years Ago: The Norman Conquest," 130 National Geographic (#2) 206-251 (August 1966);
  • David Howarth [1912-1991], 1066: The Year of the Conquest (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1977).
  • William thereby set in motion the dynastic process leading to the current Queen Elizabeth II. This is not the stuff of which people's rights are much respected.

    The above summarizes an early aspect of the corrupt process in English history, whereunder colonial and U.S. laws came to have their origin. Here is a brief pertinent summary:

    Note the example of the ancient world, "the Germanic tribes of the north" and "the two . . . Germanic tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, [who] settled in England." "By and large, imprisonment was not used as a punishment," say Phyllis Elperin Clark, M.A., and Robert Lehrman, M.F.A., Doing Time: A Look at Crime and Prisons (New York: Hastings House, 1980), p 24. Restitution was made "to their victims," p 25.

    So, "we should ask how the idea of prison took root in our culture. . . . for most of Western history, the prison sentence was practically unknown," p 18.

    What changed? "When the Normans conquered England in 1066, two different forms of [so-called] justice met. The [power-mad] Norman kings were not 25used to the Anglo-Saxon idea of leaving justice in private hands, but they were quick to see the advantage of fines as a form of punishment. They made one change . . . instead of paying the fines [restitution] to their victims, offenders were now ordered to pay the money to the king," pp 24-25.

    One “important factor [in the British monarchy having decided to begin defining crimes] was . . . to build up a strong central government. Acts [previously legal] became crimes.

    “As the king [government] became more powerful, legislation against private crime increased and after the Norman conquest [of England by William the Conqueror, 1066] a distinct body of criminal law evolved for the first time. . . ."

    “As part of his policy of strengthening the central government, Henry II (1154-89) established the system [leading to modern] judges.

    “[In the] reign of Henry VII [1485-1509] . . . a strong central government [did] emerge . . . reflected by a great increase in the types of crimes against which legislation was passed. . . .

    “Under the Stuarts [1603-1689; King James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II], the need to raise money for the crown led to [yet more] new crimes being defined.”—“Crime,” Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol 6, pp 754-758 (this quote, pp 756-757) (1963).

    One “device of Edward [IV] [1461-1483] for filling his exchequer was a very stringent [law] enforcement [policy]; small infractions of the laws being made the excuse for exorbitant fines. This was a trick which Henry VII. [1485-1509] was to turn to still greater effect.”—“English History,” Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol 9, pp 466-587 (this quote, p 520) (1910).
    See also background on "how and why, sometime under the Norman and Angevin kings the payment of weregild and such to victims or their kin was wholly replaced by fines payable to the Crown and corporal punishments not directly profitable," and Thomas Glynn Watkins, The Legal History of Wales (2007) on, e.g., "the gradual abolishment of galanas (the Welsh body-price scheme of payments)."
    See also the history of corrupt English judges, by Baron John Campbell, Atrocious Judges: Lives of Judges Infamous as Tools of Tyrants and Instruments of Oppression, edited by Richard Hildreth (New York and Auburn: Orton & Mulligan, 1856), and, for example, the abuses concerning the Trial of Anne Boleyn, pp 85-86 (when King Henry VIII was disposing of his unwanted second wife! When a queen can't get a fair trial, due to the perjury and rigged jury, who can?!)
    See also background on
  • the “lawyerization” of criminal trials into an “adversary procedure” abolishing the old citizen equality concept, distorting and suppressing truth, bestowing an enormous advantage on the wealthier party, a “wrong turn” in legal history, cited by John H. Langbein, The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial: Oxford Studies in Modern Legal History Series (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003)
  • the Royal Stuart's “toryism” attitude (in essence, that the king/government can do no wrong) infecting the South, via pro-monarchy immigrants from England to America, by abolitionist Edward C. Rogers, Slavery Illegality (Boston: B. Marsh, 1855), pp 59-60
  • the invention of police departments, by Kristian Williams, “The Demand for Order and the Birth of Modern Policing” 55 Monthly Review (#7) 16-23 (December 2003).
  • the long-term pattern of manipulation passed on generation after generation by pre-Confederates, “Willie Lynch Manipulation Speech” (1712).
    "It's a problem that's faced by police departments in every major city in our country, that criminals infilitrate and sign up to join the police force," says Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, CXLVI Newsweek, p 23 (10 October 2005).
  • Bottom line: Criminal laws were invented not to protect people, but rather as a bullying manipulation to increase government power and revenue! for a pirate's dynasty and government!

    This is not to overlook the ego trip, adrenalin rush, and psychopathic elements prevalent among polticians. Note
  • World Health Organization data, “Wide research needed to solve the problems of mental illness,” World Mental Health, Vol 12, pages 138-141 (WHO Press Release, October 1960) (“people with psychopathic make-up often become leaders”); and

  • James C. Coleman, Ph.D., Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, 5th ed (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Co, 1976), p 10 (on the long-verified prevalence of psychopaths as high officials; “individuals with psychopathic personality makeup, who tend to exploit power for selfish purposes and have little concern for ethical values or social progress, often become leaders”).

  • Observe especially neo-Confederate politicians. “It is difficult today to comprehend the psychosis of the southern mind. . . .,” says Prof. Clement Eaton, The Freedom-of-Thought Struggle in the Old South (Duke Univ Press, 1940, and New York: Harper & Row, 1964), p 384. P 140 cites them as described as “a set of drunkards, gamblers, and whoremongers,” by abolitionist Daniel Worth. Wherefore due to such factors as that corrosive influence, the U.S.A. is the highest, the worst, in terms of sheer numbers of prosecutions and incarcerations.
    Note the Election Fraud committed by the South and upheld by the President in Kansas in 1850's. The government fought for the election stealing. Southerners saw they could continue this type abuse.
    For an example of the criminal prosecution system targeting blacks vs whites for same activity, see “Sex Across the Color Line: Marcus Dixon, Emmett Till and the New/Old South,” by Tim Wise, Black Commentator, Issue 71 (1 Jan 2004).
    See also Bruce Dixon, "Mass Incarceration is an Abomination," Black Commentator, Issue # 147 (21 July 2005).
    For data on the invention of police departments for social control purposes, and on the process of massively increasing arrests by not following the "Good Neighbor" policy (informal actions such as warnings vs outright arrests), see "The Demand for Order and the Birth of Modern Policing," by Kristian Williams, 55 Monthly Review (#7) 16-23 (December 2003).

    These reasons (crime-defining for power and revenue) continue to be true. Now, after nine centuries of law-manipulations-practice, the crime-defining process is intentionally used by politicians for deliberate malicious legislative purposes.

    Why are we saying this? in DWB context? Answer: Such 'crime-defining' purposes include disenfranchisements of black voters.

    Systemic Abuses Begin

    Unreconstructed Confederates saw that they could do that! They could define, create, invent, new crimes!

    Next, they could establish a vastly enlarged prison system!

    They did so with great malice. They had wanted slavery to continue. They had lost the Civil War (1861-1865).

    Slavery was not ended properly. America never repented of slavery. (Slavery was ended by war, not by repentance.) As soon as the slaves were free, they were abandoned by the North, and brutalized and lynched by the “Religious Right” “Bible-Belt” South. The Bible precedent that one might suppose the "Bible Belt" would appreciate on ending slavery, had not been followed:
  • providing to the freed slaves payment for their labor, in the form of valuables such as jewels, gold, clothing, and supplies. Exodus 12:35-36.

  • killing 10% of the pro-slavery people, i.e., the first-born, about 10% of the 20 million people, i.e., about two million.

  • additionally, killing 100% of the entire slaver army (the Egyptians at the Red Sea, Exodus 14:28); only 25% of Confederate troops were killed.

  • providing land to the freed slaves Joshua 13-22

  • with the bottom-line resulting in wealth so great that silver was spurned (like stones! or in modern terms, small bills), as gold (large bills) was had in such significant abundance (1 Kings 10:21 and 27 and 2 Chronicles 1:15)!
  • Instead of such combination of penalty and "reparations" occurred, the unrepentant slavers were left alive in full possession of their stolen wealth, the product of the unpaid labor of the slaves. These people in the South brutalized the 'freed' slaves, murdered many, and continued revenge via tobacco poisonings and mass criminalization.

    Slavers were left alive, but they were unappreciative and resentful. See, for example, this quote:
    “We [of the South] have been confronted by the condition of a large, ignorant, debased vote, thrust upon us by the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. That vote stands as a menace to the freedom, to the purity of the ballot box, to the purity and honest of elections, to sthe decency of government, and it is there forever until there is a constitutional provision made here which will relieve us from it.”—South Carolina Senator Benjamin Tillman (1847-1918), Congressional Record, 56th Cong., 1st Sess., pp 2245, 3224 (1899).

    Tillman bragged in 1900, "We have done our level best [to prevent blacks from voting] . . . we have scratched our heads to find out how we could eliminate the last one of them. We stuffed ballot boxes. We shot them. We are not ashamed of it." (Quoted by Rayford Logan, The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson [New York: Da Capo Press, 1997], p. 91).

    See also his 23 March 1900 Senate speech advocating disenfranchisement of blacks and lynching of those who protested, saying, e.g., "I want to ask the Senator this proposition in arithmetic: In my State there were 135,000 negro voters, or negroes of voting age, and some 90,000 or 95,000 white voters. . . . Now, I want to ask you, with a free vote and a fair count, how are you going to beat 135,000 by 95,000?"

    Slavers had lost political power. Slavers had controlled the Electoral College, as noted by Lewis Tappan, Social and Political Evils of Slavery (1843), pp 50-51. They wanted that Slavery Era control of the Electoral College back. How to get it?

    Here is a part of the answer, an example. "The prison system in the U.S. remained generally unaltered until the Civil War ended. Following the Civil War, slavery was abolished as a private institution, but the cleverly worded 13th Amendment provided a very large exception, stating: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime…shall exist within the United States.” In the ensuing months and years, states revised the Slave Codes into new “Black Codes,” imprisoning former slaves for acts such as missing work, handling money carelessly, and performing “insulting gestures.” A massive influx of former slaves into the penitentiary resulted, a new form of slavery was born, and the racialization of the U.S. punishment system took root. The unpaid labor of the newly created, mostly black, convict lease system helped the South achieve industrialization," says Jenny Truax, "The U.S. System of Punishment: an expanding balloon of wealth, racism and greed" (28 October 2010)

    In short, slavers developed a prison system, comprising a re-enslavement system. That is bad enough. But worse was to come. That system

    "led to wholesale corruption, extensive trafficking in drugs . . . physical abuse of inmates . . . and an abdication of official responsibility and proper supervision . . . rampant homosexual rape of the younger and weaker inmates . . . unrestrained brutality . . . commonplace . . . medical care was virtually unavailable. . . ."

    The superintendent (Thomas Murton) of one prison who objected to this type systemic abuse (including use of "the Tucker telephone, a torture device used to send an electrical shock to an inmate's testicles" and requiring inmates "to produce enough . . . income to meet the entire costs of running the facility and . . . whipped for not doing their share") was "rebuked by the governor . . . threatened with arrest . . . fired for offending and embarrassing his political superior . . . subsequently became a criminal justice professor at the University of Minnesota."

    For references, here is a list:

    • Holt v Sarver, 309 F Supp 362 (ED Ark, 1970) aff'd 442 F2d 304 (CA 8, 1971)

    • Prof. Thomas Murton, Accomplices to the Crime: The Arkansas Prison Scandal (London: M. Joseph, Pub, 1970)

    • Hutto v Finney, 437 US 678 (US Supreme Court, 1978)

    • Prof. Gerald D. Robin (Univ of New Haven), Introduction to the Criminal Justice System, 3rd ed (New York: Harper & Row, 1987), pp 359-360.

    • Hallett, Prof. Michael Hallett (Univ of N Florida), “Commerce with Criminals: The New Colonialism in Criminal Justice,” 21 Rev Policy Research (#1) 49-62 (January 2004) (cites links between slavery and modern day private prisons)

    • Connie Cass, “Report: 1 of Every 75 U.S. Men in Prison” (Associated Press, Friday, 28 May 2004) (The U.S. is No. 1 in incarcerations in the world. The U.S. has more people per capita incarcerated than any other nation in the world. “In 2003, 68 percent of prison and jail inmates were members of racial or ethnic minorities, the government said. An estimated 12 percent of all black men in their 20s were in jails or prisons, as were 3.7 percent of Hispanic men and 1.6 percent of white men in that age group.”)

    • Bob Herbert, "America's Abu Ghraibs" (New York Times, Monday, 31 May 2004) ("Not only are inmates at prisons in the U.S. frequently subjected to similarly grotesque treatment, but Congress passed a law in 1996 to ensure that in most cases they were barred from receiving any financial compensation for the abuse. We routinely treat prisoners in the United States like animals. We brutalize and degrade them, both men and women. And we have a lousy record when it comes to protecting well-behaved, weak and mentally ill prisoners from the predators surrounding them.")

    • William March, "Delays, Purge Hit Voter Rolls" (7 June 2004)

    • Michael Moore, "Fahrenheit 9/11" (Movie, 13 June 2004) (has sections on the stealing of the Florida 2000 Election)

    • PFAW, "The Long Shadow of Jim Crow: Voter Intimidation and Suppression in America Today" (August 2004)

    Other examples include this one, from

    "a colored prisoner farm . . . three miles out of Clarksdale, Mississippi.

    "[The author] was the cook's helper, and saw some of what went on. Every time a prisoner came they whipped him, called it 'nitiating' him, to let him know where his whipping post was; and they whipped him again before he went out to work. . . . They'd give him an extra gift for his work. . . . They would make him lay on his stomach crost a barrel, and some would hold his head and the others his feet. And the whipping boss, a white man, would whip him with a strap of leather with round holes cut in it, to make blisters on the skin.

    "I saw them whip one man to death . . . morning and night until he . . . just lay in his cage. . . . He couldn't even get [up] to get his food. The feeder wasn't allowed [to help, just] leave the sick man's [food out-of-reach]. I'd [instead] take the bread and roll it up in a piece of paper and throw it to his bunk, like a puppy. They told me I'd get prison for life if they found that out. He died and they buried him in the farm cemetary, just like he was; didn't wash or change him. 'Cause the hole was too short they stomped on him, mashed, tramped, bent him down in there, and threw dirt on him."

    —From "The Prison Farm," by Mary Richardson, Item 158 in Richard M. Dorson, PhD (Prof, History and Folklore, Indiana University), American Negro Folktales (Greenwich, Conn: Fawcett Pubs, Inc, 1956, 1958, 1967), p 288.

    For an overview of modern prison abuses, see
  • "Prisoner Abuse and The Drug War -- What You Can Do," by Richard Lake (14 May 2004)

  • "The Dark Side of America: A system to monitor conditions in our prisons, which have grown tenfold over the last 30 years, is long overdue," New York Times (17 May 2004)

  • Prison Lifer Ratio Study," by "The Sentencing Project" (May 2004) (1 in 11 US prisoners is serving a life sentence)
  • Torture Examples from Slavery Era
  • Axe-Murder
  • Eye-Gouging
  • Racking and Salting
  • Skinning
  • Torture-Murder
  • Whip-to-Death
  • Torture had been a way of life before the Civil War. Nothing changed thereafter in neo-Confederates' attitudes.

    In fact, the neo-Confederates, soon after the Civil War,

    "developed a new form of slavery known as convict leasing. Renting prisoners from the states' overcrowded prison systems provided the contractors with cheap labor and the states with welcome revenue.

    "As the demand for convict labor increased, blacks were arrested on ever more petty charges such as vagrancy, fistfighting or carrying a weapon, and shipped off to chain gangs. There they were ill-fed, poorly clothed and brutally treated; the death rate among them ran as high as 50 percent in South Carolina."—Richard W. Murphy, et al., ed., The Nation Reunited: War's Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), p 124.

    "Meanwhile the vicious system generated enormous fortunes for some. A planter named Edmund Richardson got control of almost all the convicts in Missiissippi and became for a time the biggest cotton producer in the South; by dealing shrewdly in convicts, Alabama state warden John H. Bankhead grew wealthy on a salary of $2,000 a year; Georgia's . . . political boss Joseph Brown made his postwar fortune with convicts leased from the state for seven cents a day.

    "In fact, so many powerful people profited from the system that it took reformers decades to end it." Murphy, supra, p 124. See also Prof. Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2003) and PBS.

    But reformers ended only one tiny portion of the abuses. Let's see what was not ended.

    Reformers failed to end the money motivation in the "criminal justice" system. "Crime is down, but the prison biz is booming—it creates jobs and corporate profits." "[E]very one of them . . . becomes another lasting monument . . . to the fear and greed and political cowardice that now pervade American society."—Eric Schlosser, "The Prison-Industrial Complex," 282 Atlantic Monthly (#6) 51-77 (Dec 1998).

    Note, secondly, this example: "Study: More blacks in prison than college" (Macomb Daily, p 6A, Thursday, 29 Aug 2002): "more blacks were in Michigan prisons from 1985 to 2000 than were in its higher education system. For 2000, there were 24,300 blacks in Michigan prisons and 21,454 in its colleges and universities, according to the study, titled 'Cellblocks or Classrooms? The Funding of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African-American Men.'" The study was by Laura Jones and Jason Ziedenberg of the Justice Policy Institute. "Michigan increased spending on higher education $430 million, or 27 percent and corrections spending [see example] grew almost $1.11 billion, or 227 percent during the 15-year period examined, according to the report."

    In reading the next section, bear in mind this fact: Southerners already knew how to manipulate their state constitutions to violate basic moral and legal principles, such as those in the Declaration of Independence.—Rev. John Rankin, Letters on American Slavery (Ohio: 1823), p 68.

    This crucial crimininalization-related fact was known as long as the 17th century: "Tobacco, with its mind-dulling narcotic capacities, was ideally suited to [convey] character ranges from naive, earthy simpleton to diligent worker to aggressive brute. Not unlike the breakfast beer soup that predated coffee as a morning drink, tobacco was, in a sense, a way of keeping the lower classes in their place–a class in a perpetual state of drunkenness poses little threat. Along the same lines, the peasant [or black] represented a means to criticize tobacco use as a dirty and unsophisticated custom, but at the same time to justify further commerce in tobacco and its related products," says "The Culture of Smoke: Low-Life" (New York Public Library, 1997-1998, citing 17th century attitutde, already well-aware of tobacco's brain damaging and debilitating qualities.

    "The 18th-century smoking club [used] the devilish herb. In this milieu, its [tobacco's] narcotic effects are plainly, blatantly sought and achieved," says "The Culture of Smoke: High-Life" (New York Public Library, 1997-1998, citing 18th century awareness of tobacco as narcotic, a fact then easily known to the Confederates.

    In short, the US prison system began its massive expansion after the Civil War. Angry hate-filled revenge-seeking unreconstructed Confederates, conservatives angry at Yankees, determined to

  • a. massively expand their crime causation system
  • b. flood America with the starter drug so as to massively increase drug use
  • c. set in motion a vast crime harvest.
  • d. massively jail people, especially black people
  • e. damage the economy by massively increasing our prison costs

    The Development of
    Post-Civil-War-Law Abuses

    “When you head South, you're talking about two things—tobacco farmers and evangelicals,” said Ralph Reed.

    Their own records show knowledge of the fact that tobacco effects include "disturbances . . . on the bronchial surface of the lung" and the fact that "no smoker can ever be said . . . to be well."—"Effects of Tobacco," The Confederate States Medical & Surgical Journal (November 1864).

    The roots of the modern DWB-VWB process began shortly after the Civil War. Here's how it came about. We start with unknown-to-laymen medical data on the drug-sequence useage process:

    Cigarettes are the starter drug, the one typically first-used. Minority youth are disproportionately targeted to do this. Tobacco pushers sell illegal cigarettes to minority children in particular, as shown by Elizabeth A. Klonoff, et al., "An Experimental Analysis of Sociocultural Variables in Sales of Cigarettes to Minors," 87 Am J Pub Health (#5) 823-826 (May 1997). Illegal sales are MORE to minority youth, than to white youth. See also details by Meg Gallogly, "Tobacco Company Marketing to African-Americans" (5 January 2006).

    Cigarettes cause "the worst of all drug habits, the smoking of tobacco"—Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., The Tobacco Habit: Its History and Pathology (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912), p 69.

    Slavery was disproportionately by tobacco farmers. They began the major use of slaves in the U.S. See Glenn Porter, ed., Encyclopedia of American Economic History, Vol II (NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980), "Slavery," pp 552-561. It says "of the American slave population . . . most worked in tobacco," p 552. This occurred early, "by the end of the [seventeenth] century [1700] plantation gangs were almost wholly composed of Negroes."—Jerome E. Brooks, The Mighty Leaf: Tobacco Through the Centuries (Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1952), p 99.

    Cigarettes are a Confederate product which abolitionists boycotted (like modern boycotts of apartheid South Africa). For this website, we confine our analysis to the fact that cigarettes are the starter drug delivery mechanism, foreseeably leading to subsequent additional drug abuse. (Our other websites (see overview)   provide more details).

    And, the methodology of how to do legitimate genuine crime prevention has been known since the 1830's, continuously in research, through to the present day era. DWB involves taking actions contrary to that methodology.

    Quick background: Slavery had been illegal and unconstitutional, yet slavers, originally mostly tobacco farmers, did it anyway.

    Salmon P. Chase (1837) Frederick Douglass (1860) William Goodell (1852)
    Abraham Lincoln (1854) Horace Mann (1849) Samuel J. May (1836)
    George Mellen (1841) Edward Rogers (1855) Benjamin Shaw (1846)
    Alvan Stewart (1845) Lysander Spooner (1845) Joel Tiffany (1849)

    A significant factor in slavery was rape, mass rape. In the post-Civil War era, these same people, now called "ex"-Confederates, resented Yankees having "stolen" their slaves. Among many reprisals, they resisted blacks' right to vote.

    “The right of voting for representatives is the primary right by which all other rights are protected. To take away this right is to reduce a man to slavery.”
    —Thomas Paine, Founding Father

    Election - 1860

    The "red states" - "blue states" issue was evident then. Recall that many "red states," called "grey" then, did not accept the results of the election. They resented that Abraham Lincoln had been duly elected. So they organized massive violence to try to overthrow the election results! For more background on the subject, see our excerpt from the pertinent book by Henry Wilson, The History of the Rise and Fall of Slavepower in America by Henry Wilson (Boston, 1877).

    The seceding "red states" resented that the 1860 election was barely won by the anti-slavery-expansion party of Abraham Lincoln. The pro-slavery side running John Breckinridge for President had nearly won. Lincoln had not won a majority of the popular vote, only about 39.8%. Lincoln had barely won a majority in the slavery-dominated Electoral College.
    The pro-slavery "red states" side was so dominant, that if just one state, say, New York, had switched sides, Lincoln would not have had an Electoral College majority; and the Presidency under the Constitution would have been decided by the House of Representatives.
    “Breckinridge was pledged to take” “pro-slavery actions. He certainly would have appointed pro-slavery justices to . . . the Supreme Court. . . . Breckinridge also favored the admission of New Mexico and other national territories . . . as slave states, so the balance between free and slave states would have been permanently destroyed. [Also a factor] was the determination of Breckinridge [advocates] to extend the empire of slavery by purchasing, or conquering, Cuba. . . . a Breckinridge victory would have assured that the United States remained a slaveholding nation.” Reference: History Prof. David Herbert Donald, “1860: The Road Not Taken,” 35 Smithsonian (#7) 54-56 (October 2004).
    The South could easily see that if it could control just one more such state, it could retain control of the nation.

    Coming so close to having won, the seceding "red states" vowed to in essence overturn the election results. Remember, that same anti-election results continues.

    "When the registration of voters in the 10 unreconstructed Southern states was completed in September of 1867, there were an estimated 735,000 blacks and 635,000 whites on the rolls." Murphy, supra, p 67.

    1867 Registered Voters Data: Examples
    North Carolina72,000106,000
    South Carolina80,00046,000

    The unreconstructed Confederates saw that for the then upcoming 1868 election, that in a number of locations, they could be outvoted. But they also saw that they could re-dominate, if they would ruthlessly obstruct and prevent black voting.

    Do that, obstruct black voting, they could re-dominate America and the Presidency, as before the Civil War. (For background, see abolitionist Henry Wilson's analysis.)

    And remember, before the Civil War, blacks generally could not vote.

    The 'ex-'Confederates, "unreconstructed Cofnederates," saw, plainly, in the close 1868 election, that they could re-dominate America and the Presidency only if blacks were once again, rendered unable to vote.

    You may recall that Andrew Johnson was then President having been elected with Lincoln in 1864. Why did his party not re-nominate him, and instead chose Grant? Because Johnson had "sold out," sold out to the South. He sabotaged Reconstruction efforts, ignored the mass violence and lynchings of blacks, ignored the anti-black laws being passed in Southern states, generally took a wicked anti-freedom, pro-South position on every point.
    His party saw that he was abandoning its policies, and positioning himself to get Southern votes to be re-elected. He pretended to be trying to unify the country after the War, but in reality, had no such interest.
    He had been a long-time illiterate who couldn't read until his wife taught him. He hated blacks. He had had slaves and had typical slaver morals (the webmaster personally knows one of his black descendants!)
    Johnson did not care about blacks' rights, so had no moral qualms about selling out America, about taking the immoral point of view. His emphasis was promoting his personal vanity, covetousness, and greed.
    As having lived in the "Slave Power," in Tennessee, he well knew the South's long-time lockhold on the federal government and its obsessive pro-slavery policies in defiance of the Constitution.
    “The policy of the federal government down through the years, despite several conspicuous exceptions, had been predominantly supportive of slavery. . . . That was the impression given in the national capital . . . . That was the image presented in diplomacy to the rest of the world.”—Don E. Fehrenbacher, Ph.D. (1920-1998), The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States Government's Relation to Slavery, ed. Ward M. McAfee (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).
    Johnson was willing to go along, so abandoned his party, so it naturally did not nominate him, but chose war hero General Grant instead.

      The unreconstructed Confederates clearly saw that the black vote was sufficient to swing elections against them, including at the Presidency. For example, in 1868, Presidential candidate General Ulysses S. Grant LOST the election among the nation's total 5,000,000 white voters (North and South combined), 2,300,000 vs 2,700,00 for the opponent. So Grant's opponent would have won by 400,000 votes, and restored Southern control immediately, the first election after Lincoln!

    How did Grant win in 1868 (meaning the Grant-Henry Wilson ticket: Wilson was an abolitionist and anti-slavery activist exposing Southern political machinations)?

    Answer: The Grant-ticket received almost 700,000 black votes (almost all the 735,000 black voters!). Those newly enfranchised black voters' crucial swing votes thus made Grant-Wilson the winner 3,000,000 to 2,700,000. Unreconstructed Confederates could see that this was barely 300,000 votes ahead.—Prof. Oscar Sherwin (English, City College NY), Prophet of Liberty: Wendell Phillips (New York: Bookman Associates, 1958), p 565.

    Unreconstructed Southerners (e.g., KKK founder Nathan Bedford Forrest) saw that if they (see KKK History Video) could eliminate the black vote (or just significantly reduce it), they could once again dominate America and the Presidency. So how to do that?

    The U.S. Constitution, seemingly, forbad the South from directly stopping blacks from voting. But the ex-Confederates found a loop-hole.

    Referring to this loophole does not mean that intimidation and mass murders were not also used. But this site focuses on what is continuing to present. Examples of mass murders in the post-Civil-War South are too numerous to list. But here are examples.

  • "A favorite . . . terror tactic was the incited riot: Whenever [pro-black-voting-rights activists] gathered, armed whites would provoke an incident and open fire. . . . In rural areas, blacks suspected of [pro-voting] sympathies were routinely murdered. . . . stalking and shooting fleeing blacks . . . . 'just the same as birds' . . . ." Murphy, supra, pp 145-147.

  • One "election day, armed whites turned blacks away from the polls while voting repeatedly themselves [with] a cannon loaded with chains and slugs trained on the voting place . . . Any blacks brave enough to approach the ballot boxes were surrounded and beaten . . . [example] where there had been a racial massacre, seven [anti-neo-Confederate] votes were recorded in this election, compared to 2,500 in the previous one." Murphy, supra, pp 147-148.

  • In Mississippi, the neo-Confederates "obliterated the [opposing] majority of 30,000 votes of two years earlier and replaced it with a [neo-Confederate] majority of 30,000." Murphy, supra, pp 148.

  • Conclusion from the 1868 example of a 300,000 vote margin: It takes changing merely 60,000 votes in just five Southern states for national election results to be reversed. And there had been eleven states in the Confederacy! This was far more than enough for the South to once again dominate the federal government. The motive to destroy the black vote was clearly there, raising the topic at hand, the continuing assault on the black vote to change election results.
    Post-war Confederate guerillas went so far in one area as to post a murder notice of killings to "continue until the Radical Party is exterminated . . .," say Prof. James M. Smallwood, Barry A. Crouch, and Larry Peacock, Murder and Mayhem: The War of Reconstruction in Texas (College Station: Texas A&M Univ Press, 2003), p 82 (Review 1,   2,   3). Confederate guerillas "understood the political situation . . . continued to drape themselves in the Lost Cause and posture as Confderate heroes trying to save . . . the old pro-slavery party," p 82. Confederate guerillas "ordered all freedpeople in the area to leave the state altogether . . . disobedience would mean 'immediate, instant death,'" p 82. Unionists realized "that one of the principal objects to be attained by 'the notice and threats to Union men, white and black[,] was to discourage them and tender them powerless at the anticipated Election.'" The Confderate guerillas succeeded, their violent actions "'to compel the Unionists through fraud to leave the country, this having to a great extent been accomplished,'" p 82. Confederate guerillas "searched for any means, fair or foul, to discourage white Unionists and freedmen from voting," p 82.
    See also David W. Padrusch, Aftershock: Beyond the Civil War (A & E, 2006), for more on the Confederate violence pattern. For example, Confederates in 1866 New Orleans wounded, shot, and dispersed the delegates to the Lousiana constitutional convention, and their supporters, lest they vote to allow blacks to vote.
    "Much more mayhem developed before [one] chapter of the Second Civil War ran its course. Writing . . . in July of 1869, Lt. William Hoffman may have given the best analysis of the turmoil, an analysis that is still thought provoking for those who study the Reconstruction era today. Hoffman said that the Southern rebels' hatred for the white loyalists and for the freedmen was such that it could never be overcome. The freedmen's situation was deplorable, he said, as he echoed the sentiments of all those who had seen blacks robbed or beaten, raped or murdered. White Union civilians were similarly persecuted, with some of their number also being killed. Even worse, Lieutenant Hoffman surmised that the [Confederate] hatred would be passed from one generation to the next: 'The coming generation, children and children's children[,] are zealously reared to the one great tenet: implacable hatred to the [Union] government.' The subsequent history of the South suggests that young Hoffman knew of what he spoke," say Prof. Smallwood, et al, Murder and Mayhem, supra, p 116.
    See also Ronald Brownstein, The Second Civil War: How Extreme Partisanship Has Paralyzed Washington and Polarized America (2007).
    "Attitudes that provoked the Civil War and still cause much red state-blue state nastiness have never disappeared, whether the issue is race, religion, guns, states' rights, trade, central banks or immigration," a quote from the review by Prof. Geoffrey Wawro of the book by Simon Winchester, OBE, The Men Who United the States (Harper Collins Pub, 15 October 2013). Thus, for example, in Confederate Georgia, a century and half after the Civil War, a Georgia county (Dekalb) still lists "slave" as an occupation on an official government form, the jury questionnaire, says Travis Gettys, "Residents Shocked that Dekalb County Juror Form Lists Slave as Occupation" (27 November 2013).
    In Congress, a number of black congressmen, newly elected after the Civil War, sought to prevent this type assault on rights. Laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and the Ku Klux Klan Act were passed. Click here for excerpts of speeches on same. But the grey vs blue continues even yet, renamed as red states vs blue states.
    Constitutionally, of course, the right to vote is protected in more than the initial allocation of the franchise. Equal protection applies as well to the manner of its exercise. "Once the franchise is granted to the electorate, lines may not be drawn which are inconsistent with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment." Having once granted the right to vote on equal terms, the State may not, by later arbitrary and disparate treatment, value one person's vote over that of another. See, e.g., Harper v. Virginia Bd. of Elections, 383 U.S. 663, 665; 86 S. Ct. 1079; 16 L. Ed. 2d 169 (1966). But we see here, how easily that constitutional principle has been circumvented in practice.
  • Presidential Election Background 1860-1884
    The Presidential Elections 1860-1884 Site features cartoons from Harper's Weekly, especially by Thomas Nast, and from Vanity Fair, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, Puck, and the Library of Congress Collection of American Political Prints, 1766-1876. In addition to explanations of each cartoon, the site has biographies, explanations of issues, campaign overviews, and other relevant information.

    The 1876 Presidential Election

    For information on the corruption of the 1876 election, in which Southern states such as Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, played a significant role, see sites such as






  • And see details below.
    The 1876 Presidential election result was not finally known until two days before Inauguration Day, 4 March 1877. This precedent contrasts with the Supreme Court 12 December 2000, rushing a halt to the vote counting process, weeks before the scheduled Inauguration Day, 20 January 2001.
    The 1876 election theft was so notorious as to have resulted in a classic novel, Gore Vidal's 1876: A Novel (New York: Random House, 1976; and London: Heinemann, 1976).
  • Unreconstructed Southerners hated America for the Civil War casualties: "roughly a quarter [25%] of the South's able-bodied men—lay dead," Source: Steven A. Channing, et al., eds. The Civil War: Confederate Ordeal: The Southern Home Front (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1989), p 3.

    Southerners had already shown ability to carry on evil for centuries, passing it on to descendants for generations, says George Mellen, Unconstitutionality of Slavery (Boston: Saxton & Pierce, 1841), p 29.
    This passing on the Old South's hatreds continues to present (March 2013). See “CPAC Participant Defends Slavery At Minority Outreach Panel” (15 March 2013): “A panel at the Conservative Political Action Committee on Republican minority outreach exploded into controversy on Friday afternoon, after an audience member defended slavery as good for African-Americans. The exchange occurred after an audience member from North Carolina, 30-year-old Scott Terry, asked whether Republicans could endorse races remaining separate but equal. . . . After the exchange, Terry muttered under his breath, 'why can’t we just have segregation?' . . . . ThinkProgress spoke with Terry, who sported a Rick Santorum sticker and attended CPAC with a friend who wore a Confederate Flag-emblazoned t-shirt, about his views after the panel. . . . When asked by ThinkProgress if he’d accept a society where African-Americans were permanently subservient to whites, he said 'I’d be fine with that.' He also claimed that . . . 'all the Tea Parties' were concerned with the same racial problems that he was. At one point, a woman challenged him on the Republican Party’s roots, to which Terry responded, 'I didn’t know the legacy of the Republican Party included women correcting men in public.' He claimed to be a direct descendent of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.”

    Unreconstructed Southerners hated America for winning the Civil War; "loathing of the North was widespread and unrelenting. A Savannah woman taught her children never to utter the word ‘Yankee' without adding the epithets ‘hateful' and ‘thieving.' A North Carolina innkeeper told a Northern journalist that the Yankees had killed his sons, burned his house and stolen his slaves, leaving him only with the privilege of venting his spleen: ‘I get up at half-past four in the morning, and sit up till twelve at night, to hate ‘em.'" Source: Richard W. Murphy, ed. The Civil War: The Nation Reunited: War's Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), p 28.

    Naturally the South was filled with hate of the North. The North had stopped their "fun."

  • Slavers had committed rape; the 1860 census had shown 588,000 mulatto women. Source: Barbara Goldsmith, Other Powers (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), p 154. Quadroons are offspring of a mulatto and a white; octoroons, of a quadroon and a white. Slavers could make 20 times annual pay, by raping the slave woman. Pretty quadroons and octoroons sold for $2,500, 20 times normal white worker pay. Rape = wealth for tobacco farmer rapists.

  • "A few traders had [had] special rooms for displaying 'choice stock'—pretty quadroons and octoroons who fetched up to $2,500 or more from New Orleans brothel owners."—Davis, The Civil War: Brother: The War Begins, supra, p 51. Est. 15 prostitution clients per slave-girl per day, @ $0.50 each, for 300 days, is $2,225 in one year, a large (89%) return on investment.

  • This "fancy girls" issue, "choice stock," had related to "'that which is ever a curse to a slave girl'—personal beauty," says Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1964, rev. ed. (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964), chap. 4, p 86.

  • These issues had long been cited by Rev. John Rankin, Letters (1823), pp 34-35 (unchastity), and p 33 (nudity).

  • Slavers, tobacco farmers, had invented modern public live pornography, strip-shows. "The slaves . . . were paraded in front of the white shoppers . . . women were often stripped. . . 'The customers would feel our bodies,' recalled a former slave."—Davis, The Civil War: Brother: The War Begins, supra, p 50. The lazy, stupid, ignorant scum known as slavers thus could become wealthy.

  • "Miscegenation, most typically between white men and black women, and the consequent mixed offspring of such unions, was one of the most bizarre aspects of American slavery. The sexual exploitation by white masters of their female slaves was a conspicuous part of Southern life."—Page Smith, Ph.D., A People's History of the Young Republic, Vol 3, The Shaping of America (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1980), p 447. See also William I. Bowditch, "White Slavery In The United States" (New York, N.Y.: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855)

  • Southern slavers had been immersed in "vice . . . immorality . . . corrupt inclinations . . . lascivious conversation . . . almost everything wicked and obscene . . . lewdness." —Rev. John Rankin, Letters, supra, p 62.

  • "'There is not a likely-looking black girl in the state,' a planter had told Frederick Law Olstead, 'that is not the concubine of a white man. There is not an old plantation in which the grandchildren of the owner are not whipped in the field by the overseers.'" —Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower: supra, chap. 10, p 251.

    Wherefore abolitionists had correctly said that "The Slave States are Sodoms, and almost every village family is a brothel," citing "a million and a half of slave women, some of them without even the tinge of African blood . . . prey to the unbridled lusts of their masters."

    Naturally, the South hated the "damn Yankees" for spoiling and ending their "fun."

  • One planter lamented about the change, "I never did a day's work in my life, and don't know how to begin." Source: Richard W. Murphy, ed. The Civil War: The Nation Reunited: War's Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), p 33. (Details)

    Worse for blacks, slavers had discovered, to their surprise, that blacks could fight. They'd fought for the Union, about 200,000 of them (200 regiments). See, e.g., Prof. Bruce Levine's Fall of the House of Dixie. Unreconstructed Southerners accordingly decided on genocide against blacks.

    The Ku Klux Klan was created with a goal to "kill or drive away leading Negroes and only let the humble and submissive remain." Theirs was a "moderate voice" in comparison to the fact that Southern OFFICIALS early decided upon genocide (100% extermination) as policy. The Memphis "chief of police told his men to ‘kill the last damned one of the nigger race, and burn up the cradle." Source: Richard W. Murphy, ed. The Civil War: The Nation Reunited: War's Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), p 34.

    Admittedly, there were some Federal troops, but demobilization was the Union goal (only 50,000 remaining after 800,000 were "mustered out" before 1865 ended), understandably trying to return to normal life after the catastrophe caused by the South's genocidal activity. This southern terrorist goal of genocide continued, as one Southerner admitted, "If you take away the military from Tennessee, the buzzards can't eat up the naggers as fast as we'll kill ‘em." Source: Richard W. Murphy, ed. The Civil War: The Nation Reunited: War's Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), pp 25 and 36.

    Unreconstructed Southerners, tobacco farmers, murderers, rapists, terrorists, were enraged that we moral Yankees had "stolen their slaves." They had enjoyed raping women, now we moral Yankees stopped their fun. They were mad. The revenge process, killing Yankees and blacks, was soon evident. For example, see the book by Sidney Andrews, The South Since The War (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866), especially pp 1-11 and 21-28. Such southerners deemed murder a right!

    "A crime storm of devastating [terrorist] fury swept over the South. Negro school houses and churches were burned. Ears were cropped and throats cut. Men and women were stabbed, maimed, outraged, shot and hanged. Others were hunted and killed by dogs. In North and South Carolina alone, within a period of eighteen months, General Canby reported 197 murders and 548 cases of aggravated assault. In Alabama corpses dangled for months from trees to poison the air and make the traveler sick with horror. . . .'there is not one man or woman in all the South who believes they [blacks] are free, but we consider them as stolen property—stolen by the bayonets of the damnable United states government.'"—Prof. Oscar Sherwin, Prophet of Liberty: The Life and Times of Wendell Phillips (New York: Bookman Associates, 1958), pp 529-530.

    Union General Carl Schurz (assigned in the South) wrote a Report on his findings: "Wherever I go, the street, the shop, the house, the hotel, or the steamboat, I hear the people talk in such a way as to indicate that they are yet unable to conceive of the Negro as possessing any [human] rights at all. Men who are honorable in their dealings with their white neighbors will cheat a Negro without a single twinge of their honor. To kill a Negro they do not deem murder; to debauch a Negro woman, they do not think fornication; to take the property away from a Negro, they do not consider robbery."—Senate Executive Document No. 2, Report of Carl Schurz, Condition of the South, 39th Congress, 1st Session, p 81.

    Lying to slaves, cheating them, taking their money and not delivering as promised, had been acceptable in the debauched immorality of the pre-War South, and upheld in Southern courts! See cases such as Norris v Patton's Admin'r, 15 B. Mon. 575; 54 Ky 575; 1855 WL 4178 (Summer Term 1855), and prior precedents cited by the slaver therein, e.g, Rankin v Lydia, 2 Mon. 476; Cook v Cook, 3 Lit. 239; Graham v Strader, 5 B. Mon. 179; 44 Ky 179 (1844) aff'd 51 U.S. 82 (10 How.) 13 L. Ed. 337 (1850); Willis v Bruce & Warfield, 8 B. Mon. 550; Collins v America, 9 B. Mon. 572; Maria v Kirby, 12 B. Mon. 545 and Major v Winn, 13 B. Mon. 251.

    Union General Philip H. Sheridan saw this Southern killing-mentality against blacks, "over the killing of many freedmen in the settlements, nothing is done." Asked what he thought of Texas, he said scathingly commenting on their low morals and genocidal mentality, "If I owned hell and Texas, I would rent Texas out and live in hell." See Phil Sheridan and His Army (Lincoln: Univ of Nebraska Press, 1985; and Norman: Univ of Oklahoma Press, 1999), by Univ. of New Mexico History Prof. Paul Andrew Hutton (1949-). See also Prof. James M. Smallwood, Barry A. Crouch, and Larry Peacock, Murder and Mayhem: The War of Reconstruction in Texas (College Station: Texas A&M Univ Press, 2003), p 16 (Review 1,   2,   3).

    Ed. Note: Texas' moral depravity is well-depicted in the movie “The Last Picture Show” (1971), one episode of debauchery after another.

    "The plan: reduce blacks to political impotence. How? By the boldest and most ruthless political operation in American history. By stealth and murder, by economic intimidation and political assassinations, by whippings and maimings, cuttings and shootings, by the knife, by the rope, by the whip. By the political use of terror, by the braining of the baby in its mother's arms, the slaying of the husband at his wife's feet, the raping of the wife before her husband's eyes. By Fear."—Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1964, rev. ed. (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964), chap. 8, p 197.

    "The [Southern] white population organized for war. The Negro population, at the same time, was [unconstitutionally] systematically disarmed. By hook and crook, on any and every pretext, the homes of Negroes were searched and arms were systematically appropriated [confiscated]" (Bennett, p 216).

    Re a disarmed people, oppressors' violence as per their motivation, follows.

    To prevent the election as President of General Ulysses S. Grant, unreconstructed Southerners used mass violence. “In the South, white supremacists launched a campaign of terror designed to prevent blacks and their supporters from voting. ‘I intend to kill Radicals [pro-voting rights activists],’ vowed the Ku Klux Klan’s General Nathan Bedford Forrest; subsequently, more than 200 political murders were reported in Arkansas alone.” Source: Richard W. Murphy, ed. The Civil War: The Nation Reunited: War’s Aftermath (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1987), p 76.

    Southerners had prevented both blacks and mulattoes from voting before, says Virginia author S. G. Tucker, Dissertation on Slavery (1796), pp 17-18, footnote f. Southerners, having not repented of their immoralities, determined to continue that approach.

    Neo-Confederate Southerners' immediate "issue" was their opposition to "Reconstruction." They were being forced to allow public education, allow blacks (for whom reading and writing had formerly been illegal) to learn to read and write, allow blacks to vote. (Southerners also supported a concerted attack on education to 'dumb it down,' e.g., to delete teaching of the American culture and rights awareness that had led to anti-slavery activism.)

    The unreconstructed South adopted the manipulation tactics herein described so fast as to be able, in a mere eight years, to alter the 1876 election results. Yes, in a mere eight (8) years, the South established sufficent disenfranchisement tactics to obstruct the 1876 election, a mere 8 years after Grant had won, wom by virtue of the black vote.

    The South did "defeat" the ex-Civil War Union general candidate for President, Rutherford B. Hayes. How? by fraud, violence against, and intimidation of, would-be black voters.

    Rutherford B. Hayes himself said so, in his diary. Note from five days after election day 7 Nov 1876, his November 12 entry:

    "We shall, the fair-minded men of the country will, history will, hold that the [Yankee candidates himself and intended Vice-President] were by fraud, violence, and intimidation, by a nullification of the Fifteenth Amendment, deprived of the victory which [we] fairly won."

    Note Rutherford's November 27 diary entry: "A fair election would have given us about forty electoral votes in the South. . . . [The racist South has won, has defeated us] by violence, intimidation, and fraud . . . ."

    But as candidate Hayes' party still controlled the Presidency (Grant), the Senate, the Supreme Court, and the 15 member Election Analysis Commission, the South did condescend to allow him to take office, but only by his surrendering on principle, agreeing to immediately
  • (1) end "Reconstruction," and

  • (2) drop all constitutional enforcement action that would enable blacks to vote thereafter, without being subjected to violence and intimidation.
  • The 1876 presidential election results were stalled until the morning of 2 March 1877, only HOURS before the inauguration 4 March! No corrupt Supreme Court, unlike in the 2000 election, intervened, forced a halt to voting-system analysis.

    Since the South forced President Hayes' (1877-1881) to cease protecting blacks' right to vote, the right of blacks to vote was thus practically ended by that stolen 1876 election. Not until almost a century later, with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's, was genuine effort made to begin anew "Reconstruction," enforcing the right of blacks to vote.

    As we see here, the neo-Confederate South has obstructed that modern "Reconstruction," via the criminalization process described herein.

    No more cannons aimed at would-be voters, instead, manufactured criminal records; and police road-blocks at approaches to election polling places, and assaults of persons educating blacks on their right to vote. See, e.g., Cassandra Spratling, "Facing danger, fighting to be free" (Detroit Free Press, 30 January 2011, pp 1A, 4A-5A ), police use of pistol-whippings, and false charges of "disturbing the peace" and "bringing an uprising among the people."

    For more on the massive disenfrachisement process, see Joseph Hayden, "Echoes of Juneteenth haunt us today," San Francisco Chronicle (Thursday, 19 June 2003). Hayden is an activist at, where this article is reprinted. "Demos is a non-partisan public policy organization working to improve our democracy and to foster greater economic opportunity and less disparity."

    Above, we said there was a loop-hole. That loop-hole was, and still is, this. The U.S. Constitution allowed slavery as a penalty for crime, i.e., allowed imprisonment. (In constitutional terms, imprisonment is a form of slavery; being imprisoned is tantamount to being a slave.)

    The U.S. Constitution allowed disenfranchisement of criminals.

    Mark that well; the Constitution allows slavery (jail) and disenfranchisement for crime!

    This is a loop-hole in the Thirteenth Amendment that the ex-Confederates ruthlessly exploited then and still exploit now.

    How? you ask. Answer: ex-Confederates in office manipulated state Constitutions' voter qualifications:
    • allowing voting despite crimes they felt they (whites) commit (e.g., murder),

    • while disenfranchising for crimes they felt blacks commit (e.g., burglary). Source: the above-cited Andrew L. Shapiro, "Challenging Criminal Disenfranchisement Under the Voting Rights Act: A New Strategy," 103 Yale Law J 537-566 (Nov 1993).

    • "For example, Mississippi's 1890 constitutional convention, which became a model for other states, replaced an 1869 constitutional provision disenfranchising citizens convicted of 'any crime' with a narrower section disenfranchising only those convicted of certain crimes, which blacks were supposedly more likely than whites to commit," says Shapiro at p 540, citing the poll tax case of Sheriff Ratliff v Beale, 74 Miss 247, 265-266; 20 So 865, 867; 34 LRA 472 (30 Nov 1896), saying blacks were more "convicted of bribery, burglary, theft, arson, obtaining money or goods under false pretenses, perjury, forgery, embezzlement or bigamy."

    • "Burglary, theft, arson, and obtaining money under false pretenses were declared to be disqualifications, while [white crimes such as] robbery and murder, and other [white] crimes in which violence was the principal ingredient, were not," Ratliff, p 267, and Shapiro, p 541.

    • "'Among the disqualifying crimes were those to which he [the would-be black voter] was [believed] esprcially prone: thievery, adultery, arson, wife-beating, housebreaking, and attempted rape. Such crimes as murder and fighting, to which the white man was as disposed as the Negro, were significantly omitted from the [voter disqualiification] list,'" says Shapiro, p 541 citing Francis B. Simpkins, Pitchfork Ben Tillman (1944), p 297.

    • Said the Mississippi Supreme Court in a decision analyzing the 1892 Mississippi Constitutional Convention: "[T]he convention swept the circle of [adopted all] expedients [tactics, devices, tricks of wording] to obstruct the exercise of the franchise by the negro race. By reason of its previous condition of servitude and dependence, this race had [the disenfranchisers felt] acquired or accentuated certain particularities of habit, of temperament and of character, which clearly distinguished it, as a race, from that of the whites—a patient, docile people, but careless, landless, and migratory within narrow limits, without forethought, and its criminal members given rather to furtive offenses than to the robust [violent] crimes of the whites. Restrained by the federal constitution from discriminating against the negro race [per se], the convention discriminated against its characteristics and the offenses to which its weaker members were [believed] prone. . . . Burglary, theft, arson, and obtaining money under false pretenses were declared to be disqualifications, while robbery and murder, and other crimes in which violence was the principal ingredient, were not."--Ratliff v Beale, 74 Miss 247, 265-266; 20 So 865 (1896), cited by Shapiro, p 541.

    • "At their [respective state constitutional] conventions, other states, including South Carolina (1895), Louisiana (1898), Alabama (1901), and Virginia (1901-02), also disenfranchised criminals selectively with the intent of disqualifying a disproportionate number of blacks. As in Mississippi, legislators in these states thought that blacks were more likely to commit "furtive offenses" such as petty theft than "robust crimes" such as murder." Shapiro, p 541.

    • "In 1985, the [U.S. Supreme] Court held in Hunter v. Underwood [471 US 222; 105 S Ct 1916; 85 L Ed 2d 222] that an Alabama law disenfranchising certain criminal offenders violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause because the [disenfranchisement] law had a disproportionate impact on blacks and was adopted with racially discriminatory intent." Shapiro, at 542.

    After disenfranchising for crimes, the disenfranchisers went about their Next Step.

    Ex-Confederates did not passively await black crime, but set out to cause it.

    Read that sentence again.

    The ex-slavers determined to CAUSE crime, for the purpose of then denying so-called "criminals" the right to vote.

    Remember, the disproportionate crime causation process and legitimate crime prevention methodology were known PRIOR to the Civil War. If you have not already done so, promptly read the crime analysis / criminal profile site (historically, most crime is by white male smokers, the original "profile" from 1836), and the site explaining the underlying medical analysis process.

    Crime "Profile":
    Alcott, 1836 Auburn, 1854
    Hodgkin, 1857 Trask, 1860
    Mussey, 1862 Depierris, 1876
    Chase, 1878 Bremen, 1882
    Tolstoy, 1890 Torrence, 1899
    Ellis, 1901 Stubbs, 1904
    Crane, 1915 Macfadden, 1924
    Danis, 1925 Hopkins, 1948
    Doughty, 1989 McKinney, 1991

    Then think about it. The enemy knows the data (especially, the WMS criminal ratio of 1/322). You should too, in self-defense!

    And bear in mind this principle: When people know how to do something right, they also know how to manipulate, do it wrong. And enemies can, given the motive and the power, e.g., government position. Remember "eugenics" and the Tuskegee experiment (details at, e.g., "The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: The U.S. government's 40-year experiment on black men with syphilis," by Borgna Brunner; and Steven Selden, Inheriting Shame: The Story of Eugenics and Racism in America (New York: Teachers College of Columbia Univ, 1999). And Southerners' willingness to commit atrocities.

    Southern Atrocities re 1850's Kansas

    Southern atrocities before the Civil War had included use of violence to commit election fraud in Kansas. Slavers feared 1850's Kansas might develop a 'free' majority (voters who would vote against slavery). So large numbers of pro-slavery Missourians (called "border ruffians") crossed the border into Kansas, killing legitimate residents, supporting hanging the Governor, threatening election workers, and voting! in such large numbers as to alter election results!

    For background, see, e.g.,
  • Sen. Charles Sumner, "OnThe Crime Against Kansas (Senate, Congressional Globe, 34d Cong., 2d Sess., 19-20 May 1856)

  • George B. Cheever, D.D., Address On the Subject of the Iniquity of the Extension of Slavery (Cincinnati: American Reform Tract and Book Society, 1857)

  • Kansas History Online Site, re 16 July 1855, etc. (2006)

  • The Answers.Com Site (2006)

  • Historical Society Site, "Willing to Die for Freedom: A Look Back at Kansas Territory, 1854-1861" (2006)

  • Fort Scott Historic Site on "Bleeding Kansas" (2006)

  • "How Bloody Was Bleeding Kansas?" (2006)
  • Blacks' Pre-1960's Near Drug-Free Record

    Blacks in America had a near crime-free record, a mere 1/5000 crime rate, said Virginia Governor Giles (cited by Rev. John G. Fee, Anti-Slavery Manual [1851], pp 165-166). The crime profile was "white male smoker." Blacks' low crime rate is especially noteworthy in view of their being surrounded by bad examples, whites' rampant crimes, a near 1:1 ratio, as noted by Thomas Jefferson, cited in Rev. Theodore D. Weld, Bible Against Slavery (1837), p 65.

    And blacks had a near drug-free record until the 'civil rights' era. Slaves had not been allowed to smoke and drink. Too much of a bad effect (example, on the Zulus 1840's - 1880's), the slavers knew!

    During slavery, it was illegal to sell intoxicants to slaves. See, e.g., an 1840 Ordinance against grocers selling liquor, for this reason officially cited in a prosecution,

    "The object of these Ordinances is to prevent, if possible, the vending of spiritous liquor to slaves [as] it was found by experience that this [grocer sales] was an easy method of . . . selling spirits to slaves."—City Council v Ahrens, 35 SC (4 Strob) 241, 254, 257; 15 SC Annot Ed 126, 133-134 (Feb 1850).

    An overall case list is referenced in "Slaves," 58 Corpus Juris 745, 756, citing "Intoxicating Liquors, § 227," i.e., 33 Corpus Juris 480-802, pp 601-602, "Sales to Prohibited Persons." And slavers pointed to Northern white crime, and bragged that slaves didn't do crime! (Of course, because they didn't smoke! the 90% factor in crime. For slaves' near-zero crime rate, see George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South; or, The Failure of Free Society (Richmond: A. Morris Pub, 1854).

    Blacks were nearly drug-free until the civil-rights era of the 1960's. Activists such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, Rosa Parks, Thurgood Marshall, and others were seeking civil rights. This was in public accommodations, travel, housing, education, contexts, and VOTING. Neo-Confederates' attitudes, as discussed herein, were hostile.

    Such activism occurred in context of the events described by Prof. Clarence Lusane, Ph.D., No Easy Victories: Black Americans and the Vote (new York: Grolier Pub, 1996) (citing "history of the African-American attempt to gain the right to vote [that] begins with the Revolutionary War, continues through the Civil War, Reconstruction, the New Deal, the second Civil Rights Movement that culminated in the Voting Rights Acts of 1965, to the historic Jackson campaign for the Democratic nomination. [Includes] accounts of the black members of Congress before 1965, the Black Congressional Caucus in the 1970s, and the dramatic increase in the numbers of black elected officials after 1965. ")

    Bigots, racists, and neo-Confedereates were hostile. How to halt the 1950's-60's Civil Rights movement, was a priority for such bigots, racists, neo-Confederates. Answer: use post-gateway drugs! alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, etc. To do that, use the starter drug, hook children. They knew this: "The first step toward addiction may be as innocent as a boy's puff on a cigarette in an alleyway," said the U.S. Supreme Court in Robinson v California, 370 US 660, 670; 82 S Ct 1417; 8 L Ed 2d 758 (1962).

    Never mind, such bigots felt, that the case also stands for the proposition that starting a war on drugs is unconstitutional. How so? Because, says the Supreme Court, criminalizing a disease is unconstitutional. Drug addiction is a disease, as per the brain-altering, hyperexciteability aspects. Inherent characteristics of the disease include acts demonstrating impairment of impulse and ethical controls—abulia, in short. Such acts include needle-use, drug-carrying, drug-taking, etc. These are inherently part of the disease, just as coughing is inherently part of tobacco-caused lung cancer.

    A second constitutional point is this. Remember Prohibition? Re the 'war on alcohol,' why didn't Congress just ban it? Answer: Doing so was deemed unconstitutional.

    "Personal liberty, which is guaranteed to every citizen under our constitution and laws, consists of the right to locomotion,—to go where one pleases, and when, and to do that which may lead to one's business or pleasure, only so far restrained as the rights of others may make it necessary for the welfare of all other citizens. . . .

    "Any law which would place the keeping and safe conduct of another in the hands of even a conservator of the peace [police], unless for some breach of the peace committed in his presence, or upon suspicion of felony, would be most oppressive and unjust, and destroy all the rights which our Constitution guarantees." Pinkerton v Verberg, 78 Mich 573, 584; 44 NW 579, 582-583 (1889).

    Wherefore, an alcohol ban was unconstitutional, unless explicitly constitutionalized, as by the Eighteenth Amendment. The same is true for the other now-illegal drugs--made illegal by neo-Confederates in legislatures and Congress.

    The bigots creating the 'war on drugs' knew they couldn't sell the public on

  • criminalizing some tobacco effects such as coughing,
  • criminalizing tobacco (the "worst" drug),
  • criminalizing other tobacco results.
  • The public "knew" tobacco too well, or thought it did (as per the tobacco taboo, media censorship, and the public's massive use), to be sold that type program. (Now a century later, the pretensew is made that mass jailing of blacks was an unintended effect!!)

    But the bigots creating the 'war on drugs' knew they could demonize the unknown drugs, accuse those drugs of causing horrors! (details below). They could "sell" a war on the newly demonized drugs! even tobacco "antidotes" like cocaine. Then, with specific anti-drug laws passed, they could target blacks: ". . . the war on drugs . . . started as a war against minorities," says Kenneth Michael White, CXLVI Newsweek, p 15 (10 October 2005). It'd begun by at least the 1840's as a war against China, to force opium into China. See, e.g., George W. F. Mellen, Unconstitutionality (Boston: Saxton & Pierce, 1841), p 91, ftn 3. Thus the so-called "War on Drugs" is a failure, as it was never ended to end drugs, as it never targeted the starter drug, but minorities. See background on the "Numbers Tell of Failure in Drug War" (Sunday, 8 July 2012).

    Here are examples:

    Some analysts report, though the CIA in the U.S. government denies it, a U.S. government, e.g., CIA and Pentagon, role in drug smuggling, including of crack cocaine, with blacks the targeted group.
  • University of Wisconsin Professor Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin (NY: Harper and Row, 1972), reported government (e.g., CIA, Pentagon) role in drug smuggling. See also Mark Karlin, "How the US Government, Banks, Prison-Industrial Complex, Corrupt Officials, Businesses, Law Enforcement, Racists and the CIA Profit From Illegal Drugs" (22 June 2012) ("US Banks Love Real Dollars, and Illegal Drug Money Comes in Cash . . . Whereas before it was divided primarily among Mafia families in big cities, the Latin American cartels have now set up networks within the US. But one thing hasn't changed; it still takes a lot of corruption to buy off virtual domestic impunity for the kingpins overseeing the domestic sale of prohibited drugs. Searching Google, you can find everything from Transportation Security Administration agents paid off to let drugs pass through airport checks, to cops who look the other way or actually steal the drug money, to border patrol agents letting drugs pass through, to local government officials overlooking illegal activity. However, rarely does one come across the arrest and prosecution of a kingpin in the United States, or of a high-level law enforcement official in a major city or a politician being indicted.")

  • Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987) cited, as a Wall Street Journal investigative reporter—and biographer of Pope John Paul II—examples of government officials (Pentagon military, etc.), smuggling drugs into the U.S. and taking action against those rare honest government agents who wanted to halt the drug smuggling. The U.S. Army would take investigators of drug trafficking who caught "seniors" in the military, off that duty, and put them on combat duty!

  • Michael Levine, a retired Drug Enforcement Agency agent, in The Big White Lie (NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1993), cited official undermining of the war on drugs, making it an "illusion."

  • "C.I.A (Cocaine.Import.Agency) ...The Drug Affair (part 1)," by "60 Minutes," CBS (21 November 1993) (interviews with CIA Director, Gary Webb, and others)

  • The San Jose Mercury News (California) had a series of articles in August 1996, on CIA complicity in drug smuggling. For example, see the article by Gary Webb, "Shadowy origins of 'crack' epidemic: Role of CIA-linked agents a well-protected secret until now" (19 August 1996).

  • Rodney Stich, Defrauding America and Drugging America: A Trojan Horse (federal inspector-investigator data on CIA, DEA, Pentagon, etc., drug smuggling)

  • Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America (1998) (cart) (" the issue of the intelligence agency's connections to drug trafficking, initially brought to light during the Vietnam War and then again by the Iran-Contra affair. This text shows that under the cover of national security and covert operations, the US government protected major international drug traffickers.")

  • Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: the CIA, Drugs and the Press (Verso Books, 1 August 1998) (a chronicle of ties to drug runners, from World War II through the Contra Wars and the Taliban in Afghanistan: "A shocking expose of the CIA's role as drug baron, White-Out surveys the violent storm provoked by a series of articles written by Gary Webb for the San Jose Mercury News which charged the agency [CIA] with smuggling cocaine into the U.S. for the purpose of undermining the youth in black urban neighborhoods.")

  • Robert Parry, Lost History: Contras, Cocaine, the Press & 'Project Truth' (Media Consortium, 1999) (Review) (the CIA was "engaged in direct support to a band of contras characterized by drug-running, money-laundering, corruption, rape, torture, routine murders, and perhaps worse of all, total incompetence and ineffectiveness.")

  • William L. Marcy, Ph.D., The Politics of Cocaine (Lawrence Hill Books, 2010) (" takes a hard look at the role the United States played in creating the drug industry that thrives in Central and South America. . . . the United States helped establish and strengthen the drug trade as the area's economic base. Increased militarization, destabilization of governments, uncontrollable drug trafficking, more violence, and higher death tolls resulted. Marcy explores how the counternarcotics policies of the 1970s collapsed during the 1980s when economic calamity, Andean guerrilla insurgencies, and Reagan's anti-Communist struggle with Nicaragua and Cuba became conflated as part of the War on Drugs. The book then explores how the U.S. invasion of Panama and narcotics related violence throughout Andean region during the 1990s led to the militarization of the War on Drugs as a way to confront narcotics production, narco-traffickers, and narco-guerrillas alike. Marcy brings to the reader up to the end of the Bush administration and explains why to this date the United States remains unable to control the flow of cocaine into the United States and why the War on Drugs appears to be spiraling out of control. The Politics of Cocaine fills in historical gaps and provides a new and controversial analysis of a complex and seemingly unsolvable problem.")
  • Blacks being nearly drug-free, could not make the massive arrangements for drugs to be mass-grown (in foreign nations), loaded and transported, the infrastructure for this including airplanes, and imported into the U.S., priority, black dwelling areas. This required U.S. government, police, and Mafia (organized crime) cooperation. The Federal Bureau of Investigation was headed by J. Edgar Hoover, and his anti-black ideology. The government-FBI-police-crime alliance to do mass-drug-importing into black areas then came about. Goal: to obstruct the black civil rights era activism, including voting.

    There are known examples of government officials, i.e., among ranking U.S. military officers controlling airplanes, smuggling drugs into the U.S., and taking action against (transferring to other jobs!) those rare honest government agents who wanted to halt the smuggling. See Kwitny's book, The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, supra.

    The government-crime alliance for importing drugs into black areas succeeded. Black civil rights activism markedly deteriorated. Now let's resume putting modern facts of this type, into historical context.

    Visualize a pre-Civil-War prison. . . . Think carefully. . . . What color are the inmates' faces?

    Answer: most are white faces. White male smoker faces.

    The neo-Confederates knew this WMS criminal 'profile,' they saw this. (Slavers had sent articles on Northern crime to anti-slavery congressmen such as Rep. Horace Mann, cited in Slavery and the Slave-Trade . . . . (Washington, D.C.: 1849), p 16.) You should know this type data too.

    What the Neo-Confederates Knew:
    Crime Rates Per 100,000 With
    Smokers (29% of Population)
    Committing 90% of The Crimes

    The neo-Confederates saw the enormous potential for criminalization of people en masse, via tobacco. The crime ratio dramatically alters, from a mere 1:7100 to a significant 1:322.

    Unreconconstructed Southerners were motivated to alter blacks near crime-free record (a 1/5000 rate).

    Neo-Confederates had access to the medical, historical, legal, research, and behavioral data on, e.g.,
  • tobacco's violent and behavior-altering effects on animals,

  • how nicotine had already been used to poison someone (the 1851 Bocarmé murder case),

  • tobacco's mind-altering, behavior-impairing effects on people,

  • tobacco's violence-producing effects in people,

  • and examples of this.
  • This type data had been published for decades, and was consolidated into one volume, by Dr. Hippolyte A. Depierris, Physiologie Sociale: Le Tabac, Qui Contient Le Plus Violent des Poisons (Paris: Dentu, 1876), p 129 (animals), pp 79ff (Bocarmé), pp 345-372 (behavior-altering effects), p 342 (violence effects in people), pp 326-344 (examples).

    The tobacco-alcoholism link was already long known, since at least 1798.

    Wherefore, abolitionists had urgently advised the newly freed slaves not to smoke and drink. Remember, the data linking smoking and crime was known PRIOR to the Civil War, and being repeatedly re-confirmed.

    Unreconstructed Southerners saw the same data, recalled their chemical warfare acts during the Civil War, and realized that they had a weapon to destroy the black vote, the criminalization process. (This is not to overlook the use of sheer terror tactics, murder, lynching, etc. This site focuses not on such illegal acts, but on the use of "legal" means to the wicked goal, just as Hitler would later use "legal" means to achieve his wicked goals).

    The unreconstructed Confederates' post-war goal was, and is, to undermine, obstruct and overwhelm abolitionist warnings to the newly freed smokes to not smoke or drink: Medical facts on the crime causation process were known since William Alcott, M.D. (1836) and the Auburn Report (1854) linked tobacco and crime. Tobacco is a narcotic, mind-altering, inhibition-reducing drug that leads to alcoholism, other drug abuse, and crime.

    Ex-Confederates perverted that medical knowledge (medical knowledge can be perverted, remember the Tuskegee syphilis experiment?) by using it to cause "black" crime, thus convictions and loss of the right to vote.

    Read that sentence again. The neo-Confederate goal is to reenslave blacks via the crime-causation process, thus constitutionally massively reduce blacks' right to vote. The original Constitution's 3/5 clause was read to mean that blacks should only be counted as 3/5 of a white person. Five blacks = three white persons. Depriving vast numbers of blacks of the right to vote, by criminalizing them, still accomplishes the same!

    The criminalizing process is straightforward:
    • (a) gateway drug,
    • (b) then post-gateway drugs,
    • (c) then jail,
    • (d) then loss of the right to vote.

    This corrupt practice continues:
  • (1) cigarette advertising and sales targeting blacks,

  • (2) manipulating legislators to criminalize previously legal but rare post-gateway drug activities, while

  • (3) sabotaging action (since the first Food and Drug Act to present) against the gateway drug that leads to "the worst of all drug habits, the smoking of tobacco" (as said by Dr. Herbert Tidswell, 1912), and

  • (4) manipulating research to "justify" the above.
  • “When you head South, you're talking about two things—tobacco farmers and evangelicals,” said Ralph Reed. Ex-Confederates (racists) see the goal in all its multi-facets:
  • to cause "black" crime via the tobacco - drugging process

  • to re-enslave via prison,

  • then to disenfranchise them.
  • Racists' victims barely realize what this process is that is happening to them, and so are near-defenseless.
  • They are often unaware of white reformers' opposition to the use of tobacco as the starter drug leading into the cycle that leads to crime and disenfranchisement.

  • Too often, racists' tobacco-using victims are hooked into "wanting" (without "informed choice and consent") to do what 'massa' had been allowed to do (to smoke and drink), while forbidding slaves to do likewise. The use of tobacco, to racists' victims, seems to be an element of freedom, whereas it is in reality a left-over vestige of slavery, and a particularly vicious one. (See 1882 Example.)
  • Cigarette ads target minorities. Compare big cities and suburbs; contrast them; notice the difference. It is conspicuous. It promotes chemical slavery, the term for "slavery to an addiction." And a major part of the neo-Confederate criminalization process is the "smoking is a right" myth, the modern version of their old "slavery is a right" myth.

    Nothing in any Constitution says ingesting poisonous substances is a right; ask Dr. Kevorkian's jailers!! In fact, under the Constitution, there is a common law right to freedom from air-borne poison, the common law "right to fresh and pure air."

    The Detroit, Michigan, African-American Museum (Detroit) has exhibits on slavery. If you have opportunity to go there, you will see the large collection of life-size statues of children, slaves. During slavery, slavers targeted children to be kidnaped, captured, and enslaved. Children are still not safe from slavery. Now there is chemical slavery. Children are still being targeted, especially minority children. See E. A. Klonoff, et al, Sales of Cigarettes to Minors, 87 Am J Pub Health (#5) 823-826 (May 1997), and the Surgeon General Report, Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups (1998). There are more cigarette and alcohol billboards in minority areas, more liquor stores in higher percentages.

    Tobacco is typically the gateway (starter) drug, age 11-12, so 90% of criminals are smokers. Racists deem it a "white" drug; arresting its pushers a burden on the judicial system; subsequent drugs in the drug sequence (cocaine, etc.), "black" drugs; disproportionately arresting blacks, NOT a burden on the judicial system. This type racism is the real truth behind the notorious Budzyn-Nevers situation (the beating death of an alleged black post-gateway drug user). Talk privately to officers; you will verify the racist law enforcement policy, including honest officer fear of being labeled a "whistleblower" if they do not go along. The racists don't want to enforce the law properly; and the honest ones fear to.

    Now you know what the racists know: the secret in 'racial profiling.' The police know the century-old 90% profile factor, white male smokers doing 90% of the crime. This fact has been known since the 1830's, i.e., since before the Civil War! But modern 'racial profiling' carefully avoids mentioning this factor. Instead, disinformation is provided by the media. For an exposé of media disinformation, see, e.g., “Coloring Crime: Race, Violence and Media Manipulation” by Tim Wise (1 June 2003).

    The fact that media disinformation on who commits crime, and their color, can be gotten away with, arises from the media censorship of sensitive tobacco and racism news. The tobacco-aspects censorship is called the "tobacco taboo." It does not mention the old 90% profile (white, male smokers), only the new neo-Confederate-caused view.

    In the blatant racist era, “black people were . . . being lynched, or driven from their homes. In some places blacks who tried to vote lost their jobs. In some states blacks were arested on minor charges with the intention of making them work on plantations, picking cotton or peanuts, when cheap labor was needed.” Cited by Walter Dean Myers, Malcolm X (New York: Scholastic, Inc, 1993), p 29.

    Wherefore, with trivial matters being subjected to disproportionate penalties (as for example, had happened to Malcolm, a long prison sentence), “What Elijah Muhammad [correctly and wisely] said to Malcom . . . was not to consider himself a criminal. . . . You are not the criminal. The criminals are the whites who, through their racism [documented, e.g., here] have forced you into the acts you have committed,” p 68.

    As a result of this information, and taking into account the massive racist obstruction of blacks from equal-pay jobs and careers, Malcolm “wondered how many other black men, how many other prisoners in prisons across the country, could have and should have led useful, productive lives [had they been allowed equal employment opportunity and not been targeted for criminalization]. People didn't want to be criminals,” pp 74-75.

    We see this fact documented here. Crimes are consciously, maliciously made, turned into criminals, by a long and well-documented process, as outlined here and at our preventcrime.htm site.
    Tobacco is known as the starter drug, leading to other drugs being used. The 'money-trail' is known to link to funding terrorists. Politicians nonetheless refuse to deal with the tobacco role in drugs and the 'money-trail' and terrorism, no matter the number of resultant casualties. Instead, the political focus is to continue the abuses herein cited, and even to use the terrorism issue as an excuse, pretext, or cover story for yet more repression, further disproportionately impacting minorities.

    Corrupting Lawmaking and Courts

    Results of the neo-Confederate influence in twisting lawmaking and court decisions include this one: "More than 90% of the persons sentenced in 1994 for crack cocaine trafficking were black," United States v Armstrong, 517 US 456; 116 S Ct 1480; 134 L Ed 2d 687, 701 (1996). See analysis by Jason A. Gillmer, "United States v. Clary: Equal Protection and The Crack Statute," 45 Am Univ Law Rev (#2) Dec 1995.

    Worse, the law even allows pro-conviction perjury (lying to convict innocent people). Charles M. Sevilla, "The Exclusionary Rule and Police Perjury," 11 San Diego Law Rev 839 (1974), says pro-conviction perjury

  • "is recognized by the defense bar,
  • winked at by the prosecution,
  • ignored by the judiciary,
  • and unknown to the general public [e.g., juries]."
  • The Knapp Commission Report on Police Corruption (NY: 1972) says that, with rare exceptions, those officials who are not corrupt, take no steps to prevent what they know/suspect colleagues do.

    Pro-conviction perjury was the subject of a Supreme Court case, Briscoe v LaHue, 460 US 325; 103 S Ct 1108; 75 L Ed 2d 96 (7 March 1983) (disregrading dissent by Thurgood Marshall, etc.; the court voted 6-3 that if innocent you is convicted by perjury, you cannot get money damages for your time and pay lost while in prison.) Click to see example (cartoon of death penalty for the innocent).

    See also

  • Irving Younger, "The Perjury Routine," The Nation (8 May 1967), pp 596-97 ("Every lawyer who practices in the criminal courts knows that police perjury is commonplace.")

  • Sarah Barlow, "Patterns of Arrests for Misdemeanor Narcotics Possession: Manhattan Police Practices 1960-62," 4 Crim. L. Bull. 549, 549-50 (1968) (presenting data showing that "dropsy testimony"—i.e., police testimony that an arrestee had dropped drugs as the police came upon them—increased after Mapp v. Ohio imposed the exclusionary rule on state police, indicating that the "police are lying about the circumstances of such arrests so that the contraband which they have seized illegally will be admissible as evidence.").

  • Fred Cohen, "Police Perjury: An Interview with Martin Garbus," 8 Crim. L. Bull. 363, 367 (1972) ("[A]mong all the lawyers that I know—whether they are into defense work or prosecution—not one of them will argue that systematic police perjury does not exist. We may differ on its extent, its impact . . . but no trial lawyer that I know will argue that police perjury is nonexistent or sporadic.")

  • David Wolchover, "Police Perjury in London," 136 New L.J. 181, 183 (1986) (estimating that police officers lie in 3 out of 10 trials)

  • N. G. Kittel, "Police Perjury: Criminal Defense Attorneys' Perspective," 11 Am. J. Crim. Just. 11, 16 (1986) (57% of 277 attorneys believe police perjury takes place very often or often).

  • Myron W. Orfield, Jr., "Deterrence, Perjury, and the Heater Factor: An Exclusionary Rule in the Chicago Criminal Courts," 63 U. Colo. L. Rev. 75, 107 (1992) (survey of prosecutors, defense attorneys, and judges indicates a belief that, on average, perjury occurs 20% of the time, with defense attorneys estimating it occurs 53% of the time in connection with Fourth Amendment [illegal search] issues; only 8% believe that police never, or almost never, lie in court)

  • Christopher Slobogin, "Testilying: Police Perjury and What To Do About It," 67 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1037 (Fall 1996) ("Police, like people generally, lie in all sorts of contexts for all sorts of reasons. This article has focused on police lying designed to convict individuals the police think are guilty. Strong measures are needed to reduce the powerful incentives to practice such testilying and the reluctance of prosecutors and judges to do anything about it.")

  • Penny Hess and Omali Yeshitela, Overturning the Culture of Violence (St. Petersburg: BSU Pub, 2000) (identifying the massive rate of U.S. jailings of blacks as "genocidal.").

  • Don't Talk to Police - YouTube Video Law Class Lecture

  • Next, notice the case of Leary v U.S., 383 F2d 851 reh den 392 F2d 220 rev'd 395 US 6, 41; 89 S Ct 1532; 23 L Ed 2d 57 (Tex, 19 May 1969). This is a marijuana case. Notice its page 41, tracing marijuana-use history to near-exclusive use solely by poverty-stricken minorities. The bigots in Congress and state legislatures applying the neo-Confederate strategy of criminalizing drugs only at the post-starter drug stage [i.e., post-cigarettes] know this; you should too. (There are some corrupt, malicious media types who do aid and abet.)

    The neo-Confederate influence was clear early on in the 'war on drugs':

    A corrupt and racist Commissioner of Narcotics and U.S. Attorney published alleged ill effects of drug use, but falsified, i.e., included tobacco effects.—Commissioner Harry J. Anslinger and U.S. Attorney William F. Tompkins, The Traffic in Narcotics (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1953), pp 267 and 336. They knew that "all" drug addicts were smokers, p 196. Nonetheless, they falsified, and their lying drugs-blaming list included:

  • beri-beri (a deficiency disease),
  • bronchitis (disproportionately by smokers),
  • cancer (linked to smoking for over a century),
  • cerebral hemmorhage (long linked to smoking),
  • crime (90% by smokers),
  • diarrhea and enteritis,
  • endocartis and vulvular affections,
  • malarial fevers (mosquito-related),
  • nephritis,
  • pleurisy,
  • pneumonia (disproportionately by smokers),
  • respiratory diseases (linked to smoking since 1836),
  • senility (linked to smoking since 1882),
  • suicide (90% by smokers), and
  • tuberculosis (long linked to smoking).
  • To compound their falsification, this lying, immoral, depraved Narcotics Commissioner and U.S. Attorney (federal prosecutor) said of tobacco, it does "cause little harm and [is] culturally acceptable . . . and . . . not regarded as addicting," p 243.

    So these vicious depraved drug czars, liars, Anslinger and Tompkins said, ignore tobacco use, but criminalize and prosecute intensely the mere use of post-gateway drugs! Jail the drug users for years or decades to save them from these terrible [oft-tobacco] effects! (Shades of Vietnam, 'destroy the village to save it'!)

    These vicious, depraved officials (Anslinger and Tompkins) refused to acknowledge proper drug prevention, as per the cigarette ban approach of Iowa, Tennessee, Michigan, etc.

    The vile Ansligner-Tompkins team could count on malicious legislators to pass the vicious laws they wanted. And drug czars ever after have continued in their corrupt, lying pattern, saying nary a word on the starter drug, all focus aimed at post-starter drugs.

    After Anslinger and Tompkins wrote, a rebuttal was written. This subsequent joint American Bar - Medical Association Report rebuttal in essence opposed the racism, three ways, by
  • opposing criminalizing use of post-gateway drugs,

  • refuting their purported ill effects, and

  • citing real causes (e.g., poverty).
  • The government under neo-Confederate influence limited printing of (censored) and denounced the ABA-AMA Report, so as to limit the number of copies! Fortunately the Indiana University Press published it: ABA-AMA, Drug Addiction: Crime or Disease (Indiana Univ Press, 1961), p 49.

    The bottom line of the racism is that the War on Post-Gateway Drugs was not medically but politically initiated for medically untrue, indeed downright false, unethical, and racist reasons. This is unconstitutional "junk science" (see precedent list); and our 'drug-testing-is-scam' site.

    One area lawmaker, in the Michigan House of Representatives, admitted that the current legislative and police view is that preventing racism in the criminal justice system is a burden, is opposed, and that the 1909 gateway drug prevention law WILL NOT be enforced EVER. Nor, of course, adopted as law anywhere else.

    Police officers understand this. For example, in the runup to Michigan's smoke-free law, in the article by Mitch Hotts, "Bars bid adieu to cigarettes, cigars, with one last smoking bash," Macomb Daily (28 April 2010), pp 1 and 6, retired police officer Carl Timm is quoted on p 6. "A bar is a bar is a bar is a bar." "I feel the individual bar owners should have control over their places of business. To many people, a cigarette or cigar goes hand in hand with a beer." His attitude was summarized as "feel the state is infringing on smokers' rights." One would not expect, with such an attitude, that any anti-tobacco enforcement was ever taken! with respect to the law, MCL §750.27, MSA § 28.216! no action to deal with the starter drug, so more post-starter-drug cases for arresting!

    Sample Integrity Test
    Test your area politicians, police, prosecutors, judges. Ask them their priority. Do they focus on the starter drug to PREVENT drug abuse? Or, is their approach solely, after-the-factism?
    Ask them their action against tobacco. Ask them if they prosecute tobacco pushers for poisoning/murder as per case law precedents.
    Note whether they try putting you off with generalities.
    Don't let them bluff you with generalities. Ask for specifics. Ask specifically what they have done against tobacco, arrests and prosecutions of tobacco pushers, sentences imposed, laws proposed, hearings held on non-enforcement of existing anti-starter-drug laws, etc.
    If you find that the integrity rate among such people is above the zero level . . . .

    In your mind, go back to before the Civil War, visit a prison. Do a count, a statistical analysis. You'll find mostly white faces, mostly smokers. Systemwide, both the honest officials and the unreconstructed Confederates knew that, and the data linking smoking and crime.

  • Some (the honest ones) decided, 'Let's use that data to prevent crime.'

  • Others (the unreconstructed Confederates) looked at the same data and said, 'Let's use that data to cause crime among the target population (blacks).'
  • The neo-Confederates know this. You should too.

    Nazis used the same technique, "criminalizing [people] for real or fabricated violations of the law"! Nazis "decided that, to the extent possible, the most effective [persecution] policy would be to employ means that had the appearance of legality."—Eric A. Johnson, Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans (New York: Perseus Basic Books, 1999), p 419.
    Note also that the U.S. jailings of blacks is in numbers similar to that of Jews in the Nazi era.
    The U.S. has more people proportionately in prison than the modern dictatorship of Red China!
    And there are reports of U.S. troops being indoctrinated to shoot Americans, including their families and friends, who would resist rights violations by government officials. See, e.g., the article by Paul Joseph Watson, "U.S. Troops Asked If They Would Shoot American Citizens" (4 February 2008).

    Cigarettes Are Illegal

    Cigarette hazards were known well over a century ago. The first Surgeon General (Benjamin Rush, M.D.) said it in the 1790's! The Farmers' Almanac cited it in 1836! The Michigan House had a report on the subject in 1889. Iowa banned cigarettes in 1897. Tennessee banned cigarette sales in 1897. The tobacco lobby challenged the ban in the case of Austin v State of Tennessee, 179 US 343 (1900). The courts all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Tennessee cigarette sales ban. The hazard was already known! Indeed, the addictiveness aspect was reported as early as 1527! The first product liability case for tobacco dangerousness occurred in 1915!

    Many Writers in that Era
    on Tobacco Dangers
    Rush (1798) Fowler (1833) Alcott (1836)
    Lane (1845) Shew (1849) Lizars (1859)
    Trask (1860) Mussey (1862) Parton (1868)
    Depierris (1876) Chase (1878) Jackson (1879)
    Witter (1881) Hinds (1882) Lander (1882)
    Livermore (1882) Carpenter (1882) Wight (1889)

    Data on National Damage
    And such writers were reporting the pattern of smoking-linked national collapses dating from the Spanish conquistadores' conquest of Mexico. See examples:
  • Turkey,
  • Spain,
  • Portugal and other nations,
  • pursuant to medical data on
    personal deterioration.
    Vengeance-seeking Confederates saw the pattern, and began targeting their still-hated foe, in a pattern continuing to present.
  • Cigarettes are still illegal in Michigan pursuant to MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216 (1909), and laws of the type that gave rise to case law including People v Carmichael, 5 Mich 10; 71 Am Dec 769 (1858); The Nurnberg Trial, 6 FRD 69 (1946); People v Kevorkian, 447 Mich 436, 494-6; 527 NW2d 714, 739-9 (1994). This author's contact with Governor John Engler resulted in two verifications of the law from James K. Haveman, Jr., Director, Department of Community Health:

    Cigarette Advertising Aids and
    Abets Illegal Cigarette Sales

    Cigarette advertising aids and abets illegal cigarette sales. That starts children, and minorities disproportionately, on the gateway drug, the starter drug. It is primarily smokers that is the population base for entering the lifestyle of drugs. Wherefore, cities that want to prevent DWB ban cigarette ads and cigarettes, that heads off the drug problem, means less crime, which in turn means fewer police, so less opportunity for DWB.

    When asked, courts uphold cigarette advertising bans, e.g., in cases such as
  • Fifth Ave Coach Co v City of New York, 221 US 467; 31 S Ct 709; 55 L Ed 815 (1911)
  • Packer Corp v State of Utah, 285 US 105; 52 S Ct 273; 76 L Ed 2d 643 (1932) (especially when such ads aid and abet law violations, as here)
  • Anheuser-Busch v Mayor and City Council, 855 F Supp 811 (D Md, 1994), aff'd 63 F3d 1305, remanded, 517 US 1206; 116 S Ct 1821; 134 L Ed 2d 927, aff'd 101 F3d 325 (CA 4, 1996)
  • Penn Advertising v Mayor & City Council of Baltimore, 862 F Supp 1401 (D Md, 1994), aff'd 63 F3d 1318 (CA 4, 1995), remanded 518 US 1030, aff'd 101 F3d 332 (1996)
  • Greater New York Metro. Food Council, Inc v Giuliani, No 99-7006, 195 F3d 100; 1999 WL 965691 (CA 2, NY, 25 Oct 1999).
  • Nothing in freedom of the press allows aiding and abetting violation of laws (e.g., a stick-up note at a bank!). Indeed the writing itself—the very words—IS the crime!!

    When words lead to death, civil liability results, Paladin Enterprises, Inc v Rice, 128 F3d 233 (CA 4, 1997), and criminal liability, The Nurnberg Trial, 6 FRD 69, 161-163 (1946) (writer-publisher Julius Streicher was convicted and hanged for his pro-death media words). MCL § 750.38, MSA § 28.227 (1885) already bans cigarette ads.

    To help fight DWB, work for your jurisdiction to pass such laws as herein described, or if they already exist, to get them enforced.

    Cigarettes and Racism

    Tobacco is typically the gateway (starter) drug, hooking children around age 11-12, so 90% of criminals are smokers. Racists deem tobacco a "white" drug; and arresting its pushers a burden on the judicial system. But racists deem subsequent drugs in the drug sequence (cocaine, etc.), "black" drugs; disproportionately arresting blacks, NOT a burden on the judicial system.

    Here is an example of how this selective enforcement works in Michigan. Both the gateway drug, and post-gateway drugs, are illegal. Arrests at the gateway drug seller level would prevent the post gateway drug problem even arising. (Pre-cigarettes, there was essentially no drug problem).

    Which law do racist officers enforce? Do you see them enforce the cigarette ban? You know the answer: NEVER. The cigarette ban, MCL § 750.27, is never enforced, only laws against post-gateway drugs—a policy of premeditated racism. Talk privately to officers; you will verify the non-enforcement policy, including officer fear of being labeled a "whistleblower" if they enforce the anti-cigarette law against the "white" drug cigarettes. The racists don't want to enforce the law; and the honest ones fear to (due to foreseeable reprisal).

    Ask your officials, do you support arrests for illegal cigarette sales? If so, have you made that fact known? Have you ever spoken against the gateway drug? If not, why would the honest ones think you'd support them? Be aware that public and officials' silence tells the racist ones they can continue their racist policy of arresting blacks for post-gateway drugs, but never do a thing to arrest pushers of the gateway drug, the "white" drug. Worst case, do your officials/you use the gateway drug? If so, this is setting a bad example, encouraging crime and racism.

    Cigarettes Are A
    Vestige of the Slavery Era

    Slavery involved raising tobacco (until cotton came along) and raping women. Our abolitionist ancestors knew that. Michigan was an abolitionist state, our cigarette ban can be seen as a boycott of a slave product, much like modern era boycotts of apartheid products from South Africa some years back.

    In essence, the enslavement of "prison" is a worse enslavement than the original slavery. Northerners were sympathetic to slaves then.

    Northerners saw that the South
  • banned, disrespected, slave marriage
  • engaged in family destruction
  • banned reading and writing
  • violated the Consitution
  • refused to allow the Gospel to be preached
  • refused to provide Bibles to slaves
  • censored religious writings
  • upheld the right to torture
  • committed mass atrocities
  • had vile clergy
  • had ill-educated clergy
  • lacked Christian clergy (most excommunicated)
  • set an example of widespread lawlessness
  • drove out moral white people ("white flight")
  • became "demonized" in behavior-pattern.
  • But simply change the label, call "enslavement" by the label "prison," label "slaves" as "prisoners," presto, the sympathy vanishes. (Even memory of the above chart-referenced-data vanishes! Much less, taking into account the debilitating effects.)

    This is the malicious reality on which neo-Confederates count. And they have succeeded in their malice for over 130 years!

    One aspect of the neo-Confederate plot to jail blacks, is to enlist black anti-drug activists. The neo-Confederate scam is to tell such activists, to this effect: Post-gateway drugs disproportionately impact black communities, wherefore, their use must be criminalized! The rebuttal (deal with the gateway drug, thus essentially moot the post-gateway drug useage) goes unheard.

    And the neo-Confederate scam goes so far as to enlist such activists in opposing efforts to relegalize post-gateway drugs. Other cigarette effects, cancer, emphysema, heart disease, etc., are legal. Somehow only the cigarette effect related to post-gateway drugs, must be sharply criminalized!!

    The neo-Confederate scam argument is to this effect: If post-gateway drugs are legalized, people won't seek treatment! So they must be jailed! The rebuttal (people seek treatment for other cigarette effects, cancer, emphysema, heart disease, etc. without them being illegal!) likewise goes unheard.

    And note well, that malicious politicians cannot think of these rebuttals for themselves!!! They must be guided by the hand, with kid gloves, preferably filled with large 'campaign contributions.'

    So the neo-Confederate targeting goes on decade after decade, unabated.

    Obstructing Education

    The Old South, pre-1865, had prevented blacks reading and writing, lest they learn their rights against being enslaved. After the war, the old anti-education policy continued 1865-1960's. Schools, if extant at all for blacks, were inferior, segregated, unequal. The process of enforcing desegregation, so as to enable proper and equal education, was long and laborious. Here is a case list of major precedents that led to desegregation in education:

    public schools, Cumming v County Board of Education, 175 US 528 (1899) (no funding for black students)
    college, Berea College v Kentucky, 211 US 45 (1908) (fine for teaching blacks)
    Gong Lum v Rice, 275 US 78 (1927) (refusing education with white students to a Chinese girl)
    law school, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v Canada, 305 US 337 (1938) (required desegregated law school)
    law school, Sipuel v Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, 332 US 631; 68 S Ct 299; 92 L Ed 247 (1948)
    Fisher v Hurst, 333 US 147 (1948) (issue of evasion of Sipuel decision)
    law school, Sweatt v Painter, 339 US 629; 70 S Ct 848; 94 L Ed 1114 (1950)
    graduate school, McLaurin v Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, 339 US 637 (1950)
    public schools, Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483; 74 S Ct 686; 98 L Ed 873 (1953)

    Systemic Racism, 1970's Example

    Let's reconsider the example with which this site began, referring to the 1960's-1970's Black Panther Party disproportionate ticketing situation (disproportionate issuance of traffic tickets to their members, a claim the police denied). Prof. Frances K. Heussenstamm's experiment involved twenty university students with excellent driving records, and cars with no defects. Those twenty were assigned to make one change only: attach "Black Panther Party" stickers to the bumpers! The reaction: 33 traffic tickets in 17 days!! See Frances K. Heussenstamm, "Bumper Stickers and Cops," 8 Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society (4) 32-33 (February 1971).

    A black person driving from Nashville, Tennessee to Mound Bayou, Mississippi (a distance of about 314 miles) was stopped 45 times by police! He was in medical school, on the route driving to his assigned final-year-training hospital! This is an example of why the traffic code, designed/intended to enable such official misconduct, is unconstitutional for allowing excessive officer discretion.
    Modern DWB is a continuation of the old-pre-1960's DWB.


    Do we have too many cops, that they have time to do this type discrimination? Answer: Yes, about 80% too many. Why? every time politicians purport to solve crime, they hire more!
    Solution: demand your officials lay off the 80% excess, and order the rest to do genuine crime prevention, as our   site explains.

    In court, race has a role in penalties judges impose, say
    • Derrick A. Bell, Jr., "Racism in American Courts," 61 California Law Review (#1) 165-203 (Jan 1973), and

    • Donald Jackson, "Justice for None," 2 New Times 48-57 (11 Jan 1974).
    In an experiment by the latter, 36 judges were given a hypothetical misdemeanor case to decide the penalty. The penalty was three to ten days jail if the accused was identified as white; five to thirty days if deemed black.

    Wherefore it is clear that race is a key determinant in

  • (a) being arrested in the first place and

  • (b) the penalty imposed.
  • These facts in turn corroborate the mass refusal to prosecute illegal gateway drug pushers, tobacco manufacturers and sellers (white crime), and to prosecute only at the post-gateway drug stage (black crime).

    Examples of other abuse cases include

    People v Wakat, 415 Ill 610; 114 NE2d 706 (1953); and Wakat v Harlib, 253 F2d 59 (CA 7, 1958) (defendant suffering from broken bones, multiple bruises and injuries sufficiently serious to require eight months' medical treatment after being manhandled by five policemen);

    People v Portelli, 15 NY2d 235; 205 NE2d 857; 257 NYS2d 931 (1965) (a case wherein "the police brutally beat, kicked and placed lighted cigarette butts on the back of a potential witness under interrogation for the purpose of securing a statement incriminating a third party");

    Lohr v State of Florida Dept of Corrections, 835 F2d 1404 (CA 11, 1988) (sheriff handcuffed inmate and ordered dog to attack him);

    Davis v Locke, 936 F2d 1208 (CA 11, 1991) (guards taunted prisoner with racial slurs and dropped him from truck onto his head while shackled);

    Cox v District of Columbia, 821 F Supp 1 (DC, 1993) (police officer beat and kicked Cox, ground foot into his face, then threw him into paddywagon and drove around so as to slam Cox against walls); and

    Miranda v Arizona, 384 US 436; 86 S Ct 602; 16 L Ed 2d 694 (1966) (the famous case ordering police to read suspects their rights, citing a number of such incidents). See also the introduction to our narrative on prison cases

    Terminology Deciphered
    'Urban Crime'MeansCrime Caused As Herein Described
    'Law and Order'MeansEnforcing/Continuing the Abuses Herein Described

    Unconstitutional Speed Limits "Justify"
    Excessive Numbers of Police, Increasing DWB Incidents

    About 175,000,000 traffic tickets are issued annually in the U.S. Unconstitutional laws are deliberately written to criminalize vast numbers of people, specifically, via non-fact-based speed limits. This enables almost anyone/everyone to be declared a lawbreaker, a criminal, thus subject to being pulled over and ticketed, thus greatly increasing the opportunity for DWB incidents. For more information, see our site on the unconstitutionality of speed limits, and, in a related vein, on seat belt non-useage.

    Speed limits disproportionately impact blacks. A New Jersey study publicized Thursday, 21 March 2002, suggests that black drivers generally speed much more than other drivers (with little difference in 55 mph zones), and with the racial gap primarily widened at higher speed limits, according to an Associated Press Report, in The Macomb Daily (Michigan), p 5A (22 March 2002), entitled "Study: Blacks speed more often."

    Election 2000
    Bottom Line Election 2000:
    1.4 Million Blacks Denied The Right to Vote
    A Few Hundred Voters Obstructed:
    Enough to Swing An Election

    Professors vs. Supreme Court Bush Decision Overview Summary
    The Best Democracy Money Can Buy
    Looks Like Duckgate," by Peggy Hirsch (10 Feb 2004) (cites Cheney and Scalia as "long-term friends" / "old friends," raising issue of non-impartiality, contrary to law, 28 U.S.C. § 455).

    Note that "we as citizens have no way of verifying whether or not thousands of elected officials have been validly elected. These officials include Governor George Bush of Texas and Vice-President Albert Gore, both running for President this year," says C. M. Ross, in "Vote Fraud: Will YOUR Vote Be Stolen This November?," Catholic Family News (October 2000).

    Paralleling the inability-to-vote is outright disenfranchisement. “On Election Day, nearly 1.4 million voting-age black men—more than one in eight—will be ineligible to cast ballots because of state laws that strip felons of the right to vote.”—“Felonies mean 1 in 8 black men can't vote,” by the Associated Press, in The Macomb Daily (Friday, 22 September 2000), p 6A. “'Here we are, 50 years after the beginning of the civil rights movement, and we actually have an increasing number of African-Americans who are disenfranchised each year,'” said Marc Mauer of the Sentencing Project, which analyzed 1996 Justice Department statistics along with Human Rights Watch.” “Disenfranchised black males account for 35 percent of all Americans now barred from voting because of felony convictions. Two percent of all Americans, or 3.9 million, have lost the right to vote, compared with13 percent of black men.”

    For background, see
  • Vanity Fair (October 2004)
  • "The Stolen Presidential Elections" (May 2007),
    on how Team Bush pulled off the election theft.

    “Chief Justice William Rehnquist's refusal to acknowledge evidence of blatant voter fraud against African Americans was no surprise. Back in 1962, when Rehnquist was a young attorney in Arizona, he led a group of Republican lawyers who systematically challenged the right of minority voters to cast their ballots in that state. Called "Operation Eagle Eye," Rehnquist successfully disenfranchised hundreds of black and brown voters in Phoenix's poor and working class precincts. In 2000, Rehnquist supervised the disenfranchisement, in effect, of the majority of American voters.”—Prof. Manning Marable, “Stealing the Election: The Compromises Of 1876 And 2000” (9 Jan 2001).
    Rehnquist's Confederate-style record should have led to a recusal for actual or perceived bias, pursuant to law, 28 USC § 351(c).
    Note likewise with Sandra Day O'Connor: "At an election-night party on Nov. 7, surrounded for the most part by friends and familiar acquaintances, she let her guard drop for a moment when she heard the first critical [election] returns shortly before 8 p.m. . . . she visibly started when CBS anchor Dan Rather called Florida for Al Gore. 'This is terrible,' she exclaimed. She explained to another partygoer that Gore's reported victory in Florida meant the election was 'over,' since Gore had already carried two other swing states, Michigan and Illinois." "Moments later, with an air of obvious disgust, she rose to get a plate of food, leaving it to her husband to explain her . . . outburst. John O'Connor said his wife was upset because they wanted to retire to Arizona, and a Gore win meant they'd have to wait another four years [at least]. O'Connor, the former Republican majority leader of the Arizona State Senate and a 1981 Ronald Reagan appointee, did not want a Democrat to name her successor." See Rochelle Riley, "O'Connor lost her way once," Detroit Free Press (p F1, 3 July 2005), citing a Newsweek article. This type misconduct, refusal to recuse herself when she has a clear personal interest in the matter, helps establish the wrongfulness of the Supreme Court stopping the 2000 Florida vote counting.
    With two judges (Rehnquist and O'Connor) biased, had they recused themselves as they should have, the Supreme Court decision would have been 4-3 in favor of Gore. Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, tobacco users ( a known mental disorder) should have done likewise. Doing that would have made the vote 4-1 in favor of Gore.
    Brooklyn College English Prof. Eric Alterman, Ph.D., in What Liberal Media? The Truth About Bias and the News (Basic Books, 2003), Chapters 10-11, pp 148-191, cites that Albert Gore, Jr., in fact won the 2000 election.
    "Conservatives" are known to falsify facts to come up the results they want. Remember "conservative" Judge Robert Bork. Reagan wanted him on the Supreme Court too! Bork in 1987, was already being cited as misstating facts, to come up with some preconceived result he wanted. The height of unethical (or the aforesaid mental condition), he'd even do that in court cases before him! “'He is ruthlessly result-oriented,' complains one attorney, who accuses Bork of deciding the outcome of cases in advance even if it requires misstating arguments presented to him.”—Ted Gest, “A New Majority Moves to the Right,” 103 US News & World Report (#2) pp 28-29 (13 July 1987).
    "That an election for an American President can be stolen by the highest court in the land under the deliberate pretext of an inapplicable constitutional provision has got to be one of the most frightening events ever to have occurred in this country," says Vincent Bugliosi, in "None Dare Call It Treason" (The Nation, 5 February 2001).
    And "the five justices who made up the majority in Florida election case 'are criminals in every true sense of the word, and in a fair and in a just world belong behind bars,' while shocking, is supported by past precedent and a statutory reading of the applicable laws governing judicial conduct," says Peter Rothberg, in his review of the article, "'None Dare Call It Treason' in The Nation Magazine" (19 January 2001).
    See also Vincent Bugliosi's book on the stealing of the 2000 election, an expansion of his above-cited Treason article, titled The Betrayal of America. Some of his criticisms are portrayed in the 2004 documentary Orwell Rolls in His Grave.
    As with Roger Taney in the infamous Dred Scott case, the so-called "conservative interpretation" process is to cite history, practice, tradition, to narrow, limit, and obstruct the words of the Constitution. (Of course, using this approach does not mean that "conservatives" do not use misconduct methods (such as not recusing themselves for bias) and misinterpretation, whenever they want to arrive at some other anti-rights decision. Such decisions are reached in advance of the purported "adjudiciation.")
    Some may recall that several third party candidates ran for President. In Florida, each received votes. The smallest third party vote in Florida for President went to Ralph Nader. Before the election, he'd been deemed not a factor in the election. Afterwards, some chose to demonize him -- alone among all the third party candidates! -- retroactively deeming him a factor! For background, see the biographical movie, An Unreasonable Man (2007).
  • The neo-Confederate plan to debar blacks from voting via criminalization is working.

    This keeps their names OFF the voting rolls. Typical poll-watchers are looking to see if people with name ON the list, is stopped from voting. That (as the disenfranchisers know) misses the point; the disenfranchsement process occurred BEFORE election day, keeping the names (disproportionately black) OFF the voter list!

    The voter obstruction process is not, was not, primarily, stopping persons with name ON the voter list from voting on Election Day. The real disenfranchisement occurred LONG before Election Day, kept the name from even being listed.

    And, let's note the big picture. The U.S. imprisons more people for more so-called crimes than any other country in the free world—five to eight times more citizens per capita than Western European countries. The U.S. prison population increased 500 percent between 1970 and 2000. There was a doubling in the 1990's. Over two million men and women are currently imprisoned in the U.S. More than half of federal prisoners and a third of state prisoners are serving time for post-gateway-starter-drug offenses (while the gateway starter drug remains—due to lobbyist $$$$$$ influence—politically protected nationwide, except in Michigan!).

    Second, let's note that nationwide, about 13% of African-American men were then ineligible to vote, said a 1998 study by the 'Sentencing Project' and the 'Human Rights Watch.' In ten states, more than 20% of black men were debarred from voting.—Michael A. Fletcher, The Washington Post, "Felon voting rights movement grows," Detroit News, Wed., 24 Feb 1999, p 9A.

    This reaffirmed data cited in 1997: Lori Montgomery, "Voting bans for felons mute power of blacks," Detroit Free Press, pp 1A and 12 (Thursday, 30 Jan 1997). The mass denial of the right-to-vote "raises larger questions about whether our criminal justice policies are diluting the political power of the black community," says Marc Mauer, Assistant Director of the Sentencing Project. "In a country that has a history and legacy of slavery, it's pretty significant that here we are almost into the 21st century, and 15 percent of black men are still disenfranchised," says David Bostitis of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies.

    So "from our perspective, it [this voting denial pattern] certainly undermines the power of the black community," says James Ferguson, Executive Director, National Coalition on Black Voter Participation. In 1901, for example, Alabama manipulated right-to-vote-criteria in this context, with the expressed goal "to establish white supremacy in this state."

    "The crime control industries in Wisconsin and Iowa seem to have learned to make the most efficient use of the preferred human material available to them, locking up the few black inhabitants of those states at a rate 11.6 times higher than whites," says Bruce Dixon, "Ten Worst Places to be Black," Black Commentator (Issue # 146) 14 July 2005. The ten worst states are Wisconsin, Iowa, Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, Delaware, Nevada, Oregon, California, and Colorado. It is clear that the evil initiated by the neo-Confederates spread.

    Marc Mauer and others say "policy makers should re-examine laws that bar felons from voting—or should find ways to send fewer black men to prison." This site shows how to do that.

    Only Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire have not adopted the neo-Confederate philosophy; they are the only four (4) states that allow prison inmates to vote. The other states take the Confederate position:
  • Thirty-two (32) states ban voting during parole

  • Twenty-nine (29) states ban voting while on probation

  • Forty-six (46) states ban voting while in prison.

  • Fourteen (14) states including Florida have a life-time debarment from voting! A lifetime ban is the most blatant form of neo-Confederate law.
  • But, worse, even for people who were allowed to vote, here is another example of what happened. A million black votes were not counted, but instead were called "spoiled." Details are cited by Greg Palast, "One million black votes didn't count in the 2000 presidential election: It's not too hard to get your vote lost -- if some politicians want it to be lost!," San Francisco Chronicle (Sunday, 20 June 2004).

    Florida The Most Discriminatory

    Florida has the dubious distinction that, it is the No. 1 most disproportionately discriminating state. The massive number of one-third of all the nation's debarred individuals nationwide live there, denied the right to vote.

    A Florida senator, James Hargerett, wanted (in 1999) to reduce the life-time debarment to one year after sentence completion, saying "The numbers just sort of leap out at you." "They are really shocking."

    As we know, he (and other similar activists) failed to have the Confederate pro-criminalization attitude undone in time for the year 2000 election!

    Result: Bush v Gore, 531 US 98; 121 S Ct 525; 148 L Ed 2d 388 (12 Dec 2000). Note that Bush, a descendant of slavers and a person not electable under standard hiring criteria, and whose father had appointed some the judges, was thereupon awarded the office, despite having won a half million votes less than Candidate Gore. The 5-4 Supreme Court vote alleged that "standardless" recounting was occurring, but carefully avoided citing the "standardless" disenfranchisements.

    Details of how Florida disenfranchised blacks en masse include:
  • ordering exclusions of possible ineligibles, not just actual ineligibles
  • purging 57,700 names on a "scrub list," 57% African-Americans,
  • doing the purging without providing notice and pre-decision hearings to those affected.
    (The Constitution's due process clauses require predecision hearings! See, e.g., Chapman v California, 386 US 18, 24; 87 S Ct 828; 17 L Ed 2d 705 (1967); Cleveland Bd of Educ v Loudermill, 470 US 532; 105 S Ct 1467; 64 L Ed 2d 494 (1985) (due process required at meaningful time).
  • obstructing the casting of challenged votes
  • arranging mass police presence at polls to deter blacks protesting the foregoing
  • allowing favored ballots to be cast AFTER Election Day

    Details are cited by:

  • Greg Palast, "The Great Florida Ex-Con Game: How the 'felon' voter-purge was itself felonious," Harper's Magazine (Friday, 1 March 2002) (Florida provided election officials fraudulent data, including with future dates, so outrageously so that some election officials, including one who found own name on the banned-from-voting list, refused to use it)
  • Greg Palast, The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (Pluto Press, 2002), pp 6-43; and
  • Michael Moore in, Stupid White Men (New York: Regan Books, 2001), pp 1-13
    (Election-2000 analysis).
  • Pursuant to the U.S. Constitution, Amendment 12, "Electoral College" votes are sent to Congress for counting; the U.S. Vice-President presides over the vote count.
    The genuinely elected Florida Electors were bluffed by the corrupted process, so failed to even turn in their electoral votes to Congress. Nobody there challenged that omission, nor the filing by the non-elected "Electors." Nobody raised the issue of the "standardless" disenfranchisements.

    Ouster Plot - 1933

    The election fraud types do not respect the decisions of voters, hence, they are willing to disregard and obstruct them by more than one method. Of course, preventing voting is No. 1 method. But they are willing to do worse. In 1932, a disfavored candidate, Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), won. Soon a plot to oust him was set in place. A person invited to join in the ouster refused to go along, and talked! and provided the documentary evidence to concerned individuals including a congressional committee, the McCormack-Dickstein Committee. That is how we know about the plot. That honest person was a Marine Major General, Smedley D. Butler.

    Butler's method of revealing the ouster effort was this. He "went on a lecture tour telling the American people that Grayson M. P. Murphy of Wall Street and two [American] Legion Post commanders had asked him to lead a march of Legionnaires and throw FDR out of office, says George Seldes, Witness to a Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1987), p 337. "General Butler had testified to [the] plot to seize Washington," p 294. And there were "ACLU reports on the Legion plot to march on Washington and take over the government." p 359.

    The McCormack-Dickstein Committee . . . published the documentary evidence," says George Seldes, Witness to a Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1987), p 337.

    For additional background on this matter, see, e.g.,
  • John Spivak, A Man in His Time (New York: Horizon Press, 1967)

  • Jules Archer, The Plot to Seize the White House (New York: Hawthorne Books, 1973) (Text)

  • Jules Archer, The Plot to Sieze the White House by Jules Archer (New York: Hawthorn Books) (Review)

  • "The Business Plot to Overthrow Roosevelt"

  • "The Failed Conspiracy to Overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt"

  • Barbara LaMonica, "The Attempted Coup Against FDR," Probe, Vol. 6 No. 3 (March-April 1999)

  • "Business Plot" (Wikipedia)

  • Wade Frazier, "The Business of War " (provides significant introductory material)

  • The Plot To Overthrow FDR (4 July 2006) (video, citing pertinent movie In Search Of History: The Plot To Overthrow FDR)

  • "War Is a Racket" (11 September 2001) (has additional introductory material)
  • Sadly, nobody went to prison for attempting this overthrow of election results. This was thus a re-run of the South's 1861-1865 effort to overthrow elections results (Lincoln's election). This "do-nothing" pattern of reaction to major actions of flouting voters and elections thus encourages additional such fraud and obstructionism.

    Election 1941 - Texas

    In 1940's Texas, what are now often admitted Republicans were then generally called 'Conservative Democrats,' representing various interest groups. Such individuals including former Governor Coke Stevenson, and then current Governor W. Lee O'Daniel, wanted to beat liberal Rep. Lyndon Baines Johnson in the 28 June 1941 special election for senator. (Prior senator Morris Sheppard had died 4 April 1941).

    Initial 28 June 1941 election results showed Johnson far ahead, but with some areas mysteriously not reporting results. Once Johnson's lead was known, the 'delayed' precincts suddenly came forward, with just enough votes to have Johnson lose.

    Amazingly, "election officials in various counties who had taken ballot boxes home with them or locked them up or mislaid them, started opening them; it was discovered that Lyndon in those instances had little or no support or that the fools who had voted for him had not understood how to mark their ballots, and that said ballots were thus invalid [We saw this story again, Florida, 2000, with would-be Gore voters!!] Other election officials discovered that they had made errors in giving Lyndon too many votes,   88and they hurriedly sent in their 'corrected' totals. Most of the 'corrections' were in [O'Daniel's] favor." See Merle Miller, Lyndon: An Oral Biography (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1980), pp 87-88.

    Also note the controversy over Johnson's reported theft of the 1948 election, "pay-back" time to Stevenson. Clearly, Southerners, Texans, were well familiar with election stealing methods and processes!

    Mississippi 1961 Attitude

    On paper blacks attained the right to vote after the Civil War. But the South's obstacles to blacks voting often included a literacy test. For example, Mississippi law in 1961 required the applicant voter to pass a test with 21 questions, and to interpret any section of the state constitution on the local registrar might test the applicant. Mississippi's constitution had 285 sections! Reference: Rev. Orloff W. Miller, "Selma in Retrospect" (June 2000).

    (Rev. Miller also cites the South's hostility to education being desegregated--another facet of the South's sweeping across-the-board hostility to blacks exercising standard aspects of U.S. freedom and liberties. This hostility included discrimination and maltreatment in employment, housing, public accommodations, transportation, etc. Southern hostility to black voting is thus just one of many aspects of the racism being documented here.)

    Alabama 1964 Attitude

    Selma is in Dallas County, Alabama. Then then sheriff was James Clark. He and his deputies, called "squirrel shooters," "did not like Negroes, particularly when they were advocates of civil rights. Clark called them 'the lowest form of humanity.' See Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 429.

    "In 1964 when some Negroes had tried to register to vote at the Dallas County Courthouse, Sheriff Clark attempted to make them stand in line at the back door. When they refused, he and the 'squirrel shooters' took a hundred or more to the county jail [assaulting them on] their way to police cars with cattle prods, night sticks, and punches in various suceptible parts of the body." Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 429.

    Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., came to Selma, Alabama, in January 1965 to begin a voting rights drive. He checked in at the Hotel Albert. A white woman shouted, "Get him, get him, get him." A segregationist from the National States Rights Party hit King in the head and kicked him in the groin. See Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 428.

    King had "criticized some southern agents of the FBI for not being . . . diligent in investigating violation of civil rights." FBI Director John Edgar Hoover responded by calling Dr. King "the most notorious liar in America." See Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 428.

    In March 1965, Rev. King led voting rights marches in Selma. In retaliation one early March day, "the [so-called] law enforcement officers [as an extortion measure] formed up a line and shot tear gas into the crowd, rode horses into the crowd, swung their [night] sticks, and generally stopped the march with an opverwhelming display of force that was captured by television cameras and shocked and stunned the consciousness of the United States. Seventeen Negroes were injured seriously enough to require hospitalization; one of them was young John Lewis [later a Congressional Representative]." See Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 429.

    A few days later, a white clergyman, Rev. James J. Reeb of Boston, supporting King's voting rights efforts was attacked on the Selma streets, beaten unconscious, and died two days later. See Miller, Lyndon, supra, p 429.

    The above-cited Rev. Orloff W. Miller, "Selma in Retrospect" (June 2000), cites additional killings by anti-voting rights Southerners, e.g., the killings of a local black voting-rights activist, Jimmie Lee Jackson, and of a white housewife Mrs. Viola Gregg Liuzzo, shot in her car while ferrying demonstrators.

    For more background, see, e.g.,
  • Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., "A Witness to the Truth," Rev. King's 15 March 1965 eulogy for Rev. Reeb.

  • Christopher L. Walton, "Selma65: 'So Nobly Started,'" UU World, vol XV, issue #2 (May/June 2001), pages 18-19.

  • Home of the Brave (2003) (DVD, Narrator Stockard Channing) (movie on the Civil Rights era, specifically, the murder of Civil Rights activist Mrs. Viola Gregg Liuzzo, by Southerners opposed to civil rights including voting rights for blacks)
  • Yes, the 1965 Voting Rights Act shortly came about. But the anti-voting rights attitude in the South did not go away. It merely changed parties. The Republicans, who had been pro-Civil Rights (half-heartedly though their support was) through Dwight D. Eisenhower, switched sides under Richard Nixon. This position reversal continues to present.

    For background on the change in the Republican Party after Eisenhower, see, e.g.,
  • Christopher Caldwell, "The Southern Captivity of the GOP," The Atlantic Monthly (June 1998)

  • Elizabeth Arens, "Republican Futures" (Policy Review, Issue 106, April 2001).

  • Al Franken, Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2003, 2004), Chapter 30, pp 263-266.
  • Re the "Southern Captivity of the GOP," note that Republicans were the party of anti -slavery in the old ante-bellum, pre-Civil War, days. However, a position reversal has occurred. The Republican party has taken the place of the Old Democrat party in the Old South so that the bigots that once belonged to that party are now part of the Republican party. During the Civil War, many Democrats were pro-slavery because many of their most powerful members were Southern slave owners. After the war, and especially in the Richard Nixon Era, the emphasis changed. The Democrats went after the black vote and the liberal agenda. The two parties exchanged places on the social scale. The Democrats became too culturally accepting for southern bigots, who wanted to be in the party that held their values of mistrust and ethnocentric bigoted beliefs. So they switched.

    Election 2002

    "Lawrence Moss was 66 and voting [in the Florida Primary Election] for the first time. He had doubts that a black man's vote counted for much, but he'd made a promise [to attempt to vote]. He walked to the polls . . . in his impoverished Miami neighborhood Tuesday, only to be told the machines weren't up [around 4:00 pm]. Like many other south Florida blacks, he didn't get to vote—a sad reminder of the botched 2000 presidential election, when many minorities here felt their votes didn't count and their candidate lost by just a few hundred votes."

    "'My fear is that officials haven't taken the necessary steps to counter these traditional patterns, starving poor communities and minority communities of the [election equipment, poll-worker training, and like] resources they need for the democratic infrastructure,' says [Christopher] Edley [Jr.], a Harvard Law School professor [and member of the U. S. Civil Rights Commission]. . . . And whether that happens by intention or by accident, it's a problem we ought to fix.'" "'The Constitution no longer permits votes to be discounted on the basis of color and class.’”—“Florida voters again feeling disenfranchised," Macomb Daily (Mt. Clemens, MI), p 6A (Sunday, 15 September 2002).

    "Harvard law professor Christopher Edley Jr., a member of the Commission on Civil Rights, didn't like the smell of all those spoiled ballots. He dug into the pile of tossed ballots and, deep in the commission's official findings, reported this: 14.4 percent of black votes--one in seven--were "invalidated," i.e., never counted. By contrast, only 1.6 percent of nonblack voters' ballots were spoiled," quoted by Greg Palast, "Vanishing Votes," The Nation (17 May 2004). About a million of African-Amereican votes are marked unreadable in a typical presidential election.

    Ed. Note: Turning voters away unlawfully, deprives the public of “honest services."
    By law, 18 USC §§ 1341, 1343, and 1346, mail fraud defrauding others of “honest services” is illegal. The term “‘honest services’ can include ‘honest and impartial government.’”—U.S. v Brumley, 116 F3d 728, 731 (CA 5, 1997) cert den 522 US 1028; 118 S Ct 625; 139 L Ed 2d 606.
    “A defendant may be prosecuted for deprivation of honest services [even] if he [the rights-depriver] has [not a single illegal intent but] a dual intent, i.e., if he is found to have intended both a lawful [as rights-deprivers allege] and an unlawful purpose to some degree.”—U.S. v Woodward, 149 F3d 46, 71 (CA 1, 1998), cert den 525 US 1138; 119 S Ct 1026; 143 L Ed 2d 37.
    The Dept of Justice prosecutes others (as in, e.g., the case of U.S. v James J. Smith), for "honest services" deprivation, but as per DOJ policy and practice, it does not prosecute when the crime occurs in disenfranchisement circumstances.

    One result of the many decades of discouragement of black voters, was their low turn-out 5 November 2002, in Southern states such as Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama. In Georgia, the county with the most blacks, had 13,000 fewer votes cast in Nov 2002, than in Nov 2000.—"Low black turnout helped GOP," Macomb Daily (Mt. Clemens, MI), p 6A (Thursday, 7 November 2002).

    And see the article, "Hack the Vote," by New York Times Op-Ed writer Paul Krugman (2 December 2003), quoting Walden O'Dell, the chief executive of a touch-screen voting-machine-manufacturer, Diebold Inc., wanting to deliver the vote to a certain candidate! ("I am committed to helping Ohio deliver its electoral votes to the president next year.") This is not a comment designed to give one confidence in the voting machine system!

    California Republican "Party Secretary Shannon Reeves wrote to his fellow board members . . . because state Republican Vice Chairman Bill Back had sent out an e-mail containing an article by 265someone else suggesting that the nation would have been better off if the South had won the Civil War," says Al Franken, Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2003, 2004), Chapter 30, pp 264-265.

    Note this method to “try to supress black turnout in 2002 . . . putting out flyers in black neighborhoods saying:

    “URGENT NOTICE. Come out to vote November 6. Before you
    Come out to vote—Pay your parking tickets, motor vehicle
    tickets, your rent, and most important, ANY WARRANTS.

    “The election, of course, was November 5,” says Franken, Lies, supra, p 266.

    2002 -- Keeping in Practice Elsewhere

    Note also at election fraud includes overuling election results by, for example, arranging a coup, an overthrow of an elected government. Note for example what happened in Venezuela in April 2002, when the elected president was ousted in favor of a pro-Bush oil executive! For details, see, e.g.,
  • Kim Bartley and Donnacha O'Briain, The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" (Ireland, 2003) (synopsis)
  • Kim Bartley and Donnacha O'Briain, "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" (background)
  • Wikipedia, "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" (documentary)
  • Haro-Online, "Review"
  • Free Download from
  • See also the 2006 - Mexico election fraud section, for more on how vote-frauders keep in practice.

    Election 2003

    Kentucky and Mississippi had elections in 2003 for governor. “The Republican Party has run this election with a fist full of dollars in one hand and a Confederate flag in the other.”—Rickey L. Cole, MS State Dem. Party Chairman. “Democrats in Mississippi complained Tuesday of intimidation at black voting precicnts, echoing an earlier clash over race in Kentucky's final days. In both states, Democrats claimed that GOP poll observers sought to suppress the black vote . . . . In Mississippi, state officials said they were investigating dozens of reports of irregularities, including allegations that observers followed voters into voting booths or videotaped voters and their completed ballots.”—“Republican wins governor's race in Kentucky,” The Macomb Daily, p 9a (Wednesday, 5 November 2003).

    "The flag of the Confederacy has become a rallying point for hoodlums and crackpots . . . inflamed by pious statements that invite violence while purporting to deplore it, the mob has gathered. . . . It will be a long time before any of us get the feel of slime off our hands," says Lydel Sims, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 2 October 1962, cited by Univ. of Mississippi Political Science Prof. Russell H. Barrett, Integration at Ole Miss (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965), Chap. 6, p 171.

    Election 2004

    As no meaningful ending of the abuses herein described was done, a re-run of the past abuses was foreseeable, to be expected. According to investigative reporter Greg Palast, see “Kerry Won” (4 Nov 2004), in Ohio and New Mexico, but as in Florida-2000, selective non-counting of minorities' votes was used to reverse the actual outcome. See also

  • The 2004 US Elections: The Mother of all Vote Frauds” (23 March 2004, 7 April 2004, etc.)

  • Thom Hartmann, “Evidence Mounts That The Vote May Have Been Hacked” (6 Nov 2004)

  • Greg Palast, “Kerry Won Ohio: Just Count the Ballots” (12 Nov 2004)

  • Steve Rosenfeld, “The Perfect Election Day Crime” (12 Nov 2004) (discouraging voting by having too few voting machines)

  • Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., “Was the 2004 Election Stolen?” (Rolling Stone, June 2006, with 208 references: "I believe that any intelligent person who reads the evidence will come to the same conclusion. But one will never be able to prove it to an absolute certainty because the votes were never counted in Ohio as the result of an illegal effort by public officials to derail the recount." (Details).

  • Michael Collins, "Kennedy's Challenge: Salon, Mother Jones & the tortured dialogue" (The Free Press, 15 June 2006)

  • Greg Palast, "Bush's New US Attorney a Criminal?" (7 March 2007) (BBC Television had exposed 2004 voter attack scheme by appointee Griffin, a Rove aide. Black soldiers and the homeless were targeted.)

  • Associated Press, "2 election workers get 18 months for rigging presidential recount" (13 March 2007)

  • Steven Rosenfeld and Prof. Robert Fitrakis, "The GOP’s Cyber Election Hit Squad" (The Free Press, Columbus, Ohio, Monday, 23 April 2007) ("Did the most powerful Republicans in America have the computer capacity, software skills and electronic infrastructure in place on Election Night 2004 to tamper with the Ohio results to ensure George W. Bush’s re-election? The answer appears to be yes.")

  • Michael Parenti, Ph.D., "The Stolen Presidential Elections" (May 2007).

  • Prof. Robert Fitrakis, "New Court Filing Reveals How the 2004 Ohio Presidential Election Was Hacked" (The Free Press, Monday, 25 July 2011) ("The filing . . . includes the revealing deposition of the late Michael Connell [who] served as the IT guru for the Bush family and Karl Rove. Connell ran the private IT firm GovTech that created the controversial system that transferred Ohio's vote count late on election night 2004 to a partisan Republican server site in Chattanooga, Tennessee owned by SmarTech. That is when the vote shift happened, not predicted by the exit polls, that led to Bush's unexpected victory. Connell died a month and a half after giving this deposition in a suspicious small plane crash. . . . IT security expert Stephen Spoonamore [said] that, 'SmarTech was a man in the middle. In my opinion they were not designed as a mirror, they were designed specifically to be a man in the middle.' A 'man in the middle' is a deliberate computer hacking setup, which allows a third party to sit in between computer transmissions and illegally alter the data. A mirror site, by contrast, is designed as a backup site in case the main computer configuration fails."
  • Such data answers the Daily Mirror question:

    Minister: Bush Win 'Tragic'

    A number of people are questioning the accuracy of the alleged 2004 outcome. Some say that the media are ignoring the subject.

    For background leading to the skewed result of the loser being declared the winner, see a multiplicity of articles, for example, see “The Serpent in the Garden - Spreading Lies About Black Voters,” The Black Commentator, Issue 72, 8 January 2004. That article says, for example: "Every Republican political action since 1968 shows that the GOP runs its campaigns against Blacks . . . . using racial code words: Nixon's ‘law and order,’ Reagan's ‘states' rights’ and ‘welfare queen,’ and the first George Bush's ‘Willie Horton.’ . . . Their idea of equal rights is the American flag and Confederate swastika flying side by side."

    Lansing writer Larry Hauser, “One-sided justice,” Detroit Free Press (Sunday, 8 February 2004), had anticipated a re-run of the past abuses in the 2004 Presidential Election, unless prompt solution action occurred. Such did not occur.

    See also
  • Richard Ray Pérez and Joan Sekler, “Unprecedented: The 2000 Presidential Election” (Documentary, 2004) (on “the undermining of democracy [with] sinister voter purges . . . George W. Bush stole the Presidency of the United States . . . and got away with it.”)

  • Prison Nation: A Call to Action on Imprisonment and Communities of Color,” by the National Religious Affairs Association of the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice (18 January 2004), and cited by The Black Commentator (Issue 77) (12 February 2004).

  • Another stolen election?,” by John David Rose, Carolina Morning News (Friday, 16 April 2004)

  • Greg Palast, “Vanishing Votes,” The Nation (17 May 2004) (continuing election theft, planned for Election 2004, and well underway, including provisos for voter purging in all 50 states (compare how Florida did that pre-2000 Election, supra)

  • Abby Goodnough, “Reassurance for Florida Voters Made Wary by Chaos of 2000” (New York Times, 24 May 2004) (“A movement is rising in poor black Florida communities to register and to educate, reassure and entreat voters.”)

  • Greg Palast, “One million black votes didn't count in the 2000 presidential election: It's not too hard to get your vote lost—if some politicians want it to be lost!,” San Francisco Chronicle (Sunday, 20 June 2004)

  • Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson, “Congresswoman Johnson Gains Assurance From State Department That Oobservers Will Monitor Upcoming Election: Texas Lawmaker Hopeful Every Vote Will Be Counted This Fall” (4 August 2004)

  • David de Sola, CNN, “International team to monitor presidential election: Observers will be part of OSCE's human rights office” (9 August 2004) (requested by Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson, et al., and approved by Secretary of State Colin Powell)

  • Bev Harris, "Sum of a Glitch," In These Times (24 August 2004) (examples include this: "an optical-scan machine in Allamakee County, Iowa, was fed 300 ballots and reported 4 million votes")

  • Oliver Burkeman, "Dirty Voting Tricks Return To The Sunshine State," The Guardian (19 October 2004)

  • Greg Palast, "New Florida Vote Scandal Feared" (BBC News, 26 October 2004)

  • Wayne Madsen, "Texas to Florida: White House-linked Clandestine Operation Paid for "vote switching" Software" (Online Journal, 6 December 2004)

  • by Election Protection Coalition, "Voting Disenfranchisement In 2004" (8 December 2004) (alleging "an unbroken line between Selma, Alabama, and Ohio")

  • Greg Palast, "A Stolen Election" (The Nation, 29 December 2004) (Professor Mark Salling of Cleveland State University, an expert on Ohio voting demographics, says that "spoiled" punch cards in Ohio cities come "overwhelmingly" from African-American neighborhoods, meaning about 500,0-00 uncounted in the November 2004 election)

  • Robert C. Koehler, "The Silent Scream of Numbers: The 2004 Election Was Stolen—Will Someone Please Tell the Media?" (14 April 2005)

  • Mark Crispin Miller and Jared Irmas, "RNC Vote Fraud? Team Bush Paid Millions to Nathan Sproul—and Tried to Hide It" (News from Underground, 30 June 2005, reprinted Baltimore Chronicle, 5 July 2005)

  • Prof. Robert Fitrakis, J.D., Ph.D., and Harvey Wasserman, M.A., "Powerful Government Accountability Office report confirms key 2004 stolen election findings" (26 October 2005)

  • Gumbel, Andrew, "How to Steal an Election" (15 February 2006), and Steal This Vote: Dirty Elections and the Rotten History of Democracy in America (“Nothing has been more normal, over the past 200-plus years, than for one side in an American election to push, shove, and strong-arm its way across the finishing line, praising the strength and fairness of the process as it goes, while the other side stares forlornly at the inevitability of defeat and yelps in frustration about the perpetration of an outrageous theft that threatens the very fabric of the nation.”)
  • One conservative scam to lower the vote is to issue disinformation on subjects of concern, e.g., abortion. Abortion is linked to tobacco. Conservatives pretend to be anti-abortions, while causing them! by their obsession with supporting tobacco, which causes abortions. Likewise with the so-called "save marriage issue," despite its also being linked to tobacco, in terms of divorce and so-called gay marriage. This conservative disinformation scam is done across a variety of issues. Such disinformation and pretense of 'morality' distracts attention off, e.g., Bush's reported psychiatric symptoms such as paranoia, meglomania, sadism, untreated alcoholism and starting an illegal war.

    William J. Bennett, 20-year smoker, and Reagan's Secretary of Education, naturally refuses to admit the tobacco-crime link, hence, takes the racist line: In September 2005, on his radio show, "Morning in America," he ridiculed the medical fact " that one reason crime is down is that abortion is up."

    Instead of honestly admitting this, he displayed typical smoker brain damage symptom. He changed the subject:

    "But I do know that it's true that if you wanted to reduce crime, you could if that were your sole purpose, you could abort every black baby in this country, and your crime rate would go down," said Bennett, a pretended moral expert, and author of The Book of Virtues!!

    To bigots and racists, it is always OK to allege black crime, but never OK to cite the tobacco role in crime!

    Election 2006:
    Keeping in Practice Elsewhere

    Vote fraud takes work. Naturally, the vote frauders keep in practice (not just a one-time thing, e.g., the April 2002 Venezuela coup). For 2006, they are practicing on Mexico's presidential election, 2 July 2006. See, e.g.,

  • Greg Palast, “Stealing Mexico: Bush Team Helps Ruling Party "Floridize" Mexican Presidential Election” (30 June 2006)

  • Matt Pascarella, Mexico City, and Greg Palast, London, “Dispatch from Mexico City: Stealing it in Front of Your Eyes” (3 July 2006) (one gimmick is to claim election is "close" and delay announcing final results until after enough time to have completed the fraud process).

  • Greg Palast, "'Senor Blank-o' wins in Mexico" (7 July 2006) (827,000 unmarked ballots! over double the alleged 402,000 winning margin for the Bush-favored candidate!)

  • Stephen Lendman, "Democracy, Mexican Style" (other examples of "outcome was 'arranged' and known in advance before voters went to the polls," e.g. Mexico, 1988; US, 2000; US, 2004; Colombia and Peru, 2006; Mexico 2006)

  • BAMN, Fight Voter Fraud in Michigan 2006 (7 June 2006)

  • Greg Palast, "Mexico and Florida have more in common than heat," The Guardian (8 July 2006)

  • Stephen Lendman, "Democracy, Mexican Style - Part II" (10 July 2006) (information including that the pro-Bush candidate Felipe Calderon's brother-in-law Diego Hildebrando Zavala wrote the vote-counting software!)

  • Istra Pacheco, "Mexico's leftist candidate presents evidence of fraud ," The Independent (London, 10 July 2006) (alleged computer manipulation of results and not counting votes, in a patterrn reminescent of the "decades of institutional corruption and fraud that favored the ruling party.")

  • Mike Whitney, "Stealing the Midterms and the Power of Myth" (25 October 2006) ("There are only two weapons in the imperial tool-chest; force and deception. I expect that the anticipated Democratic landslide will be pre-empted by massive voter fraud accompanied by some type of 'searing event' [aka, e.g., 'November surprise']; that way the fantastical outcome of a GOP victory can be neatly folded into a larger and all-pervasive 'myth'.")

  • Greg Palast, "Recipe for a Cooked Election (25 October 2006) ("A nasty little secret of American democracy is that, in every national election, ballots cast are simply thrown in the garbage. Most are called 'spoiled,' supposedly unreadable, damaged, invalid. They just don't get counted. This 'spoilage' has occurred for decades, but it reached unprecedented heights in the last two presidential elections. In the 2004 election, for example, more than three million ballots were never counted.")

  • Andi Novick, "The theft of American elections is a media issue" (Northeast Citizens for Responsible Media, 31 October 2006)
  • See also the website, "Stopping voter suppression, by observing the vote. And sharing the results—on Election Day."

    Election 2008

    For what is planned for 2008, see

  • the book by Robert Fitrakis, J.D., Ph.D., and Harvey Wasserman, M.A., et al., How the GOP Stole America's 2004 Election & is Rigging 2008 (2005). (Fitrakis is a political science professor and lawyer.) For an alternate source, click here. Fitrakis and Wasserman are co-editors, with Steve Rosenfeld, of What Happened in Ohio?

  • Center for Public Integrity, The Buying of the President 2008 and Susan Q. Stranahan, "Broken Elections, Stolen Votes: First of a five-part series on voter fraud, voter suppression, and election stealing" (30 June 2008) (Cites "an election process open to chicanery, if not outright corruption:
    "Party operatives by the thousands assigned to local precincts waiting to challenge the right of people to vote.

    "Private jets poised on runways, ready to speed legal SWAT teams to contested jurisdictions.

    "Foreign election monitors prowling the country in search of voter suppression.

    "Voter rolls purged, and people turned away from polling places arbitrarily.

    "Blacks and low-income voters forced to stand in line for hours while their counterparts in predominantly white or more affluent precincts breezed through the process in minutes.

    "Mysteriously malfunctioning election equipment."

  • the article by Greg Palast, "'Set up to steal it again' Is 2008 already fixed?" (BBC, 10 October 2008)

  • the booklet by Greg Palast, "Steal Back Your Vote!" (October 2008) on how to vote despite the obstacles.

  • Jonathan Stein, "How to Protect Your Vote" (3 November 2008) ("the only foolproof strategy to avoid vulnerabilities in the vote is to win big.")

  • the article by Associated Press Reporter Deborah Hastings, "Dirty Tricks Intensify," The Detroit News, 8A (Monday, 3 Nov 2008) ("in predominantly African-American neighborhoods of Philadelphia . . . [deceptive] fliers have circulated that warn voters they could be arrested at the polls if they have unpaid parking tickets or criminal convictions. . . . in Virginia, bogus fliers with an authentic-looking commonwealth [state] seal said fears of high voter turnout had prompted election officials to hold two elections -- one on Tuesday for Republicans and another on Wednesday for Democrats. . . . In Pennsylvania, emails appeared linking Democrat Barack Obama [born decades later] to the [1940's] Holocaust . . . Laughlin McDonald, who heads the ACLU's Voting Rights Project said she has never seen 'an election where there was more interest and more voter turnout, and more efforts to suppress registration and turnout. And that has a real impact on minorities.' The Obama campaign and civil rights advocacy groups have signed up millions of new voters for this presidential race. In Ohio alone, 600,000 have submitted new voter registration cards. Across the country, many of these first-time voters are young and strong Obama supporters. Many are also black and Hispanic. Activist groups say it is this fresh crop of ballot-minded citizens that makes some Republicans very nervous. . . . Other reports of intimidation efforts in the hotly contested state of Pennsylvania include leaflets taped to picnic benches at Drexel University, warning students that police would be at the polls on Tuesday to arrest would-be voters with prior criminal offenses. . . . In Nevada, for example, Latino voters said they had received calls from people describing themselves as Obama volunteers, urging them to cast their ballot over the phone. 'The Voting Rights Act makes it a crime to mislead and intimidate voters,' said McDonald. 'If you can find out who's doing it, those people should be prosecuted. But sometimes it's just difficult to know who's doing what. Some of it's just anonymous.'"

  • the article by Greg Palast, "How McCain Could Win" (3 November 2008) ("We don't count all the votes. In 2004, based on the data from the US Elections Assistance Commission, 3,006,080 votes were not counted . . . there will be far more votes disappeared by Tuesday night than the three million lost in 2004. A six-million vote swipe, quite likely, shifts 4 percent of the ballots, within the margin of error of the tightest polls. Begin with this harsh statistic: since the last election, more than ten million voters have been purged from the nation's vote registries. And that's just the start of the steal. . . . here are the facts about provisionals: they don't get counted. And there are lots of them. The great unreported story of the 2004 election was that there were more than three million voters shunted to provisional ballots. Over a million (1,090,000) were never counted, just chucked in the dumpster. . . . Will the election be stolen on Tuesday? No, it's already been stolen. That is, several million voters are doomed to lose their ballots; most won't even know it. Overwhelmingly, they are the poor, minorities, new voters - Obama voters.")
  • What actually happened is summarized thus: "In 2008, no fewer than 2,706,275 ballots were cast—and never counted. It didn't make a difference then, but it will make a difference now [2012]. And, in 2008, no fewer than 3,195,539 legal voters were denied the right to vote. Told to get the hell out of the polling station. Add it up. That's at least 5,901,814 legitimate votes and voters tossed out of the count. . . . these numbers are from . . . the US Elections Assistance Commission." See Greg Palast with Introduction by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Dean, Pace University School of Environmental Law, Billionaires & Ballot Bandits: How to Steal an Election in 9 Easy Steps (New York: Seven Stories Press, 30 August 2012) (on plans to steal the 2012 election with background on how prior elections have been stolen.)

    "The U.S. is number one in incarcerating its citizens. Black women are increasingly becoming the new target for incarceration," says L. Jean Daniels, Ph.D., "The Empire Building Equation and the Incarceration of Africans and Blacks" (Black Commentator, 14 June 2007). He references the "three million votes stolen in the last election [2004]," and that the election-process is continuing.

    "For six years, the Bush administration, aided by Justice Department political appointees, has pursued an aggressive legal effort to restrict voter turnout in key battleground states in ways that favor Republican political candidates," says Greg Gordon, "Administration pursued aggressive legal effort to restrict voter turnout" (McClatchy Newspapers, 18 April 2007).

    And for how this connects to the 2007 scandal on the firing of eight U.S. Attorneys, see

  • Michael Winship, "Keep Out the Vote" (15 May 2007) and

  • Harold Meyerson, "The Cost of a GOP Myth," Washington Post (16 May 2007), p A15.

    And for how this connects to the potential next war, with Iran, see Paul Craig Roberts, "Attacking Iran: What’s In It For Bush?" (17 January 2007).

    Clive Thompson, "Can You Count on Voting Machines?" (New York Times, 6 January 2008) ("After the 2000 election, counties around the country rushed to buy new computerized voting machines. But it turns out that these machines may cause problems worse than hanging chads.")

    Clive Thompson and Amy Goodman, "Will Your Vote Be Counted in 2008? Electronic Voting Machines and the Privatization of Elections" (10 January 2008) (on typical 10% discrepancy rate, touch screen flaws, failure of paper trail devices to print, etc.)

    Greg Palast, "Will José Crow Voter ID Laws Pick Our President? (10 January 2008) (exposes false claims made in behalf of current voter ID litigation, and real reasons including to disqualify minorities for trivial reasons, e.g., middle initial, "Jr.," etc.)

    See also the Supreme Court decision, Crawford v. Marion County Election Bd., ___ US ___; ___ S Ct ___; ___ L Ed 2d ___ (28 April 2008), upholding the constitutionality of a state law requiring citizens voting in person to present photo identification issued by the government, as the evidence in the record was not sufficient to support a facial attack on the validity of the entire statute.

    See also the website,

  • 2009

    In July 2009, on Thursday the 16th, Harvard Prof. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Ph.D., Director of the W.E.B. DuBois Institute for African and African American Studies, was arrested in his home. Dr. Gates had graduated from Yale University summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa. He is an acclaimed historian and PBS documentarian. He has some 50 honorary degrees. In 1997, Time Magazine listed him as among the "25 Most Influential Americans."

    So why was Prof. Gates arrested in his home? He "had returned from a trip to China . . . and found the front door of his Cambridge, Mass. home stuck shut. [So he] entered [by] the back door, forced open the front door with help from a car service driver, and was on the phone with the Harvard leasing company when a white police sergeant arrived." Pursuant to the centuries-old pattern, the police reaction was foreseeable, that the Prof. had to be arrested! in his own home! For background, see the AP article by Jesse Washington, "Analysis: Gates arrest a signpost on racial road" (22 July 2009). And if police falsification occurred as well, that's part of the known pattern.

    Such "incidents" are not mere isolated "individual incidents." Rather they are systemic. They are no more "individual incidents" than were attacks on Jews in Nazi Germany, nor lynchings in the Old South. Treating such incidents as mere isolated incidents perhaps warranting no more than, say, "counseling" for an individual officer, is inherently fraudulent and malicious refusal to note the systemic pattern. The foreseeable natural and probable consequences of such fraudulent approach is additional "incidents." Such approach refuses to acknowledge that systemic matters require systemic solutions.

    See also

  • "What if Henry Louis Gates Were Not an Acclaimed Professor?," by Raj Jayadev (New America Media, 29 July 2009)

  • "Cop Won't Apologize for Arresting Obama Trying to Get Into White House," re the systemic aspect, presented as a satire substituting President Obama for Prof. Gates as victim.

  • "How fear factors into the Gates case," by Leonard Pitts, Jr. (McClatchy Newspapers, 31 July 2009) (citing facts including the psychotic and malicious attitude of "never connecting the dots, seeing instead one [fragmented] discrete [disconnected] incident over here and tsk-tsk, how terrible that is, and another discrete [disconnected] incident over there, and tsk-tsk again. And then move on and leave it behind")

  • Sherwood Ross, "Ridding America of the Warmongers" (1 January 2010) (One "way to strengthen 'people power' is to re-enfranchise the 5.3 million citizens 'still barred from the polling stations because of some prior conviction,' writes Greg Palast in 'Armed Madhouse' (Plume). 'The Right to Vote campaign is fighting this Soviet-style loss of citizenship. Notably, lifetime loss of citizenship is imposed by only seven states of the Old Confederacy under laws originally created at the behest of the Ku Klux Klan.'")

  • Prof. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (The New Press, 2010) (Interview, 11 March 2010) ("The war on drugs, contrary to popular belief, was not declared in response to rising drug crime. Actually, the war on drugs, the current drug war, was declared in 1982 by President Ronald Reagan at a time when drug crime was actually on the decline.")

  • Paul Delaney, "How Race Shaped American Party Politics" (31 December 2011) ("Since the 1860s, many whites in the Southern states have harbored a special, deep dislike for any of their brethren, anywhere on the continent, who took up the cause of former slaves. Think of the reactions to Abraham Lincoln, John Brown, Ulysses S. Grant, Viola Liuzzo, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner. . . . When Abraham Lincoln's Republicans gave ex-slaves access to the ballot, Southerners' war against those rights was on. Bit by bit, during the Reconstruction period and throughout the 19th century, they chipped away at blacks' newly gained rights.")


  • "Applewhite et al. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, et al." (Case No. 330 M.D. 2012, May 2012 - October 2012, ___ Pa. ___, ___ A.3d ___ (Pa., No. 71 MAP 2012) (case overturning Pennsylvania voter suppression law, by Order 2 October 2012)

  • Gov. Jennifer Granholm (Michigan, 2001-2009), "Voter Suppression Is Treasonous" ("In November [2012], five million eligible voters will find it harder to exercise their rights in America -- 150 voter suppression laws have been introduced in 30 state legislatures across the country. The most common tactics: requiring photo ID, restricting registration drives, limiting early voting and imposing onerous residency requirements. Who do these laws most directly affect? The poor, the elderly, minorities and the young. And how do those groups typically vote? Democratic. It is an affront to our democracy that you need a specific identification to vote for a candidate, but not to finance one. Why is it so easy to buy a government, but becoming so hard to vote for one? Voter suppression laws, overzealous filibuster use, you name it -- the Republicans use every tactic they can to stop our democracy from actually selecting the person with the most support. Why do they do this? It seems obvious: when you don't have winning ideas, you change the rules of the game. When you can't convince voters that you are the best choice, you restrict their ability to choose. Voter restriction laws that lead to an outcome based upon process instead of merit might be labeled . . . as treasonous.")

  • Caitlin Shay & Zachary Zarnow, "Free But No Liberty: How Florida Contravenes the Voting Rights Act by Preventing Persons Previously Convicted of Felonies From Voting (National Lawyers' Guild Review, Vol. 89 #1, Spring 2012)

  • "The War on the War on Voting: Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin" (27 June 2012) ("Since 1999, 31 million votes have been cast in the state of Pennsylvania. Since 1999, there have been 12 cases of voter fraud – someone trying to vote twice or impersonate another voter. That means 0.0004 percent of votes cast since 1999 have had a problem. These numbers don’t faze Pennsylvania’s Governor, Tom Corbett, or State Rep. Daryl Metcalfe (R-ALEC). Metcalfe’s House Committee produced a voter ID bill that would spend $11 million of taxpayer dollars to address those 0.00004 percent votes, and effectively disenfranchise 691,000 citizens in the process. . . . [Wisconsin] Dane County Circuit Judge Richard Niess issued the permanent injunction, finding the law unconstitutional because it would abridge the right to vote. He wrote in his eight-page ruling that “voter fraud is no more poisonous to our democracy than voter suppression” . . . here’s the key point from the decision in Wisconsin: “A government that undermines the very foundation of its existence — the people’s inherent, pre-constitutional right to vote — imperils its legitimacy as a government by the people, for the people, and especially of the people,” Niess wrote.")

  • Thom Hartman, "Voter ID laws sweeping the nation are aimed at rigging the 2012 election in favor of Mitt Romney" (27 June 2012) ("But don't take my word for it – that's what one of the top Republican lawmakers in Pennsylvania just admitted. Speaking to the Republican State Committee, Pennsylvania House Majority Leader Mike Turzai, told his colleagues that the recent Voter ID law passed by Republicans in the state will, "allow Governor Romney to win the state of Pennsylvania." Several studies, including one by the nonpartisan Brennan Center for Justice, have found that Voter ID laws will take the right to vote away from tens of millions of Americans who don't own cars, hitting particularly hard low-income, minority, college student, and elderly voters – people who tend to vote for Democrats. And as one of the most influential Republican strategists of the last thirty years, Paul Weyirch, infamously observed – Republicans chances of winning elections go up, as the voting populace goes down.")

  • Michael Baker, "Tough ID laws could block thousands of 2012 votes" (Associated Press, 8 July 2012) ("When Edward and Mary Weidenbener went to vote in Indiana's primary in May, they didn't realize that state law required them to bring government photo IDs such as a driver's license or passport. The husband and wife, both approaching 90 years old, had to use a temporary ballot that would be verified later, even though they knew the people working the polling site that day.. . . the Weidenbeners ultimately had their votes rejected — news to them until informed recently by an Associated Press reporter. . . . Edward Weidenbener, a World War II veteran . . . said he was surprised by the rules and the consequences. 'A lot of people don't have a photo ID. They'll be automatically disenfranchised,' he said.")

  • Mark Karlin, "Suppressing Democracy by Stealing the Right to Vote Is the Ultimate Election Fraud" (18 July 2012) ("The right of an American citizen to vote is the fundamental ingredient that makes a democracy representative of the will of the people, of all US citizens. To intentionally keep people from exercising their right to vote, in the absence of any significant voter fraud, is a crime against the Constitution.")

  • Betsey Piette, “Voter ID Laws Aim to Disenfranchise" (Friday, 27 July 2012) ("A total of 19 states have passed ID laws since 2011, making voting harder for the old, the poor, married women and people of color. . . . These laws impact the poor in particular who may lack the funds to secure the required documentation. Canvasses after the last Kansas election found that most people of color who were challenged lived below the poverty line. They did not own cars or have driver licenses, bank accounts or state ID cards. . . . Voter ID restrictions are not a problem for the wealthy 1%. They have the required birth certificates, driver’s licenses and passports. Keeping more workers and poor people, particularly women, the elderly and people of color, from voting can only benefit the interests of the rich.”)

  • Charles M. Blow, “Where’s the Outrage?" (New York Times, Friday, 27 July 2012) (“States began to issue driver’s licenses more than a century ago and began to include photos on those licenses decades ago. Yet, as the Brennan Center points out, 'prior to the 2006 election, no state required its voters to show government-issued photo ID at the polls (or elsewhere) in order to vote.' Furthermore, most voter laws have emerged in the last two years. What is the difference between previous decades and today? The election of Barack Obama. It is no coincidence that some of the people least likely to have proper IDs to vote are the ones that generally vote Democratic and were strong supporters of Obama last election: young people, the poor and minorities.”)

  • Bill Moyers, “The Hollow Defense of Voter ID Laws" (PBS, 31 July 2012) (“Are laws aimed at voter fraud really enabling voter suppression? In a preview clip from this weekend’s Moyers & Company, Keesha Gaskins and Michael Waldman from the Brennan Center for Justice rebut common defenses of voter ID laws . . . these laws represent “the first rollback of voting rights since the Jim Crow era.'")

  • Robert Barnes, "GOP Voter Suppression Strategy Faces Courts" (5 August 2012) (One issue is "whether Ohio must count provisional ballots cast in the wrong precinct when the mistake was the fault of a poll worker rather than the voter. [One lawsuit] challenges the part of Ohio state law that says ballots cast in the wrong precinct should not be counted, even if the voter was only following a poll worker’s instructions.")

  • Ari Brennan, " Ohio GOP Admits Early Voting Cutbacks Are Racially Motivated" (The Nation, 20 August 2012) ("Franklin County (Columbus) GOP Chair Doug Preisse gave a surprisingly blunt answer to the Columbus Dispatch on Sunday: “I guess I really actually feel we shouldn’t contort the voting process to accommodate the urban—read African-American—voter-turnout machine.”)

  • David Bailey, "Ex-lawmaker's aides charged with faking vote petitions" (Thursday, 9 August 2012) ("Four staff members for former Representative Thaddeus McCotter [R-MI] were charged on Thursday with forgery and election fraud for creating fake nominating petitions in his 2012 campaign, Michigan's top prosecutor said.")

  • Carl Gibson, "Target Election Fraud, Not 'Voter Fraud'" (9 August 2012) ("Fact: There are two things that occur more often than the right-wing myth of 'voter fraud': UFO sightings, and election-rigging. Statistically, you're 3,615 times more likely to report seeing an alien than you are of seeing voter fraud. And we watched the right wing nakedly steal three elections in recent memory.")

  • Aviva Shen and Adam Peck, "Ohio Limits Early Voting Hours In Democratic Counties, Expands In Republican Counties" (Friday, 10 August 2012) ("Ohio has introduced a new tactic in their broader attempts to make it even harder for Democratic voters to get to the polls this year . . . . An investigation into Ohio’s chaotic 2004 election by the Government Accounting Office confirmed Democratic districts’ complaints of a shortage of voting machines, along with malfunctioning equipment that incorrectly registered the voter’s choice.")

  • State of Florida vs. United States (US DC, DC, Civil Action No. 11-1428, 16 August 2012) (court decision enforcing federal voting rights law 42 U.S.C. § 1973c. against retrogression, against Florida election law changes reducing voting hours, etc.)

  • Greg Palast with Introduction by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Dean, Pace University School of Environmental Law, Billionaires & Ballot Bandits: How to Steal an Election in 9 Easy Steps (New York: Seven Stories Press, 30 August 2012) (on plans to steal the 2012 election with background on how prior elections have been stolen. "In 2008, no fewer than 2,706,275 ballots were cast—and never counted. It didn't make a difference then, but it will make a difference now. And, in 2008, no fewer than 3,195,539 legal voters were denied the right to vote. Told to get the hell out of the polling station. Add it up. That's at least 5,901,814 legitimate votes and voters tossed out of the count. . . . these numbers are from . . . the US Elections Assistance Commission.")

  • Liz Kennedy, Stephen Spaulding, Tova Wang, Jenny Flanagan and Anthony Kammer, "Bullies at the Ballot Box: Protecting the Freedom to Vote from Wrongful Challenges and Intimidation" (September 2012) (“In recent elections we have received disturbing reports and complaints about unacceptable, illegal behavior by observers.”)

  • NAACP, "Dangerous World" (6 September 2012) ("1 in 2.3 million. Those are the infinitesimal chances voter fraud will occur in a federal election. That's less likely than being struck by lightning or attacked by a swarm of bees.")

  • Voting Rights Under Attack as GOP Seeks to Overturn Historic Civil Rights Law" (Friday, 7 September 2012)   (" Voting rights for minority voters continue to come under attack as Republican leaders are now turning to the Supreme Court to overturn historic civil rights legislation.")

  • Eric London, “Right-wing groups prepare national campaign to disenfranchise US voters” (Monday, 17 September 2012) (“intentions are to make voting 'like driving and seeing the police following you.” Tactics include challenging the registration status of millions of minority voters, blocking voter lines, “hovering” over voters inside voting booths, and harassing voters and election officials in and around polling places.” Voter suppression behavior includes telling suppressors about targeted voters, "They are fun to beat up. They are fun to humiliate.")

  • Michigan Lawsuit to Stop Voter Disenfranchisement by Right-Wing Michigan Secretary of State (17 September 2012) And see its press release and related news articles in the Free Press and Macomb Daily. This writer's Declaration is summarized in Paragraph 35.f., page 13, and with attached Training Exam is Exhibit 7g (originally 7.f at pages 67-69). See also Motion for Preliminary Injunction (20 September 2012). Lawsuit Result: Citizenship Checkbox Ordered off the November Ballot Application" (ACLU Press Release, 5 October 2012); "Citizenship check-off box ordered off Michigan ballot applications" (Oakland Press, 6 October 2012). The written Preliminary Injunction was issued as Bryanton v Johnson, 902 F Supp 2d 983 (ED MI, So Div, 10 October 2012).

  • Marc Levy, "Pa. judge blocks photo ID rule for Election Day" (2 October 2012) ("'The effect of the decision in Pennsylvania is not just theoretically, can voters get ID, but actually, can they get ID,' said Jon M. Greenbaum, chief counsel of The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.")

  • Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, "Early Voting Patterns by Race in Cuyahoga County, Ohio: A Statistical Analysis of the 2008 General Election" (5 October 2012)

  • Michael Lind, "Forget Red vs. Blue -- It's Slave States vs. Free States in 2012" (10 October 2012) ("A century and a half later, we've come full circle: The red-blue state divide falls along Confederate-Union lines. . . . Every now and then someone highlights the overlap between today’s Republican states and the slave states of the former Confederacy. As clichéd as the point may be, it remains indispensable to understanding what is happening in American politics today. . . . Now that they dominate the Republican party, Southern conservatives are using it to carry out the same strategies that they promoted during the generations when they controlled the Democratic Party . . . The Southern strategy . . . depends on having a local Southern work force [formerly called slaves] that is forced to work at low wages by the absence of bargaining power.")

  • Victoria Collier, "How to Rig an Election (Harper's Magazine, 26 October 2012) (evidence that the right wing has been hacking computer voting systems around the country in order to insure the election of right wing candidates)

  • Thom Hartmann and Sam Sacks, History of Republican Election Stealing Via Treason, 1968-2004 (20 November 2012) (in context of Republican election stealing efforts in 2012)

  • Greg Palast, Republican Election Stealing (10 December 2012) “By my initial calculation, 9.3 million Americans lost their vote on November 7 – purged from voter rolls, blocked at the polls, or had their 'provisional' and absentee ballots thrown in the dumpster. . . . Just because Mr. Obama won re-election doesn't mean the vote-heist didn't happen. . . . the evidence suggests the GOP actually lost the majority of Congressional races [and stole victory] through sick tricks in Arizona and three other states.”


  • "Save Dr. King's Dream Act - Supreme Court to Hear Case to End Voting Rights Act" (27 February 2013)

  • Greg Palast, "Ku Klux Kourt Kills King's Dream Law, Replaces Voting Rights Act With Katherine Harris Acts" (25 June 2013) ("The Jim Crow majority on the Supreme Court [in Shelby County v Holder] just took away the vote of millions of Hispanic and African-American voters by wiping away Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. . . . the GOP [KKKourt] majority knew they were [rigging] the next presidential run by a good 6 million votes.")

  • David Corn, "Inside Groundswell: Read the Memos of the New Right-Wing Strategy Group Planning a '30 Front War'" (25 July 2013)

    Review of the 25 July 2013 Article, by Velvet Revolution, 9 September 2013:

    "In an incredible series of stories in July and August, Mother Jones and others reported that Virginia Thomas, the wife of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, launched a secret organization called Groundswell to engage in a “thirty-front war” against the progressive agenda. One of those fronts involves a declaration of war against voting rights organizations in an until-now secret campaign called “Hydra.” It was conceived by Groundswell member Catherine Engelbrecht who heads True The Vote, a Republican-aligned organization that has spent the last two elections sending out people to challenge the eligibility of voters in various states and creating blatantly false allegations of "widespread voter fraud" in hopes of supporting new, discriminatory restrictions on voting.

    The name “Hydra” was chosen, according to Engelbrecht, because progressive voting rights organizations must be “killed with their own poison” just like Hercules killed the Hydra. So the Hydra campaign battle plans include the undermining of all real voting rights organizations akin to what was done by the same people to ACORN. They hope to create smears, false narratives, lawsuits, and attacks until such groups are forced to close their doors.

    Some of the dozens of voting rights organizations targeted by Hydra are Common Cause, People for the American Way, ACLU, La Raza, LULAC, NAACP, League of Women Voters, Project Vote, Color of Change, AFL-CIO, and MoveOn. True The Vote created a full color brochure to promote its Hydra campaign to other Groundswell members. Please see our YouTube video detailing the Hydra campaign as spelled out in their own brochure.

    Since the Groundswell story broke, we have been working with members of Congress to introduce legislation to rein in abuses by Supreme Court Justices who have conflicts of interests with cases before the Court, but refuse to disqualify themselves. In particular, we believe that Justice Thomas should have recused himself from ruling on the Voting Rights Act case decided in June while his own wife was heading a secret organization dedicated to undermine the very voting rights the VRA was meant to protect. In fact, we believe that Clarence Thomas’ vote may be regarded as the first suppressive salvo in the broad Hydra campaign. The good news is that last month two Senators and two Congress Members did introduce such legislation. In the coming weeks, we will be urging Congress to hold hearings on the hard right, partisan True the Vote and its anti-voter Hydra campaign."

  • Court Order vs. Texas Racist Gerrymandering (11 September 2013)

  • Aviva Shen, "Texas Judge Almost Blocked From Voting Because of New Voter ID Law" (Think Progress, 23 October 2013) ("Many married women do not update their IDs after taking their spouse’s surnames, as the process is arduous and costly. Women must present original documents verifying their name change, such as a marriage license, or pay $20 to obtain new copies. Under the new voter ID law, these women are potential voter fraud risks. [117th District Court Judge Sandra Judge] Watts is hardly the only woman who has encountered problems. ThinkProgress’ Scott Keyes interviewed 84-year-old Dorothy Card, who was denied a voter ID three times even though she has voted for more than 60 years and provided extensive proof of identity. . . . While Watts, as an experienced judge, is familiar with the intricacies of election law, the people most likely to be stopped at the polls will be less informed about their rights. Low-income voters, minorities, students and seniors disproportionately lack the required identification.")

  • George Chidi, "Former U.S. house speaker Jim Wright denied voting ID in Texas" (3 November 2013) ("Former House Speaker Jim Wright was denied a voter ID card Saturday at a Texas Department of Public Safety office. Wright, 90, served in Congress as a Democratic representative from Texas for 34 years, until resigning in 1989. Wright said he had voted in every election since 1944.")

  • "Turning Texas: Voter ID 2014 Dry Run Shows Clear Evidence of Disenfranchisement for Women." (6 November 2013) ("Tuesday's dry run of the Texas Voter ID law is proving to be exactly what had been predicted in the media and by electoral watchdog groups for some time now: the burden falls largely on women. . . . disenfranchising women was the intent of the legislation . . . . hard evidence now shows that . . . the result bears this out. . . . . women were disproportionally affected because of maiden name changes and divorce. Their male counterparts in the voting booth were far less affected.")

  • Eric Lach, "Researchers Find Factors Tied To Voting Restriction Bills Are 'Basically All Racial'" (TPMM, 20 December 2013) ("restrictive voter measures are connected to both partisan and racial factors")

  • Bill Moyers, Michelle Alexander, Moyers and Company, “The Racist Plague of Mass Incarceration and America's Future” (25 December 2013) (“There are more African Americans under correctional control today - in prison or jail, on probation or parole - than were enslaved in 1850, a decade before the Civil War began. . . . You're seeing the underclass hunted through a war on dangerous drugs allegedly that is in fact merely a war on the poor and has turned us into the most incarcerative state in the history of mankind . . . when Civil Rights advocates were beginning to violate segregation laws and sit-in at lunch counters and desegregate trains and busses violating what they believed were unjust laws—segregationists said, you know, 'This is leading to the breakdown of the respect for law. We need law and order in this country.' And the call for law and order was in direct response to the Civil Rights movement . . . . the get tough movement and the war on drugs really is traceable to a backlash against the gains of African-Americans in the Civil Rights movement and a radical shift in mentality that occurred where as a nation we ended the war on poverty and declared the war on drugs. . . . the Southern strategy.”)

  • Vicki Brown, "Man Dies in Police Raid on Wrong House" (ABC News, Lebanon, Tennessee, 31 December 2013) ("A 61-year-old [black] man was shot to death by [white] police while his [70 year old] wife was handcuffed in another room during a [so-called] drug raid on the wrong house." [ALL police officers are well aware the so-called 'War on Drugs' is a fraud, carefully designed to exclude the starter /gateway drug. See context.])


  • Paul Lewis, "Pennsylvania judge strikes down restrictive voter eligibility law" (The Guardian, Friday, 17 January 2014) ("there was no evidence Pennsylvania's law was intended to prevent voter fraud. . . . [The court] “found that not everyone who wants an ID can get one. He dispelled the myth that photo ID is commonplace, and everyone in society who needs one has one. He found the law is invalid on its face, had no legitimate purpose [and] does not further the goals of free and fair elections.”)

  • Prof. Stanton Glantz, Ph.D., in "Big Tobacco's Rightwing Pals and Fundees Aggressively Supporting ecigs" (25 January 2014), gives these examples: Heartland Institute, Competitive Enterprise Institute, CATO Institute, and National Center for Public Policy Research. This corroborates the continuity of the nethods since the Civil War by right-wing conservatives to promote tobacco as a criminalization and disenfranchisement tactic. Indeed, the tobacco lobby established the right-wing so-called "Tea Party" as part of their strategy and method.

  • Sarah Lazare, "Judge Strikes Down Wisconsin's 'Discriminatory' Voter ID Law" (30 April 2014)   ("A federal judge in Wisconsin on Tuesday struck down the state's controversial voter ID law on the grounds that it discriminates against Black, Latino/a, and low-income voters, disproportionately depriving them of their constitutionally-protected right to cast ballots.") (See also background article, "Texas Voter Photo ID Law Disenfranchises 600,00 to 744,980 American citizens.")

  • Marc Veasey v Rick Perry, et al, Case No. 13-CV-00193 (S.D. Tex, 9 October 2014) (Decision overturning Texas voter suppression law as intentionally discriminatory)

  • Andrew DeMillo, “Arkansas Supreme Court Strikes Down Voter ID Law” (15 October 2014) (“Arkansas' highest court . . . struck down a state law that requires voters to show photo identification before casting a ballot, ruling the requirement unconstitutional . . . . the Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that determined the law unconstitutionally added a requirement for voting. The high court noted the Arkansas Constitution lists specific requirements to vote: that a person be a citizen of both the U.S. and Arkansas, be at least 18 years old and be lawfully registered. Anything beyond that amounts to a new requirement and is therefore unconstitutional.” Adds Arkansas Times: "For 150 years . . . the court has strictly adhered to the voter qualification requirements, from Civil War days to the poll tax of the Faubus era. . . . The court rejected [the suppressionist] argument that ID was validation of the registration process. If that was so, voters would have to requalify for every election. . . . Calls have already been made to the court indicating the depth of ignorance on [and suppressionist hostility against] voter laws. One official reported a call asking how election officials will know if a voter is even a resident of the U.S. Because they will have to give the name and address on their county's voter roll is how.")

  • Ari Berman, "The Supreme Court Eviscerates the Voting Rights Act in a Texas Voter-ID Decision” (The Nation, 20 October 2014) ("The law was first blocked in 2012 under Section 5 of the [Voting Rights Act] VRA. 'A law that forces poorer citizens to choose between their wages and their franchise unquestionably denies or abridges their right to vote,' wrote Judge David Tatel. 'The same is true when a law imposes an implicit fee for the privilege of casting a ballot.'” The Supreme Court has now overruled that pro-voting rights decision. "It was the first time since 1982 that the Court approved a voting law deemed intentionally discriminatory by a trial court. . . . It seems [that] the Court’s conservative majority is planning to eviscerate every important part of the VRA.")

  • Meteor Blades, "That 93-year-old turned away at the polls in Texas is not the only person rejected for lacking an ID" (28 October 2014)

  • Greg Palast, "Jim Crow Returns" (29 October 2014) (on denying people the right to vote by pretending they voted twice!) (Texas "rules were designed to discriminate, according to federal district Judge Nelva Gonzales Ramos, who wrote the scathing 147-page ruling")

  • Evan Walker-Wells, "Blocking the Youth Vote in the South" (29 October 2014) (This is "part of a broader effort by local elections officials and state lawmakers to erect new barriers to voting.")

  • Harvey Wasserman, M.A., and Robert Fitrakis, J.D., Ph.D., "Twelve Ways Jim Crow is Winning in 2014" (31 October 2014)

  • Sean McElwee, "Voter Suppression in 2014" (Demos, 6 November 2014) ("The number of people disenfranchised often exceeded the margin of victory.")

  • Prof. Robert Fitrakis, J.D., Ph.D., and Harvey Wasserman, M.A., "How the GOP Bought, Rigged, Stole and Lynched the 2014 Election" (11 November 2014)

  • Jim Hightower, "How Shy People Stole Our Elections" (11 November 2014) ("Using their shareholders’ money, corporate entities are spending hundreds of millions of dollars to elect or defeat whomever they choose. . . . totally secretive about their massive spending to decide who holds office in America. They realize that their self-serving campaigns would alienate their customers, employees, and shareholders, so they’re keeping their involvement hush-hush. . . . One agency could compel them to reveal their spending on what amounts to a corporate coup of our democratic elections: the Securities and Exchange Commission. . . . The SEC’s inaction is gutless.")

  • "'Malicious' Election Day robocalls by GOP operatives disrupted Illinois voting, triggered investigation": "City officials characterized calls as 'intimidation'" (AP, 11 November 2014) ("Mysterious and "malicious" robocalls sent to Chicago election judges disrupted voting Nov. 4 and triggered an investigation by the Cook County State's Attorney. Now, the calls are being linked to a pair of Republican activists sociopaths in Illinois, and party officials are distancing themselves from the messages. Ahead of Election Day, an unknown number of Chicago election judges received robocalls containing false or misleading information, including directives to vote for Republican candidates. . . . Election officials say the calls are the reason why as many as 2,000 election judges quit or failed to show on Election Day, leading to long lines and mishaps at the polls.")

  • Susan Grigsby, “How the racists of the South have ruled this nation from the very beginning” (16 November 2014)

  • Greg Palast, “The Secret ['Cross-Check'] Lists that Swiped the Senate” (18 November 2014) (“The [so-called 'cross-check'] procedure is to send a postcard to each 'duplicate' voter requiring them to re-verify their registration. A large percentage are never delivered. [Factor in] all the other tried and true methods of bending the vote, from Photo ID restrictions to missing voter registrations and a deliberate shortage of paper ballots in minority precincts. In Georgia alone, 56,000 registration forms collected by a coalition of minority voting rights groups were simply not added to the voter rolls.”)

    Examples of How Election Fraud Is Done,
    Obstructing Voting, the Counting, and/or Recounts,
    and Hiring Election Workers Predisposed to Commit Abuses
  • 1. Hire election workers willing to enforce abusive / obstructive laws and procedures.

  • 2. Hire voting list preparers willing to do likewise, willing to delete names of disfavored would-be voters.

  • 3. Omit/delete names of eligible black voters from precinct voting lists.

  • 4. Hire election workers willing to refuse such persons the right to vote a "challenged" or "envelope" ballot, so as to obstruct it being available for potential counting.

  • 5. Provide sample ballot of a different type than that to be voted.

  • 6. Provide ballots designed contrary to law.

  • 7. Provide ballots with inconsistency in the locations wherein to vote.

  • 8. Aid and abet intimidating activity in the vicinity of voting location(s).

  • 9. Have too few election workers per site (discourage by having low pay and long hours, single shift, leading to average age in the 70's!)

  • 10. Have too few voting booths or machines, causing long lines, thus precluding voting by significant numbers.

  • 11. When voters, e.g., an 81 year old woman in a wheelchair, wait six (6) hours in line to vote, tell them when they get to front of the line, that they are in the wrong line (notwithstanding that it is the line to which earlier told to go).

  • 12. Discourage would-be voters by hiring election workers who will send disfavored would-be voters away.

  • 13. Hire election workers willing to mis-write serial number in poll book to NOT match that on polling device (prevents recount). (Or to take advantage if election law does not require serial numbers to match!)

  • 14. Mix voted, unvoted, and spoiled ballots into the ballot box (prevents recount).

  • 15. Avoid hiring would-be election workers who would allow "disqualified" (unlisted) would-be voters to vote anyway, on a "challenged" or "envelope" ballot, rather than turn them away.

  • 16. Disregard experience showing that voters who have erred, e.g., overvoted, and are notified, regularly immediately correct the same, as their bottom-line intent is to vote and have it counted.

  • 17. Have disfavored precincts use obsolete technology, e.g., lacking capability to screen ballots by voters to alert them to errors (e.g., over-voting) BEFORE the ballot is put in ballot box. (Such obsoleteness violates precedents on the updating-duty, e.g., The T. J. Hooper, 60 F2d 737 (CA 2, 1932); Helling v Carey, 83 Wash 2d 514; 519 P2d 981 (1974) (keeping up with best-available technology is mandatory).)

  • 18. Hire election workers who will send people away when machines are "down," rather than letting them vote a paper ballot.

  • 19. Divert attention by misdirecting focus only onto the counting process, avoiding reference to the significance of pre-election abuses, especially the name-deletion process, omitting disfavored names so they do not appear on the precinct voter roster.

  • 20. Set short deadlines preventing completeness of the vote-count process.
    Such deadlines violate the principle of time-limit-ban precedents such as Nye v Parkway B & T Co, 70 Ill Dec 40; 114 Ill App 3d 272; 448 NE2d 918 (1983) (banning time limits when constitutional issue is at stake); note that time limits have not been imposed in the past, e.g., California, 1916, one extra week for vote counting to conclude; Hawaii, 1960 Presidential, recount through Dec 28; Michigan, 2000, Congressional, recount not beginning till mid-December.)

  • 21. Fail to deny persons elected via such misconduct, the office.

  • 22. Fail to let the genuinely elected person serve.
    [See employment cases such as Bevan v N. Y. St. T. R. System, 74 Misc 2d 443; 345 NYS2d 921 (1973) on reporting for duty regardless of being told, 'you aren't duly eligible.']
  • 23. Avoid mention of the federal law Electoral College law process of 3 USC §§ 1 et seq, meaning, the "executive" of each state provides official notice of who is genuinely elected, the Electoral College slate actually elected casts the official ballots, etc.
    And, after all this force, fraud, violence, and crime to obstruct voting, urge a "peaceful transition"!!
  • “Those who cast the votes decide nothing, those who count the votes decide everything.”—Joseph Stalin.

    The Year 2000 'winner' had a similar coalition as did Adolf Hitler in 1930, bringing him to power: farmers, non-unionized lower middle class, poverty-stigmatizing middle class, misguided idealists, and 'religious' types, Protestant and Catholic. Source: John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1976), Vol I, pp 253 and 255.
    For behavior-similarity example after inauguration, see Harvey Wasserman, "Bush's 9/11 Reichstag Fire," (Friday, 13 September 2002).
    See also Greg Palast with Introduction by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Dean, Pace University School of Environmental Law, Billionaires & Ballot Bandits: How to Steal an Election in 9 Easy Steps (New York: Seven Stories Press, 30 August 2012), on plans to steal the 2012 election with background on how prior elections have been stolen.

    Prevention Laws
    Prevention does not mean, simply pass a law banning the variant of police tailgating involved in DWB incidents. That deals with the superficial aspect.
    To deal with the underlying aspect, the starter drug, to prevent the entire sequence of post-starter drug activity in turn connected to crime, starter drug ban laws are needed.
    1. Recognize that a 'War on Drugs' not including tobacco, is like mopping the floor while leaving the faucet wide-open spewing onto the floor: intentionally, maliciously not sincere!
    2. Recognize that respect for education, and education itself, has deteriorated since the high level of a century ago, especially on this subject matter.
    3. Prepare yourself, read and study the data cited herein, and the references. Master the centuries of medical research data, both on the pertinent chemicals, and on their results, tobacco addiction and brain impairment. Then master the centuries of data on the tobacco link to crime.
    4. Recognize that you'll never see a politician at a medical library researching the crime causation process cited herein. Politicians did not commonly get their jobs by being good researchers! and typically neither have interest in research on this subject, nor respect for those who present anything that does not agree with their pre-conceived notions.
    5. Recognize that many politicians are kids just out of school, in pretty much their first job, have a "know-it-all" attitude on this subject, and won't appreciate your telling them anything different than their preconceived notions.
    6. Recognize their typical contempt or loathing for crime prevention data, including that referenced herein. They are, in essence, on the tobacco lobby payroll; they like the ulterior-motive politicians cited above, love having power; they love prison-building; and they prefer talking "tough on crime," mouthing off only about post-gateway drugs; they realize that actually preventing crime, eliminating the smoker-committed 90%, would eliminate their issues!
    7. Recognize that most any politician likes to mouth off the percentage of incarcerated minorities (whether or not a racist secretly for it), and mouth off their unresearched view of the causation process; but not one will mention the 90% smoker factor cited herein, nor the causation process cited herein. They've never heard the medical term abulia, but they still 'know-it-all.'
    8. They've never heard of any tobacco effects except in 'health' context, but they 'know-it-all.' They are less educated on this than fifth-grade-school children of a century ago! But they 'know-it-all.'
    9. They've never heard of laws such as Iowa's 1897 Law, Tennessee's 1897 Law, and Michigan's 1909 Law, nor the reasons our ancestors had for passing such laws.
    10. But don't give up. Work to restore the number of criminal laws back down to the Pre-War on Drugs level, back to the 'let's deal with the starter drug (tobacco)' era.
    11. Work for passage of laws such as Iowa's 1897 Law, Tennessee's 1897 Law, and Michigan's 1909 Law.
    12. Where you have them, seek enforcement. Change police priorities off so-called "crime fighting," onto "crime prevention."
    13. Then seek the 80% reduction in police forces recommended at our crime prevention site.
    14. Seek a ban on using convictions as disenfranchsing. That is long-term goal.
    15. In short-term, ban using convictions based on any post-cigarette situation. See details below.
    16. In short term, boycott the worst offender, Florida.
    17. Work for repeal of governmental-power enhancing laws, i.e., criminal laws passed after the Thirteenth Amendment disproportionately impacting blacks.
    18. File 14th Amendment litigation to strike down discriminatory disenfranchisement laws, pursuant to Hunter v Underwood, 471 US 222; 105 S Ct 1916; 85 L Ed 2d 222 (1985). Cf. U.S. v Mississippi, 380 US 128; 85 S Ct 808; 13 L Ed 2d (1965).
    19. Have Congress declare such laws (newly created, newly defined crimes), "badges and incidents of slavery," and strike them down. Congress has this authority pursuant to the Thirteenth Amendment, says the Supreme Court in Jones v Mayer Co, 392 US 409; 88 S Ct 2186; 29 L Ed 2d 1189 (1968).
    20. This concept can be added to the current "Voting Rights Act," which already bans some aspects of denying blacks their voting rights, but omits the major aspect elaborated by this site's material and references.
    21. When irregularities occur, the genuinely elected individuals should proceed accordingly; and reviewing officials should raise the issue, avoid at least that error of omission of 2000.
    22. Invoke the Electoral College law, 3 USC §§ 1 et seq.
    a. The "executive" of each state provides official notice of who is genuinely elected, pursuant to 3 USC § 6, i.e., not blindly honoring semi-complete or falsified results omitting disfavored persons and ballots.
    b. the Electoral College slate actually elected casts the official votes as provided by 3 USC § 7-11.
    c. a Congressman or Senator raises the issue as provided by 3 USC § 15.

    23. In interim, in your own litigation, where appropriate, raise the issue, as per current anti-discrimination law. (Whites can also raise issues of discrimination against blacks, pursuant to Trafficante v Metropolitan Life Ins Co, 409 US 205; 93 S Ct 364; 34 L Ed 2d 415 (1972).)
    24. If your right to vote is denied, sue. "In 1919 where a voter was wrongfully deprived of his right to vote for a member of Congress, the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit said: 'In the eyes of the law this right is so valuable that damages are presumed from the wrongful deprivation of it without evidence of actual loss of money, property, or any other valuable thing, and the amount of the damages is a question peculiarly appropriate for the determination of the jury, because each member of the jury has personal knowledge of the value of the right.' Wayne v. Venable, 260 F. 64, 66 (8th Cir., 1919)," says Seaton v Key Realty Co, Inc, 491 F2d 634, 637 (CA 7, 1974). See also Smith v Allright, 321 US 649; 64 S Ct 757; 88 L Ed 987 (1944) (discrimination in primary voting, by a private group when upheld by the state, i.e., the government, is unconstitutional as "state action within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment").
    25. Expose politician double standards in issuing pardons, easy on white-collar crimes by colleagues, tough on minorities. For an example, see the article, "Pardons 'smack of favoritism,' local NAACP president says," Louisville (KY) Courier- Journal (1 September 2005). This cites the example of Raoul Cunningham, President of the Louisville branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He exposed Gov. Ernie Fletcher's easy pardon policy for administration offenders, but tough on others. Cunningham's goal is a constitutional amendment for automatic restoration of voting rights.
    26. The next step is to seek the ideal, no loss of voting rights in the first place, by
    (a) preventing the criminalization-disenfranchisement process herein described, and
    (b) ending the discouragement of voters. It is not enough to only focus on non-counting of votes cast; we must also end the situation of would-be voters prevented or discouraged from voting.

    Details on Banning Disenfranchment
    for Post-Gateway-Drug Crimes
    1. Recognize that the so-called "Voting Rights Act" (VRA) omits this issue.

    2. Recognize that hostility to black voting is so strong that even the weak VRA needs to be periodically renewed! Hostiles in Congress and Presidency prevent even that weak law being made permanent.

    3. Congress has power under the Thirteenth Amendment to determine and ban the "badges and incidents of slavery," says the Supreme Court in Jones v Mayer Co, 392 US 409; 88 S Ct 2186; 29 L Ed 2d 1189 (1968). Such "badges and incidents" include restraints on the right to inherit, buy, lease, sell, and convey property. They most assuredly include restraints on the right to vote!

    4. The disenfranchisement pretext is typically that the would-be voter has been convicted of some crime.

    5. The disenfranchisement process takes advantage of people's unawareness of the tobacco-crime 90% connection, just as there used to be unawareness of the tobacco-lung-cancer 90% connection.

    6. Tobacco is one of the major "badges and incidents of slavery," as per slavery being primarily about tobacco-raising, as noted above.

    7. Crime follows:

    "Over 37 million people (one of every six Americans alive today) will die from cigarette smoking years before they otherwise would."
    Source: Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare, Research on Smoking Behavior, Research Monograph 17, Publication ADM 78-581, page v (Dec 1977). Such deaths are "natural and probable consequences." As such, occurring so frequently as to be expected to happen again, they are intentional. Accordingly, to deal with the beam, not the mote, the underlying perpetrators, tobacco manufacturers and sellers, and their accessories, should be prosecuted. See pertinent case law.

    8. Nearly a century ago, due to cigarettes' 90% role in crime noted by many judges, one judge, Magistrate Leroy B. Crane recommended, "Congress should stop the manufacture, sale, and importation of cigarettes."—Quoted by Prof. Bruce Fink, Tobacco (Cincinnati: Abingdon Press, 1915), p 19.

    9. It is a "natural and probable consequence" that refusal to adopt, or enforce, a medical-fact-based crime prevention law, via cigarette control, such as Iowa's of 1897, leads to crime by smokers, hence, their being the 90% group, pursuant to research data, to commit crimes.

    10. There is a lacking of "clean hands" (a legal concept) in this regard, thus constituting "accessories during the fact." There is actual or implied official "consent" to tobacco results, including deaths and crime

    11. It cannot be deemed other than "entrapment" when meaningful anti-tobacco action is neither taken nor enforced, when the "natural and probable consequence" (e.g., crime) results. Disenfranchising is a means to divert attention off this "beam," by hypocritical finger-pointing at the mote (individuals, disproportionately black).

    12. MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216 is another example of a law, that if enacted everywhere, would prevent most crime. However, prosecutors never call attention to this, nor to tobacco-caused deaths, murders, which are rampant.

    13. Accordingly, courts should dismiss criminal charges, including post-gateway-drug charges [thus end the 'War on Drugs'], as frivolous and moot; and/or, in the alternative, and preferably, enter an injunction directing prior mass enforcement of anti-murder precedents, as a condition precedent to allowing prosecution of anyone other than the Confederate tobacco company perpetrators, with respect to smokers' crimes.

    14. The continuing pattern of prosecutorial misconduct, mass refusal to enforce the 1909 law, precludes prosecutions at the latter end of the cause and effect chain. By law, MCL § 750.478, MSA § 28.476, the government (prosecutors) must set an example of enforcing and obeying the laws.

    15. Case law to the same effect, e.g., Service v Dulles, 354 US 363; 77 S Ct 1152; 1 L Ed 2d 1403 (1957) and Glus v Eastern District Terminal, 359 US 231, 232; 79 S Ct 760, 762; 3 L Ed 2d 770, 772 (1959), makes clear that a plaintiff (here, governments, disenfranchisers, prosecutors) cannot rely on its own wrongdoing at the starting point of a process.

    16. The government (prosecutors, disenfranchisers) cannot have the benefit of the laws favorable to their side, while ignoring conditions precedents which are to be performed. Precedents show that no court should aid such a misconduct-committing party, e.g., BTC v Norton CMC, 25 F Supp 968, 969 (1938); and Buckman v HMA, 190 Or 154; 223 P2d 172, 175 (1950). "No one may take advantage of his own wrong," Stephenson v Golden, 279 Mich 710, 737; 276 NW 848 (1938). When tobacco is widespread, then effects result, the "wrong" being committed, is by prosecutors'—prosecutors, pursuant to their pattern of refusal to enforce the prevention laws.

    17. Somebody should indeed be prosecuted—prosecutors!, for their protracted, brazen knowing, refusal to enforce the anti-murder laws.

    18. In the interim, assist in dealing with the tobacco-crime connection by advocating prevention laws, such as Iowa's of 1897

    19. Work for repeal of the disenfranchisement laws.

    20. Work for Congress to over-ride such laws under the Thirteenth Amendment, by a stronger "Voting Rights Act."

    21. Ask State Governors in National Governor conferences, and Legislators in National Legislative events, to raise this issue, and to introduce and adopt resolutions against disenfranchisement.

    22. Qualify for, then obtain, an "absentee ballot" so

  • (a) you won't be turned away, and
  • (2) in jurisdictions with computer voting and no automatic "paper-trail," the absentee ballot is the "paper trail."

    23. Become an election official so you can register voters. Alternatively, if possible in your area, obtain the registration forms and help others to register. Encourage registering in-person instead of by mail (reason: some jurisdictions limit some absentee voting to only in-person registrants).

    24. Become familiar with election information including registration, voting locations, dates, precinct boundaries, etc. (Examples are at and

    25. Become an election worker so you can assist would-be voters in-person to vote (even a "challenged," "envelope," or "provisional" ballot), not obstruct them from doing so.

    26. Work for each jurisdiction to have electronic voting with a paper trail. Some voting machines help voters by checking their ballots for errors, so voters can fix them, lest they inadvertently void their own ballot by error.

    27. Where computerized voting exists, work for verification programs for the operating computer programs so that no voting fraud is perpetuated by the programming, even inadvertently.

    28. Recognize that the Electoral College is a "badge and incident" of slavery, opposed by abolitionists such as Lewis Tappan, Address (1843), pp 50-51. Ask Congress to abolish it, pursuant to the Thirteenth Amendment. The "badges and incidents" of slavery are included among its coverage, says the Supreme Court in Jones v Mayer Co, 392 US 409; 88 S Ct 2186; 29 L Ed 2d 1189 (1968).

    29. As an interim measure, in the affected states, work for each such state to alter its State Constitution, to require proportionate electoral votes, meaning, Electors would be chosen by the percentage of popular votes for the Presidential candidates on the popular ballot.

    30. Realize that your oath of office is to support the constitution [see precedents, e.g., Wuebker v James, 58 NYS2d 671, 677 (1944)], not to be a rubber-stamp for politicians, nor to unconstitutional, rights-violating laws, and resultant procedures denying due process, such as occurred pre-Election 2000 in, e.g., Florida.)

    31. Expose "conservative" style legal "interpretation," meaning the use of history, practice, tradition, to override the words of the Constitution.

    32. Oppose "conservative" nominees to courts; such lawyers can be in reality modern confederates.

    33. Require law schools to teach the distinction between interpreting the words of the law to override practice, history, tradition, vs allowing same to override the words of the law. Law schools should not be granting law degrees to modern Confederates with their goal of overturning and reversing American law.

    34. Seek laws by Legislatures and by Congress to ban the granting of law degrees to such people, to revoke those issued, and to ban this wrongful method being used by judges.

    35. Read and study pertinent legal precedents on fraud, e.g., Hazel-Atlas Glass Co v Hartford Empire Co, 322 US 238, 244, 88 L Ed 1250, 64 S Ct. 997 (1944); New York Life Ins Co v Nashville Trust Co, 200 Tenn 513; 292 SW2d 749 (1956); Demjanjuk v Petrovsky, 10 F3d 338, 352 (CA 6, 1993) (showing that fraud can be overturned even after normal time limits).

    36. Accordingly, when fraud and disenfranchisement are used to elect an appointing officer, e.g., a President, look into having political action taken, if possible, or a lawsuit, a "quo warranto case, filed to have the fraud overturned, the non-elected person taken from office, and the actually elected person placed into office however belatedly.

    37. And/or when fraud and disenfranchisement are used to elect an appointing officer, e.g., a President, ask the appropriate officials or legislative body, e.g., Congress to issue or order or pass a law so declaring, void all appointments by said individual, declare position vacancies (i.e., not the impeachment process, applicable only to appointees by one properly elected), thereby enable the properly elected official to fill such vacancies.

    38. For more ideas, background, and suggestions, see activist sites such as

  • Michigan Election Reform Alliance

    39. Keep abreast of news, e.g., "Feingold, Conyers Continue Effort to Restore Voting Rights for Millions of Americans" (27 July 2009), citing the vast numbers of disenfranchised Americans, and attempting to deal with the situation. "In America today, more than five million citizens are unable to vote due a felony conviction, nearly three-quarters of whom are no longer in prison."

    40. Participate in Anti-Voter Suppression Activities.

    41. Recognize that when "surveys" supposedly show that "voters want voter ID laws," such surveys have been phrased in a fraudulent and misleading way. That way does NOT say that voter ID has ALWAYS been required, i.e., the voter registration card. As a multi-decade experienced election official, as many of us are, I along with my colleagues typically ALREADY know the voters in my precinct. They are OUR NEIGHBORS. What the corrupt laws do is require EXTRA voter ID, a second ID that many people do NOT have, and do not need elsewhere, that's why they don't have it. It is primarily the uneducated and racists who answer 'yes' to such alleged "surveys." Such a survey, to be phrased HONESTLY, would contain words to effect of "should people, typically the election workers' neighbors long known to them, be required to show two types of voter ID?, one type that all voters are automatically issued when they register and which is re-issued after every voting precinct redistricting, AND a second type of other-than-voter ID that many people do not have and would not otherwise need?"

    For an example of how the above paras 14-16 "prosecutors-as-accessories" concept was applied in a Macomb County MI case, though another context, as these precedents have general application, click here. For an example of the principle in another crime (drunk-driving) context, click here.
  • Reconciliation
    Above, we alluded to "reconciliation." Of course. But how about let's stop the attack in process. Even the Good Samaritan did not begin the assistance process until AFTER the attack ceased. Bankers don't reconcile with robbers while the robbery is in process! The U.S. did not reconcile with Japan until AFTER Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Remember step one in reconciliation—getting the would-be reconcilees' attention!

    Crime, including drug crime, is primarily (90%) the continuing Confederate War on America. It carries out the last code between Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee: "come retribution."

    As the Civil War was winding down, Jefferson Davis to head off a proper ending pursuant to precedent historic and Biblical, of the war, ordered a dual policy of (a) deception and (b) guerrilla war. The deception included faking surrenders (e.g., by Lee at Appomatox) so as to induce the hated Yankees to demobilize. This deception strategy worked. So-called "surrendered" Confederate troops were allowed to live and escape, even allowed to keep their weapons! with which to go out and kill blacks and Reconstruction workers! Wholly deceived, the North quickly demobilized! The guerrilla war as described herein then took place, succeeding in driving the Yankees out in a mere 12 years (1877, "Reconstruction" ending). See e.g.,

  • David W. Padrusch, Aftershock: Beyond the Civil War (A & E, 2006). This program, now on DVD, has information on the Confederate violence pattern, including murders, rise of the KKK, voter intimidation, riots, massacres, etc.

  • Thomas and Debra Goodrich, The Day Dixie Died: Southern Occupation 1865-1866 (Stackpole Books, 2001) (pro-Confederate, but covers some of the South's killing spree).
  • The deception strategy and results included

  • Accepting "pardons" but ignoring their condition precedent requirement of "good behavior," confident that the U.S. government under their domination would never enforce the good behavior conditions.
  • Manipulating the U.S. government so that nothing of "reparations" nature would occur, not even the "40 acres and a mule" concept (see background on land's anti-slavery significance).
  • altering tobacco formula to add coumarin, for rat poison, so as to mass kill the hated Yankees.

    Abolitionist Wendell Phillips, by May 1866, said that the Confederates had not repented, indeed their "rebellion has not ceased; it has only changed its weapons," says Prof. Oscar Sherwin, Prophet of Liberty: The Life and Times of Wendell Phillips (New York: Bookman Associates, 1958), p 540.

    "As postwar president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, [America's enemy who helped cause 1,038,222+ casualties] Robert E. Lee [1807-1870] created the nation's first [college] departments in . . . two curricula fields . . . journalism and commerce," says Webb Garrison, Civil War Trivia and Fact Book (Nashville, Tenn., Rutledge Hill Press, 1992), Chapter 5, "First Events and Achievements," p 110. This sinister linkage, journalism and business, prostituting truth to the Old South tobacco/slavery agenda, continues to present. And casualties thereby aided and abetted continue en masse.

    And read and UNDERSTAND the "Good Old Rebel" song, AND the continuing motivation / hatred behind it.

    Such Southerners were deeply hostile to education. Education had been disfavored in the South before the Civil War. It was educated people (of that era's North's high level) who had exposed the unconstitutionality of slavery, the sinfulness of slavery, the corrupt clergy role in supporting slavery.

    Educated Writers on Unconstitutionality of Slavery
    James Otis (1761), William Mansfield (1772), John Adams (pre-1776), Samuel May (1836), Salmon P. Chase (1837), George Mellen (1841), Alvan Stewart (1845), Lysander Spooner (1845), Benjamin Shaw (1846), Horace Mann (1849), Joel Tiffany (1849), Lewis Tappan (1850), William Goodell (1852), Abraham Lincoln (1854), Edward Rogers (1855), Frederick Douglass (1860)

    Educated Writers on Sinfulness of Slavery
    Rev. John Rankin (1823), Rev. Theo. D. Weld (1837), Rev. Beriah Green (1839), Rev. John G. Fee (1851), Harriet B. Stowe (1853), Rev. George Cheever (1857)

    Educated Writers on Corrupt Pro-Slavery Clergy
    James Birney (1840),
    Rev. Stephen S. Foster (1843), Rev. William W. Patton (1846), Rev. Parker Pillsbury (1847)

    Examples of High Level of Education in That Era, North v South
    Sumner (1860),
    Sanders (1867),
    Youth (1889),
    High School (1894)

    Rev. John Fee had in 1851 exposed some portion of the South's anti-educationism, Antislavery Manual, p 145; Sen. Charles Sumner in 1860 exposed more, Barbarism of Slavery, pp 151-157. Hatred of education was pandemic.
    Unreconstructed southerners vowed to destroy public education, dumb it down, to "win the peace" by re-writing history. Research skills would be deteriorated; respect for learning from researchers would be eroded. Unreconstructed Southerners would manipulate school-books and churches. Their Southern pro-slavery side would be essentially the only side taught in schools and churches. Slavery would be presented as always having been constitutional, and always having been Bible-based. All abolitionist evidence to the contrary, would be censored out of schools and church teachings.
    By their enormous success in the school system censorship and dumbing-down process, 1865 to present, the unreconstructed South has indeed 'won the peace.' The old Confederate and pro-slavery Southern side is the only side most people in the U.S. know.

    Unreconstructed Southerners have nearly two centuries of experience manipulating the system, as shown by abolitionists such as William Goodell, in his 1852 book, Slavery and Anti-Slavery. In the context of the year 2000 election, note his chapters on Florida and Texas!

    And for an overview, see the book by abolitionist-become-U.S. Vice-President, Henry Wilson, The History of the Rise and Fall of Slavepower in America (Boston: 1877). The South had been accustomed to ruling America on all issues, e.g.,

    When Abraham Lincoln won the Presidency in Nov 1860, and months BEFORE he could even take office (4 March 1861), the South had flown into a rage, and pursuant to its "rule or ruin" policy, sought to overthrow the U.S. government, and started that latest war of aggression.

    Question: DWB issues such as herein cited, are they the neo-Confederates' current 'war of aggression'? Answer: Yes.

    Results of slavery continue to scar America. “It was by destroying the Negro family under slavery that white America broke the will of the Negro people.” Bible-Belt bigots forcing black men into roles of public submissiveness “worked against the emergence of a strong father figure,” said the Moynihan Report (1965), cited by E. J. Dionne, Jr., Ph.D., Why Americans Hate Politics (Simon & Schuster, 1991), p 90.
    Note media role in this: "it is the debilitating and vile intent of the medium that is the actual ongoing powerful and crippling message to Black people, sometimes in overt form and at other times, insidiously subtle. The US mass media of white America and its surrogates is to Black and other people of color, akin to a virus that horribly weakens and debilitates the body. It is reminiscent of how true history reminds us that deadly disease-infested blankets were distributed by certain whites on this continent to Indigenous so-called 'Indian' people in the name of honor and helping them. Such is the reality of the US mass media, both past and present," says Larry Pinkney, "Keeping It Real — The US Mass Media: Tool of Disinformation And Control" (Black Commentator, 14 June 2007).
    "There are [therefore] many [resultant] reasons that the black family unit is in trouble right now." "Grandparents and other relatives are parenting children other than their own, primarily because of [tobacco-related] things like drug addiction, alcohol, AIDS, poverty, crime.""—Lenora Madison Poe, Psychologist, California.
    "'One of the primary causes of continued economic inequities for blacks has been an increasing erosion of the traditional family. Only 48 percent of all African-American families are headed by two parents, while 44 percent are maintained by single women and 8 percent by single men.'" Also, "'in many urban communities a significant number of black men are in prison for drug-related offenses.'" "These are males who should be in the work force and forming families."—Margaret Sims, Vice-President for Research, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, D.C.
    Be aware that imprisonment has the same morality-based objections to it as those made against slavery.
    Speak up if others around you react passively when information such as the U.S.' ultra high imprisonment rate is called to their attention. Rebut their view that prisons are full because 'there simply are so many criminals.' Call attention to the causes.
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    For Additional Background Reading
    Rev. Henry Highland Garnet (1815-1882), 16 August 1843, An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America (Troy, New York: J. H. Tobbitt Pub, 1843 and 1848), applying the 1 Timothy 5:8 Christian duty to slavers (pertinent concepts are applicable to modern slavers).
    Ralph W. Ellison (1913-1994), Invisible Man (New York: Random House, 1952)
    Prof. Joel Kovel, White Racism: A Psychohistory (1970)
    John Howard Griffin (1920-1980), Black Like Me (Houghton Mifflin, 1961, 1977) (about his experiences traveling as a black man in the segregated South in 1959)
    Prof. Robert Jensen, "White Privilege Shapes the U.S." (Baltimore Sun, 19 July 1998)
    Ellison, Ralph, Juneteenth: A Novel (New York: Random House, 1999)
    Lerone Bennett, Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1964, rev. ed. (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964)
    Tim Wise, "Race to Our Credit" (6 Jan 2005) (on white privilege including in 2000 election context). See also his "White Privilege Video"
    Prof. Robert Jensen, The Heart of Whiteness: Confronting Race, Racism and White Privilege
    Global Dimensions of Racism in the Modern World: Comparative and Transnational Perspectives” (12-14 July 2007)
    Prof. Glenn C. Loury, “Why Are So Many Americans in Prison? Race and the Transformation of Criminal Justice” (Boston Review, July/August 2007)
    Tim Wise, "Of National Lies and Racial Amnesia" (18 March 2008) (re those with "a grasp of reality so feeble that they can very accurately be described as deluded")
    Tim Wise, "Racism as Reflex: Reflections on Conservative Scapegoating" (28 September 2008) (conservatives being for "personal responsibility" for everyone except themselves)
    Tim Wise, "Imagine if the Tea Party Was Black" (22 April 2010) ("Would the protesters be seen as merely patriotic Americans voicing their opinions, or as an angry, potentially violent, and even insurrectionary mob?") Note also Tea Bagger Hostility to Black History
    "White people see cops as a force to protect them from minorities" (Video)
    Stephen Crockett, "The Tea Party 'Catch 22'" (18 July 2010) ("the Tea Party campaign is . . . is a corporate created public relations/political campaign designed to promote pro-corporate economic policies via government while calling the movement 'anti-corporate and anti-government.' The racism angle is a just a way to hook 'poor and middle class whites' into an effort designed to economically benefit the wealthiest of the wealthy at the expense of 'the poor and middle class of all colors.' Racism has long been used to divide working Americans up along color lines so they do not demand a better deal from the economic and political elite. Racism serves an economic purpose and always has served an economic purpose. Racism is a sucker bet for working Americans. It has been a key element in building the Tea Party movement and the Republican Party since Richard Nixon. Republican Right wing economic policies are a disaster for 90% of Americans and social wedge issues including race have been the key to Republican victories for more than a generation.")
    Otto Lindenmayer, M.A., Black History: Lost, Stolen, or Strayed (New York: Avon Books, 1970)
    Claude Anderson, Ed.D., Black Economics Background, Wealth Producers Video; Black Labor, White Wealth: A Search for Power and Economic Justice; and Dirty Little Secrets: About Black History, Its Heroes, And Other Troublemakers (1997)
    During the 1950's McCarthy era purges, "universities . . . ousted . . . thousands of . . . professors [to] decimate the country's intellectual life," says Chris Hedges, M.Th., "The Origin of America’s Intellectual Vacuum" (Truthdig, 15 November 2010). " The purges, most carried out internally and away from public view, announced to everyone inside the universities that dissent was not protected. The confrontation of ideas was killed. 'Political discourse has been impoverished since then.' . . . . The result is an impoverishment of ideas and analysis at a moment when we desperately need radical voices to make sense of the corporate destruction of the global economy and the ecosystem. . . . . 'Ideas which were on the agenda a hundred years ago and sixty years ago have dropped out of memory . . . .'" (And see general education decline context.)
    Prof. Amiri Baraka, "Who Will Survive America?" (from the album, "It's Nation Time," 1972)
    Akbar, "The Insanity of White Supremacy & The Black Miracle"
    "Black in America: A Response" (Video)
    A Sample Election Office Website

    Example of Neo-Confederate Propaganda
    April 1865 by Jay Winik and as shown on A&E Television—this book and program adheres to the Confederate deception! and makes the disaster for America that April 1865 was, appear to be a "savior." The Confederate Army killers survived, with their weapons, to kill again, to vote, to lynch, to manipulate laws for a century, to plot and commit holocaust level killings, atrocities unlimited against America! But you will learn none of this from that neo-Confederate propaganda book and program! Winik's April 1865: a disinformation piece of which the Nazi propagandist Herr Goebbels would be proud!
    Note also another Confederate propaganda piece, Gods and Generals (2003). It regularly shows blacks supporting their masters! Yankees as boobs and inept, and Confederates as pious, holy, praying, devout, saintly! and competent! in perpetrating their defense of the South's extortions, slaughters, rapes, fornicatations, debaucheries, and torture. And of course, the latter is never portrayed!
    Note also Prof. Bruce Levine's Fall of the House of Dixie which focuses on a small aspect of the end of slave system.
    Typically, the big picture is ignored. Re the disinformation style, see, e.g., George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia (1952), pp 44, 50, 65, 135, 140, 149, 163, and 168-169.
    For the real truth, the opposite of the rose-colored Winik view, see, e.g., David W. Padrusch, Aftershock: Beyond the Civil War (A & E, 2006). This program, now on DVD, has information on the Confederate violence pattern, including murders, rise of the KKK, voter intimidation, riots, massacres, etc.
    See also Chuck Thompson, Better Off Without Em: A Northern Manifesto for Southern Secession (Simon & Schuster, 14 August 2012) ("for anyone fed up with the Confederate influence on the national discourse."   "In a chapter on the condition of education in the South, Thompson writes passionately and persuasively about the disastrous long-term effects that de facto segregation and systematic underfunding of public schools will have on the US economy.”   Makes “a convincing case that the American South is essentially a separate country that negatively affects the rest of the United States."   "Racism is everywhere, but in the South it's the not-so-subtle motivation behind 'Christian academies' and the subtle motivation behind the closing of an historic all-black elementary school in Biloxi because it outperforms white schools."   "In between statistics are a lot of stories like the one of the Maryland black state senator from ten years ago who stopped in a Florida bar and was told 'we serve blacks in the back room.' In short, the South is full of racism and uneducated people many for which the 'War of northern aggression' happened yesterday.") (N Y Times Review)
    For another example of what should have occurred, but did not, in South Africa after its freedom stuggles comparable to the U.S. Civil War, see, e.g., Ronnie Kasrils, "How the ANC's Faustian Pact Sold Out South Africa's Poorest" (The Guardian (UK), 23 June 2013).

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